Peptide nanofiber hydrogel adjuvanted live virus vaccine enhances cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus


2014-01-06, 2013-09-23

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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is prevalent in swine farms worldwide and is a major source of economic loss and animal suffering. Rapid genetic variation of PRRSV makes it difficult for current vaccines to confer protection against newly emerging strains. We recently demonstrated that a novel peptide nanofiber hydrogel (H9e) could act as a potent adjuvant for killed H1N1 vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate H9e as an adjuvant for PRRSV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines. Pigs were vaccinated with Ingelvac PRRSV MLV with or without H9e adjuvant before being challenged with the VR-2332 (parental vaccine strain) or MN184A (genetically diverse strain) PRRSV. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had higher levels of circulating vaccine virus. More importantly, pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had improved protection against challenge by both PRRSV strains, as demonstrated by reduced challenge-induced viremia compared with pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Pigs vaccinated with MLV+H9e had lower frequency of T-regulatory cells and IL-10 production but higher frequency of Th/memory cells and IFN-γ secretion than that in pigs vaccinated with MLV alone. Taken together, our studies suggest that the peptide nanofiber hydrogel H9e, when combined with the PRRSV MLV vaccine, can enhance vaccine efficacy against two different PRRSV strains by modulating both host humoral and cellular immune responses.



Adjuvant, Hydrogel, Modified live vaccine, PRRSV