Swine Day, 2008

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Variation in chemical composition of soybean hulls
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:56:05Z) Barbosa, F.F.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; jderouch; goodband; jnelssen; dritz
    The objective of this study was to examine the variation in chemical composition of soybean hulls. Our goal was to develop regression equations characterizing the nutritive value of soybean hulls for use in swine diets. Samples (n = 39) were collected from different processing plants across the United States and analyzed for CP, GE, crude fiber (CF), ADF, NDF, fat, ash, Ca, P, and essential amino acids. One sample was excluded from these results because it contained approximately 10 times the amount of Ca (5.2% vs. a mean of 0.57%) as other samples. The results of chemical analysis of the samples were used to determine maximum, minimum, and mean values on a DM basis. Estimated DE values were calculated according to an equation described by Noblet and Perez (1993). Regression equations among the nutrients also were established. A high correlation was observed between CF and CP (R² = 0.92), ADF (R² = 0.96), NDF (R² = 0.97), and estimated DE (R² = 0.94), indicating that the analyzed fiber content of soybean hulls could be used to predict the other components. A high correlation also was observed between CP and estimated DE (R² = 0.90). Lower correlations were observed between ash concentration and Ca and P. High correlations were observed between CP and lysine (R2 = 0.89), methionine (R2= 0.88), threonine (R² = 0.93), and tryptophan (R² = 0.93). In summary, the chemical composition of soybean hulls can be highly variable; however, CF content can help explain much of the variation in CP, ADF, NDF, and estimated DE, and CP content can be used to predict individual amino acid levels.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Validation of control diets for lactose and fish meal replacement studies in nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:55:53Z) Sulabo, R.C.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; jderouch; goodband; dritz; jnelssen
    The objective of this study was to develop and validate control test diets to be used for lactose and fish meal replacement studies in nursery pigs. A total of 180 nursery pigs (PIC, initially 16.6 lb and 28 ± 2 d of age) were blocked by initial weight and randomly allotted to 1 of the following 6 dietary treatments: (1) negative control (NC) diet based on corn-soybean meal, (2) NC + 10% food-grade whey, (3) NC + 10% feed-grade whey, (4) Diet 2 + 4.5% select menhaden fish meal, (5) Diet 2 + 2.25% select menhaden fish meal and 1.25% spray-dried blood cells, and (6) Diet 2 + synthetic amino acids. Diets 4 to 6 also contained 10% food-grade whey. Each treatment had 5 pigs per pen and 6 replications (pens). Diets were formulated to contain 1.37% standardized ileal digestible lysine and 1,495 kcal ME/lb and were fed in meal form. Newly-weaned pigs (21 ± 2 d of age) were fed a common segregated early weaning and transition diet for 7 days then fed the experimental phase 2 diets for 21 d. From d 0 to 7 and 0 to 14, pigs fed the diet containing 10% feed-grade whey tended to have greater ADG (P < 0.07) and heavier (P < 0.08) BW than pigs fed the negative control diet, with pigs fed the diet containing 10% food-grade whey being intermediate. Pigs fed the negative control diet with either added food- or feed-grade whey tended to have better (P < 0.06) F/G than pigs fed the phase 2 diet solely based on corn and soybean meal. Pigs fed phase 2 diets containing either 4.5% select menhaden fish meal or the combination of 2.25% select menhaden fish meal and 1.25% spray-dried blood cells tended to have greater ADG (P < 0.07) and BW (P < 0.07) than pigs fed the diet containing 10% food-grade whey. Pigs fed the diet with increased synthetic amino acids had similar (P > 0.36) ADG and BW compared with pigs fed the diet containing the same food-grade whey without specialty proteins but tended to have poorer (P < 0.09) F/G than pigs fed the diet containing food-grade whey during d 0 to 7. Overall (d 0 to 21), only numerical differences (P > 0.15) were observed in ADG, ADFI, F/G, and pig BW among the dietary treatments. More research is needed to evaluate the use of synthetic amino acids as a replacement for high quality protein ingredients in nursery diets. When reviewing data from previous studies, it is apparent that further development of the control diets for testing lactose and fish meal sources is needed so that the predicted response is consistent.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of dried distillers grains with solubles and soybean hulls in nursery pig diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:55:41Z) Barbosa, F.F.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; jderouch; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 3,186 pigs were used in two 21-d experiments to evaluate growth performance of nursery pigs fed different levels of dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) or soybean hulls. In each experiment, pigs (n = 1,593, and 24.0 lb in Exp. 1 and n = 1,593, and 27.3 lb in Exp. 2) were allotted to 72 pens (36 pens of barrows and 36 pens of gilts) with 21 or 22 pigs per pen on d 21 after weaning. A pen of barrows and pen of gilts shared a common feeder; thus, feeder was the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatments were a corn-soybean meal-based control diet or the same diet with 7.5, 15, or 22.5% added DDGS. Increasing DDGS from 0 to 22.5% did not affect ADG (P > 0.26) or ADFI (P > 0.21) but linearly (P < 0.004) improved F/G. The survival rate of pigs (99.0 to 99.5%) was not affected (P > 0.60) by diet. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with either 0 or 15% DDGS and 0 or 4% soybean hulls. Adding DDGS, soybean hulls, or the combination of DDGS and soybean hulls to the control diet did not affect (P > 0.17) ADG. There was an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and soybean hulls for ADFI and a trend for an interaction (P < 0.09) for F/G. Adding DDGS reduced ADFI and improved (P < 0.04) F/G to a greater extent when added to the control diet than when added to the diet containing soy-bean hulls. Adding soybean hulls to the control diet did not affect (P > 0.17) pig performance. The survival rate of pigs (99.5 to 100%) was not affected (P > 0.31) by treatments. In summary, 15 to 22.5% DDGS and up to 4% soybean hulls were added to diets for 25- to 50-lb pigs without affecting ADG; increasing levels of DDGS (up to 22.5%) improved feed efficiency in these experiments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of organoleptic properties of the feed and nursery diet complexity on preweaning and nursery performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:55:31Z) Sulabo, R.C.; Risley, C.D.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; jderouch; jnelssen; dritz; goodband
    Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of adding an enhanced feed flavor to the creep feed on the proportion of piglets consuming creep feed within litters and preweaning performance (Exp. 1) and the interactive effects of preweaning exposure to the flavor, nursery diet complexity, and flavor addition to nursery diets on postweaning performance (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 50 sows (PIC 1050) were blocked according to parity and date of farrowing and allotted to 2 experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatment 1 was a creep diet with no flavor (negative control), and treatment 2 was the negative control diet with the enhanced milky flavor (Luctarom) included at 1,500 ppm (3 lb/ton). Both creep diets contained 1.0% chromic oxide and were offered ad libitum from d 18 until weaning on d 21. In Exp. 2, 480 weanling pigs (PIC, 14.5 lb and 20 ± 2 d) from Exp. 1 were blocked by initial weight and allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with preweaning exposure to the flavor (exposed vs. unexposed), nursery diet complexity (complex vs. simple), and flavor addition to the nursery diets (with vs. without flavor) as treatment factors. In Exp. 1, no differences in weaning weight (P > 0.53), total gain (P > 0.77), and ADG (P > 0.77) were observed between litters or pigs fed creep with and without the flavor. Flavor added to the creep feed did not influence total (P > 0.66) or daily (P > 0.66) creep feed intake of litters or the proportion of creep feed eaters (P > 0.41) in whole litters. In Exp. 2, a tendency for a 3-way interaction for ADG from d 5 to 10 (P < 0.11), d 10 to 28 (P < 0.09), and d 0 to 28 (P < 0.06) was observed. Postweaning ADG of pigs exposed to the flavor in creep feed and pigs fed flavored complex diets was greater than that of pigs in any other treatment combination. Increasing diet complexity improved (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI during both phases. Adding flavor in the creep feed had no effect on F/G (P > 0.34) and pig BW (P > 0.45) in both periods post-weaning. Adding Luctarom to starter diets tended to improve ADFI (P < 0.06) during d 0 to 5. In conclusion, adding Luctarom to the creep feed did not affect litter creep feed intake, proportion of piglets consuming creep feed, and preweaning performance when creep was provided for 3 d before weaning. Pre-weaning exposure to Luctarom improved postweaning daily gain of pigs fed complex diets supplemented with the same flavor but did not influence performance of pigs fed simple diets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of glycerol and added fat on finishing pig performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:55:20Z) Duttlinger, A.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; dritz; jnelssen; goodband; jderouch
    A 28-d study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary glycerol on grow-finish pig performance. The experiment was conducted at a commercial swine research facility in southwest Minnesota. A total of 1,093 pigs (initially 171.3 lb, PIC) were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%) and added fat (0 or 6%). Overall (d 0 to 28), there was a fat × glycerol interaction (P < 0.04) for ADFI. When 5% glycerol was added to diets without added fat, ADFI decreased; however, ADFI did not change when glycerol was added to diets containing 6% added fat. Pigs fed diets with added fat had improved (P < 0.01) ADG and F/G compared with pigs fed diets with no added fat. Increasing glycerol decreased ADG (linear, P < 0.02) and ADFI (linear, P < 0.04) and tended (linear, P < 0.08) to worsen F/G, a result of the negative effect of adding glycerol to diets without fat. In conclusion, 6% added fat improved ADG and F/G, but the glycerol used in this study decreased ADG and ADFI when added to diets without added fat.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of antimicrobial sequence in the nursery on pig performance and economic return
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:55:06Z) Steidinger, M.U.; Dau, D.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; dritz; jderouch; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 1,008 pigs (11.9 lb and 19 d of age) were used in a 42-d experiment to determine the influence of antibiotic regimen on growth performance and economic return. From d 0 to 10, pigs were fed diets containing either no antibiotic or Denagard at 35 g/ton and chlortetracycline at 400 g/ton (Denagard/CTC). From d 10 to 21, diets contained no medication, Denagard/CTC, Mecadox at 25 g/ton and Oxytetracycline at 400 g/ton, or Mecadox at 50 g/ton. From d 21 to 42, diets contained either no medication or Denagard/CTC. Adding Denagard/CTC to the diet from d 0 to 10 improved (P < 0.01) ADG, F/G, and margin over feed cost (MOFC). Adding antibiotics to the diet from d 10 to 21 improved (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, F/G, and MOFC. There were no differences between pigs fed diets containing Mecadox at 25 g/ton in combination with Oxytetracycline and pigs fed diets containing Mecadox at 50 g/ton. Pigs fed diets containing Denagard CTC tended (P < 0.09) to have greater ADG than pigs fed either diet containing Mecadox and tended (P < 0.07) to have improved F/G and MOFC than pigs fed diets containing Mecadox at 50 g/ton. Adding Denagard/CTC to the diet from d 21 to 42 improved (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and F/G. Denagard/CTC also improved (P < 0.01) MOFC when gain was valued at $1.00/lb of gain. For the overall trial, adding antibiotics to the diet during any phase improved (P < 0.05) ADG. Overall feed efficiency was improved when antibiotics were added to the diet from d 0 to 10 and 21 to 42. Overall feed cost per pig was increased (P < 0.01) by the addition of antibiotics to the diet; however, the improvement in ADG resulted in no change in overall feed cost per pound of gain (P > 0.49). Overall, MOFC was increased when antibiotics were added to the diet from d 0 to 10 and d 10 to 21 when gain was valued at $0.50 or $1.00/lb and tended to increase (P < 0.06) when Denagard/CTC was added to the diet from d 21 to 42 when the extra gain was valued at $1.00/lb. These results demonstrate that adding antibiotics to the nursery diet improved pig performance and economical return on this commercial farm.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of deoiled corn dried distillers grains with solubles (solvent extracted) on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-12T21:54:24Z) Jacela, J.Y.; Brandts, L.; Thaler, R.C.; Peters, D.; Little, D.E.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; jderouch; dritz; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 210 pigs (initially 22.0 lb) were used in a 28-d study to evaluate the effects of increasing deoiled corn dried distillers grains with solubles, solvent extracted (dDGS) on nursery pig growth performance. Pigs were blocked on the basis of pen weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30% dDGS. There were 7 pens per treatment and 6 pigs per pen. All diets were formulated to equivalent ME and standardized ileal digestible lysine concentrations. Soybean oil was added to the dDGS diets as an energy source to equalize dietary ME of the 5 treatments. Pigs from each pen were weighed as a group and feed consumption was obtained on d 0, 14, and 28 to determine ADG, ADFI, and F/G. Overall, feeding diets with increasing dDGS had no effect (P > 0.46) on nursery pig ADG, ADFI, and F/G. In conclusion, dDGS can be included at levels up to 30% in nursery pig diets for pigs weighing between 22 to 50 lb without affecting growth performance provided fat is added to the diet to offset the low energy content of dDGS.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Genetic background influences pig growth rate responses to porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:27:23Z) Potter, M. L.; Tokach, Lisa M.; Henry, Steven C.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Tokach, Michael D.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Oberst, Richard D.; Hesse, Richard A.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; jderouch; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 454 pigs (21 d of age, 13.4 lb) were used in a 130-d field study to investigate porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine effects on growth performance of boars and gilts of 4 different genetic backgrounds: A×A (Duroc-based sire and dam), B×B (synthetic line sire and dam lines derived from Duroc, Pie-train, and Large White), A×B, and B×A. Pigs were identified as potential test pigs at birth and ear tagged for identification. Characteristics including litter, genetic background, gender, and birth weight were recorded and used in allotting PCV2 vaccine treatment groups. Pigs were vaccinated according to label dose with a 2-dose commercial PCV2 vaccine (Circumvent PCV, Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE) at weaning (d 0) and again 14 d later. Vaccinated and control pigs were comingled within the same pen for the duration of the study. Pigs were individually weighed on d 0, 40, and 130 to measure growth rate. Backfat and loin depth were measured on d 130 by using real-time ultra-sound. Blood was collected on d 0, 40, and 130 for indirect fluorescent antibody measurement of PCV2 antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for determination of PCV2 virus load. By d 130, vaccinates were heavier (P < 0.01) than controls. However, the magnitude of the weight difference between control and vaccinates was almost 4 times greater in the A×A pigs than in the B×B pigs (P < 0.05). On the basis of growth performance, the different genetic backgrounds responded differently to the PCV2 vaccination even though they were comingled in the same pen. In the 2 pure-line populations, even the best performing portion of the population appeared to benefit from vaccination, suggesting that growth performance of most pigs is being affected by PCV2 infection. Control pigs exhibited a late increase in PCV2 antibody levels, a consequence of natural infection. In contrast, vaccinated pigs did not exhibit a late-finisher antibody rise. Vaccinated pigs possessed a decreased viral load (as quantified by PCR PCV2 viral DNA) at both d 40 and 130. The data demonstrate that genetic background affects either the expression of porcine circoviral disease or the response to the PCV2 vaccine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of deoiled corn dried distillers grains with solubles (solvent extracted) on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:27:12Z) Jacela, J.Y.; Brandts, L.; Thaler, R.C.; Peters, D.; Little, D.E.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; jderouch; dritz; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 210 pigs (initially 22.0 lb) were used in a 28-d study to evaluate the effects of increasing deoiled corn dried distillers grains with solubles, solvent extracted (dDGS) on nursery pig growth performance. Pigs were blocked on the basis of pen weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30% dDGS. There were 7 pens per treatment and 6 pigs per pen. All diets were formulated to equivalent ME and standardized ileal digestible lysine concentrations. Soybean oil was added to the dDGS diets as an energy source to equalize dietary ME of the 5 treatments. Pigs from each pen were weighed as a group and feed consumption was obtained on d 0, 14, and 28 to determine ADG, ADFI, and F/G. Overall, feeding diets with increasing dDGS had no effect (P > 0.46) on nursery pig ADG, ADFI, and F/G. In conclusion, dDGS can be included at levels up to 30% in nursery pig diets for pigs weighing between 22 to 50 lb without affecting growth performance provided fat is added to the diet to offset the low energy content of dDGS.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of commercial enzyme supplementation on growing pig performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:27:02Z) Jacela, J.Y.; Brown, P.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; jderouch; jnelssen; goodband
    A total of 1,129 pigs were used in a 56-d study to evaluate the effect of a commercial enzyme on growth performance and assess its energy replacement value in swine diets. Pigs were blocked on the basis of pen weights and allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments fed in 3 phases. Dietary treatments had increasing levels of fat (0, 2.5, and 5.0%) with or without added enzyme (0.05% or 0% Agri-King REAP). Phase 1 was fed from approximately 75 to 110 lb BW, phase 2 was fed from 110 to 160 lb BW, and phase 3 was fed from 160 to 200 lb BW. Diets were based on cornmeal and soybean meal with 15% added dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and balanced to a constant lysine to calorie ratio (2.98, 2.68, and 2.38 g/Mcal ME for phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively) within diet phase. Pen weights and feed intake were obtained every 2 wk from d 0 to 56 to determine ADG, ADFI, and F/G. There were no interactions (P > 0.11) between the addition of enzyme and added fat for ADG, ADFI, or F/G of pigs throughout the duration of the 84-d experiment. There was no difference (P = 0.53) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G between pigs fed diets with and without added enzyme. However, pigs fed diets with increasing added fat levels had improved (linear, P < 0.03) ADG and F/G. In conclusion, the addition of the commercial enzyme did not affect growth performance of pigs in this study, but ADG and F/G improved with the addition of fat in the corn-soybean meal-based diets with 15% DDGS.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of ractopamine hcl (paylean) and α-lipoic acid on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:26:52Z) Bergstrom, J.R.; Houser, Terry A.; Tokach, Michael D.; Gunderson, J.A.; Gipe, A.N.; Jacela, J.; Benz, J.M.; Sulabo, R.C.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steven S.; jnelssen; houser; mtokach; jderouch; goodband; dritz
    A total of 48 gilts (initially 211 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine HCl and α-lipoic acid on finishing pig performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 22-d experi-ment. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of ractopamine HCl (0 or 9 g/ton) and α-lipoic acid (0 or 300 ppm). For overall growth performance (d 0 to 22), ADG tended (P < 0.09) to be greater for pigs fed ractopamine HCl. Although F/G improved (P < 0.01) for pigs fed ractopamine HCl, there was a trend (P < 0.07) for an interaction between ractopamine HCl and α-lipoic acid. For pigs fed diets without ractopamine HCl, added α-lipoic acid numerically improved F/G, whereas in pigs fed ractopamine HCl, added α-lipoic acid numerically worsened F/G. Average final weight tended (P < 0.06) to be greater for pigs fed ractopamine HCl. No other differences in growth performance were observed. For the comparison of carcass characteristics, average live weight, HCW, yield, loin eye area at the 10th rib, and standardized fat-free lean were increased (P < 0.04) for pigs fed ractopamine HCl. Average backfat thickness tended (P < 0.06) to decrease for pigs fed ractopamine HCl. Tenth-rib backfat increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed α-lipoic acid, and the percent fat-free lean of pigs fed α-lipoic acid tended (P < 0.10) to decrease as a result. In conclusion, the growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed ractopamine HCl were improved. Feeding 300 ppm of α-lipoic acid did not affect growth performance but did tend to increase carcass fat content.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of porcine circovirus type 2 and mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination timing and starter diet source on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:26:40Z) Kane, E. M.; Potter, M. L.; Bergstrom, J. R.; Tokach, Michael D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; jderouch; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 400 nursery pigs (initially 12.5 lb) were used in a 20-d study to evaluate the effects of varying porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination timing on growth performance of pigs fed commercial segregated early weaning (SEW) and transition diets from 4 different sources. At weaning (d 0), pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 8 treatments. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial on the basis of vaccination timing (0 or 8 d after weaning) and diet source (A, B, C, or D). There were 5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. Initially, SEW and transition diets were budgeted at 1 and 5 lb/pig, respectively. The SEW and transition diets were formulated to similar Kansas State University specifications but made by different manufacturers. Feeders were emptied on d 8, and a common phase 2 diet was fed for the remainder of the trial. On d 0, 4, 8, and 20, pigs were weighed and feed disappearance was measured to determine ADG, ADFI, and F/G. Diet source influenced (P < 0.001) ADG during the first 4 d of the trial. Pigs fed diet B had increased (P < 0.001) BW (d 4) and ADG (d 0 to 4) compared with pigs fed all other diets, and diet D pigs exhibited increased ADG compared with pigs fed diet C. On d 8, diet source effects remained significant (P ≤ 0.02) for pig weights (d 8) as well as ADG and AD-FI (d 4 to 8 and 0 to 8). Pigs fed diet A had increased (P < 0.01) ADG (d 4 to 8) compared with pigs fed the other 3 diet sources. Pigs fed diets A and B had similar ADFI, but their ADFI (d 4 to 8) was greater (P ≤ 0.02) than that of pigs fed diets C and D. There were no effects of diet source from d 8 to 20. Pigs vaccinated on d 0 had lower (P < 0.01) BW (d 8) and ADG and ADFI (d 4 to 8 and d 0 to 8) than pigs vaccinated on d 8. From d 8 to 20, pigs vaccinated on d 8 had lower (P = 0.05) ADG. Overall (d 0 to 20), diet source and vaccine timing did not influence growth performance, although pigs fed diet C had a numeric decrease (P = 0.06) in ADFI. Nursery pigs in this trial were initially affected by both SEW/transition diet source and vaccination timing, but the influence of these factors lessened with time. Despite the transient nature of these effects, however, data obtained during this trial indicate that nursery pig growth performance is affected by diet source and vaccine timing immediately postweaning, and these factors should be taken into consideration when managing weaning groups.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effects of pepsoygen and dried porcine solubles 50 in nursery pig diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:26:27Z) Jones, C.K.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steven S.; jderouch; jnelssen; mtokach; dritz; goodband
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary specialty protein source on weanling pig growth performance. In Exp. 1, 350 pigs (initially 13.4 lb) were used in a 35-d growth trial to compare the effects of fish meal, PepSoyGen, and dried porcine solubles (DPS 50) on weanling pig performance. Seven dietary treatments were fed: (1) negative control, (2) 3% fish meal, (3) 6% fish meal, (4) 3.75% PepSoyGen, (5) 7.50% PepSoyGen, (6) 1.88% PepSoyGen and 1.88% DPS 50, and (7) 3.75% PepSoyGen and 3.75% DPS 50. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed increasing PepSoyGen and PepSoyGen in combination with DPS 50 had improved (quadratic, P = 0.01, linear, P = 0.002, respectively) F/G. Average daily gain and F/G were improved (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively) for pigs fed diets containing PepSoyGen and DPS 50 combinations compared with pigs fed diets containing fish meal. Also, feeding the combination of PepSoyGen and DPS 50 improved ADG and ADFI (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) compared with feeding only PepSoyGen. Overall (d 0 to 35), pigs fed increasing PepSoyGen from d 0 to 14 had improved F/G (quadratic, P = 0.03). In Exp. 2, 252 pigs (initially 15.0 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of fish meal, PepSoyGen, and DPS 50 on nursery pig performance. A common pelleted starter diet was fed from weaning until the start of the experiment (d 7). Six dietary treatments were fed: (1) negative control, (2) 5% fish meal, (3) 3.5% DPS 50, (4) 6.0% PepSoyGen, (5) 1.75% PepSoyGen and 1.75% DPS 50, and (6) 3.0% PepSoyGen and 2.5% fish meal. During the treatment period (d 0 to 14), pigs fed DPS 50 alone or in combination with PepSoyGen had improved ADG and F/G (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all other diets. Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed DPS 50 from d 0 to 14 had improved ADG and F/G (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the control diet. Additionally, pigs fed DPS 50 had improved F/G (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed PepSoyGen and fish meal in combination. In conclusion, pigs fed DPS 50 alone or in combination with PepSoyGen had improved performance compared with pigs fed the control diet.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effects of morinda citrifolia (noni) and diet complexity on growth performance in weanling pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:26:14Z) Feoli, C.; Hancock, Joe D.; Behnke, Keith C.; jhancock; kbfeed
    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0%) of Morinda citrifolia (no-ni; Morinda Agricultural Products, Orem, UT) and diet complexity in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 210 pigs (initially 13.4 lb) were used in a 35-d growth assay; there were 7 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based, and lysine concentrations were 1.8% for d 0 to 7, 1.6% for d 7 to 21, and 1.4% for d 21 to 35 with feed and water con-sumed on an ad libitum basis. Increasing the concentration of noni in the diet from 0 to 3% had no effects on pellet durability index (PDI) for the d 0 to 7 and 7 to 21 diets. Average daily gain (quadratic effect, P < 0.03) and F/G (quadratic effect, P < 0.10) for d 0 to 7 and F/G for d 0 to 21 (quadratic effect, P < 0.04) improved as noni concentration in the diet was increased from 0 to 0.75%. However, no treatment effects were observed overall (d 0 to 35). For Exp. 2, 168 pigs (initially 13.9 lb) were used in a 35-d growth assay; there were 6 pigs per pen and 7 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of diet formulation (simple vs. complex) and noni addition (0 vs. 3%). Simple diets had the same minimum nutrient specifications as complex diets but had no added lactose or spray-dried animal plasma for d 0 to 7 and only 10% added whey for d 7 to 21. Pelleting data indicated improved PDI with no additional energy inputs when noni was added to the simple diets (for d 21 to 35). Pigs fed simple diets had lower ADG (P < 0.06) for d 0 to 7 and lower ADG and ADFI (P < 0.06) for d 0 to 21 than pigs fed complex diets. During d 0 to 35 for ADG and d 0 to 21 for F/G, addition of noni to the simple diets had negative effects (diet complexity × noni interaction, P < 0.02). In conclusion, adding 0.75 to 3% noni to complex diets improved growth performance early in a titration experiment but had negative effects when added to the simple diet formulations used in a second experiment.
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    Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible lysine:calorie ratio on gilts grown in a commercial finishing environment
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:26:03Z) Shelton, N.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; dritz; goodband; jnelssen; jderouch
    A total of 2,165 commercial gilts (PIC 337 × 1050) were used in two 4-wk studies to determine the lysine requirement for growing and finishing gilts. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and contained 0.15% L-lysine HCl and 3% added fat. Desired lysine levels were achieved by altering the corn and soybean meal level in the diet. Each experiment consisted of 6 treatments with 7 pens per treatment and 24 to 27 pigs per pen. In Exp. 1, 1,085 gilts (initially 84.2 lb) were used with standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine:calorie ratios of 2.01, 2.30, 2.58, 2.87, 3.16, and 3.45 g/Mcal. Both ADG and F/G improved (quadratic, P < 0.003) with increasing SID lysine:calorie ratio, with the greatest improvement in performance through 3.16 g SID lysine/Mcal ME and a smaller increase to the highest SID lysine:calorie level. Daily SID lysine intake increased (linear, P < 0.001) and SID lysine intake per pound of gain increased (quadratic, P < 0.001) as expected with increasing dietary lysine. Income over feed costs (IOFC) and feed cost per pound of gain also followed a similar pattern (quadratic, P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 1,080 gilts (initially 185.3 lb) were used with SID lysine:calorie ratios of 1.55, 1.75, 1.95, 2.05, 2.35, and 2.55 g/Mcal. As SID lysine:calorie ratio increased, ADG, F/G, daily SID lysine intake, SID lysine intake per pound of gain, IOFC, and feed cost per pound of gain improved (linear, P < 0.001) through the highest lysine:calorie level of 2.55 g/Mcal. These studies indicate that feeding higher levels of lysine than previously thought to be optimal offers significant economic and biologic improvements in growing and finishing gilts. More research is needed to validate the ideal SID lysine:calorie ratio for today’s evolving genetics.
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    Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible lysine:calorie ratio for 120- to 180-lb gilts grown in a commercial finishing environment
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:25:50Z) Shelton, N.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; dritz; goodband; jnelssen; jderouch
    A 28-d growth trial was conducted to estimate the lysine requirement for 120- to 180-lb gilts. A total of 1,092 gilts (initially 121.7 lb, PIC 337 × 1050) were allotted to treatment diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine/ME ratios of 1.89, 2.12, 2.35, 2.58, 2.81, and 3.04 g/Mcal. All diets contained 0.15% L-lysine HCl and 3% choice white grease and were formulated to meet or exceed all other requirements. Seven replicate pens per treatment were used; there were approximately 26 pigs per pen. Gilts were vaccinated with 2 doses of commercial porcine circo virus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine while in the nursery. As the SID lysine content of the diet increased, both ADG and F/G improved (linear, P < 0.001) with the greatest values at the SID lysine/ME ratio of 2.58 g/Mcal. Daily SID lysine intake and SID lysine intake per pound of gain increased (linear, P < 0.001) as lysine density of the diet increased. Diet did not in-fluence (P > 0.25) feed cost per pound of gain; however, there was a tendency for improved (linear, P < 0.06) income over marginal feed cost (IOMFC) as SID lysine level increased in the diet. The SID lysine/ME ratio that yielded the greatest IOMFC value, 2.58 g/Mcal, corresponded to the treatment with the greatest growth response. On the basis of this trial, 2.58 g SID lysine/Mcal ME appears to provide the greatest biological and economical response for 120- to 180-lb gilts.
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    Effects of increasing glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:25:37Z) Duttlinger, A.W.; Benz, J.M.; Houser, Terry A.; Tokach, Michael D.; Dritz, Steven S.; Prusa, K.J.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; houser; mtokach; dritz; jderouch; jnelssen; goodband
    A total of 1,160 barrows (PIC, initially 68.4 lb) were used in a 97-d study to determine the influence of glycerol and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on growing-finishing pig performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality. Pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 7 replications per treatment. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%) and DDGS (0 or 20%). Overall (d 0 to 97), there were no glycerol × DDGS interactions (P > 0.12) for growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat iodine value (IV). Increasing glycerol did not affect (P > 0.14) ADG or F/G. Adding 20% DDGS to the diet did not affect ADG. However, pigs fed diets with 20% added DDGS had greater (P < 0.02) ADFI resulting in poorer (P < 0.01) F/G than pigs fed diets with no DDGS. For carcass characteristics, pigs fed increasing glycerol tended to have increased (linear, P < 0.11) yield. Pigs fed diets with added DDGS had increased (P < 0.01) jowl fat, belly fat, and backfat IV compared with pigs fed diets with no DDGS. However, increasing dietary glycerol tended to decrease (linear, P < 0.11) backfat IV. In conclusion, feeding pigs 20% DDGS worsened F/G and increased carcass fat IV, whereas feeding glycerol did not influence growth performance but tended to improve carcass yield and reduce backfat IV.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of increasing dietary dried distillers grains with solubles and glycerol on pork loin quality
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:25:26Z) Gipe, A.N.; Houser, Terry A.; Duttlinger, A.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Dritz, Steven S.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Prusa, K.J.; Fedler, C.A.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; houser; mtokach; dritz; jderouch; jnelssen; goodband
    A total of 1,160 barrows (PIC, initially 68.4 lb) were used in a 70-d study to determine the influence of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and glycerol on pork loin quality attributes. The pigs were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 7 replications per treatment. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets with the addition of DDGS, glycerol, or a combination of these. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of DDGS (0 or 20%) and glycerol (0, 2.5, or 5%). Pork loins from the 2 heaviest barrows from each pen were utilized for analysis. There were no DDGS × glycerol interac-tions for purge loss, instrumental color (L*a*b*), visual color, marbling score, drip loss, visual color, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), cook loss, and most sensory characteristics. However, there was a DDGS × glycerol interaction (P < 0.03) for off-flavor intensity. Specifically, pigs fed 20% DDGS without added glycerol had more off-flavors than pigs fed any other treatment. Pigs fed diets with added DDGS had higher WBSF values, lower myofibrillar tenderness, lower overall tenderness scores, lower connective tissue scores, and more off-flavors (P < 0.04) than pigs fed diets with no DDGS. In conclusion, feeding pigs 20% DDGS resulted in less tender chops with more off-flavors. Yet, the inclusion of glycerol in the diet decreased the intensity of off-flavors in pork chops.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of glycerol and ractopamine hcl (paylean) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and loin quality of finishing pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:24:53Z) Duttlinger, A.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Dritz, Steven S.; Houser, Terry A.; Prusa, K.J.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; jderouch; mtokach; dritz; jnelssen; goodband; houser
    A total of 1,054 barrows and gilts (PIC, initially 207.8 lb) were used in a 28-d study to determine the influence of glycerol and ractopamine HCl (Paylean) on growing-finishing pig performance, carcass characteristics, and loin quality. The experiment was conducted in a commercial swine research facility in southwest Minnesota. Pigs were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 10 replications per treatment. Pigs were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of glycerol (0 or 5%) and ractopamine HCl (0 or 6.75 g/ton). Overall (d 0 to 28), there were no glycerol × ractopamine HCl interactions (P > 0.10) observed for growth performance. Pigs fed dietary glycerol had improved (P < 0.04) F/G, but ADG and ADFI (P > 0.40) were not affected. Pigs fed diets with added ractopamine HCl had improved (P < 0.01) ADG and F/G with a tendency (P > 0.08) for lower ADFI than pigs fed diets with no ractopamine HCl. For carcass characteristics, there were glycerol × ractopamine HCl interactions observed (P < 0.05) for percent yield and fat free lean index (FFLI). Adding either ractopamine HCl or glycerol to the control diet increased yield and FFLI; however, there were no additive effects when the combination of glycerol and ractopamine HCl was fed. Pigs fed ractopamine HCl had increased (P < 0.04) HCW, yield, loin depth, and FFLI. There was a glycerol × ractopamine HCl interaction (P < 0.01) observed for loin chop drip loss. Loin chop drip loss was numerically improved when glycerol and ractopamine HCl were added separately to the control diet; however, loin chop drip loss numerically decreased when the combination of glycerol and ractopamine HCl was fed. Glycerol did not affect (P > 0.22) loin characteristics. Ractopamine HCl tended to improve (P < 0.08) sirloin chop a* (redness) color. Neither ractopamine HCl nor glycerol influenced iodine value of belly fat, jowl fat, or backfat. In conclusion, pigs fed 5% glycerol had improved F/G, whereas pigs fed ractopamine HCl had improved growth and carcass characteristics and a tendency for improved loin a* color.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of feeding excess crude protein on growth performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-10-06T20:24:40Z) Williams, S.M.; Feoli, C.; Issa, S.; Gugle, Terry L.; Hancock, Joe D.; jhancock
    A total of 176 pigs (88 barrows and 88 gilts, average initial BW of 209 lb) were used in a 33-d experiment to determine the effects of excess dietary CP on growth performance and carcass measurements of finishing pigs. Pigs were sorted by sex and ancestry and blocked by weight with 11 pigs per pen and 4 pens per treatment. Treatments were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to a minimum of 0.80% total lysine but with 12, 14, 16, and 18% CP. Feed and water were consumed on an ad libitum basis until pigs were slaughtered (average final BW of 275 lb) at a commercial abattoir. Increasing CP concentration had no effect (P > 0.20) on ADG, ADFI, F/G, and HCW. With HCW used as a covariate, there were linear decreases in dressing percentage (P < 0.01) and loin depth at the last rib (P < 0.04) as CP concentration in the diet was increased from 12 to 18%. However, fat thickness at the last rib and percentage carcass lean were not affected (P > 0.34) by CP treatment. Our results indicate that increasing CP from 12 to 18% in diets for late-finishing pigs does not affect growth performance or carcass leanness but has small negative effects on dressing percentage and loin depth.