Dairy Day, 1986

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 25
  • ItemOpen Access
    Milk progesterone kits: On-farm use
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Call, Edward P.; jss
    Diagnosing pregnancy in dairy cattle is an essential part of good management. The objective of this procedure is not to identify pregnant cows, but to identify the nonpregnant cows, those that become the breeding challenge. Economics dictate that verifying the pregnancy or "open" status of the cow is essential. Estimated losses of $1 to $3 per cow per day when conception is delayed beyond 85 days postpartum emphasize the importance of inseminating cows early to allow for 12 to 13-month calving intervals. A number of diagnostic tools are available and increasing scientific knowledge and technology will provide for improved pregnancy diagnosis in the future through use of cowside tests. These available procedures include: 1) continuous detection of estrus to identify inseminated cows that return to heat 18 to 24 days post breeding (repeat heats); 2) palpation of the uterus and its contents per rectum (sometime after day 35 of suspected pregnancy depending on the expertise of the clinician); 3) radioimmunoassays (RIA) of progesterone in milk, blood serum, and plasma; and 4) enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA) for progesterone in milk, blood serum, and plasma. At least five chemical cowside test kits are now available that use the ELISA-type tests for detecting progesterone in milk and one for blood serum in heifers (see reference 3).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Field applications of exogenous hormones- Gonadotropin and Prostaglandin
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Call, Edward P.
    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have provided new dimensions in resolving certain reproductive maladies. Effective when used properly, these hormones have the advantage of mimicking the physiological activity of natural hormones without the negative, overriding effects of synthetic products. Effective use of the hormones requires accurate diagnoses. Moreover, side effects are nil except when PGF is mistakenly administered to pregnant animals. The effect of PGF in humans must be recognized. Current research under way gives promise that GnRH may have beneficial effects in the early postpartum cow suffering from problems around the time of calving.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Feed additives
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Dunham, James R.
    Feed additives are ration ingredients used in relatively small amounts to fortify certain nutrients or to affect a specific physiological function. The decision to include any additive should be based upon the economic response expected. The following guidelines are designed to help identify situations where additives may be considered.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Review of production responses from cows fed calcium salt of isobutyric and mixed 5-carbon volatile fatty acids
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Dunham, James R.
    Recent developments in dairy cattle nutrition have resulted in the marketing of a calcium salt of isobutyric and mixed 5-carbon volatile fatty acids (IsoPlus®). The FDA approved product has been neutralized with calcium to form a dry salt of the acids, which are found naturally in the rumen. The following review of research results is intended as a guide for feeding IsoPlus®).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Bypass protein-Theory and concept
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Harmon, D.L.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; tnagaraj
    The ruminant animal has the unique advantage of microbial digestion in the rumen. This relationship between host animal and microbial population presents some unique advantages and disadvantages to the animal in terms of using dietary nutrients. The greatest advantage, obviously, is the utilization of dietary fiber. The microbes digest these feedstuffs and derive energy for their growth and maintenance while producing volatile fatty acids for the energy needs of the host animal. Other important products of this microbial digestion are the microbes themselves. They supply the major portion of the animal's protein needs as microbial protein. However, it is inefficient to feed an animal natural protein. The microbes also have the ability to utilize compounds such as urea to provide nitrogen for the synthesis of microbial protein, when dietary protein is less digestible to them. The term "bypass protein" describes dietary protein that, either by some means of alteration or because of type of protein, is resistant to degradation by the rumen microbes. This undigested dietary protein would "bypass" the rumen and would be potentially available to meet the protein needs of the host animal after digestion in the small intestine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ration fiber analysis
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Morrill, J.L.
    For many years, fiber in dairy rations was measured and expressed as crude fiber. More recently acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) have been used. The crude fiber (CF) determination uses acid and alkali treatment and is an attempt to simulate reactions within the digestive tract, whereas the newer techniques use detergents and attempt to divide the plant cells into their component parts. Thus, NDF is resistant to breakdown by a certain detergent in neutral solution and represents the structural part of the cell, the cell wall. Acid detergent fiber is resistant to breakdown by a certain detergent in acid solution and contains cellulose and lignin, the most undigestible carbohydrate fractions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Forage analysis using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Harbers, L.H.
    It has been over 15 years since an analytical instrument was developed that could rapidly determine the concentration of organic compounds from the spectra produced by the bonding between carbon and certain molecules. The instrument is based on the principle that those molecules absorb energy in the infrared region and produce harmonics seen at lower wavelengths, namely the near-infrared region. Compounds may be quantitized by a computer that rapidly analyzes the absorption bands in the near-infrared compared to a standard. Peaks from compounds such as water, protein, fat, and carbohydrate may be detected. Those can be translated into components such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, acid detergent fiber, etc. All this can be accomplished in minutes rather than hours or days required for the normal routine analyses presently available.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Aflatoxin in milk and dairy products
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Ikins, W.G.
    Aflatoxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain strains of molds, namely, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These molds may invade stressed crops in the field or proliferate in improperly stored feed. Dairy cows are one of the many species of animals that may suffer both long-term and short-term adverse effects from consuming aflatoxin contaminated feed. In addition, dairy cows metabolize the toxin to a slightly different form, a portion of which is secreted into milk and can be consumed by humans.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Availability of calcium in dairy and other human foods
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Jeon, I.J.
    In 1985 the annual sales of dairy products on the average grew 3.3%, and is expected to grow 6.4% in 1986, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. This positive growth was attributed in part to increased consumer awareness on the reported role of calcium in combating hypertension (high blood pressure) and osteoporosis (a brittle bone disease common in older women). A recent report suggested that many consumers are seeing the publicity that many cases of hypertension may be the result of too little calcium intake, not too much sodium. Consumers are also well aware that a calcium-deficient diet can result in the development of osteoporosis, a progressive loss of bone mass that leaves the skeleton fragile and vulnerable to fractures. The gradual loss in bone mass begins in the mid-30's but the damage is not apparent until at least 20 years later, when a significant amount of loss has occurred.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Milk flavor quality on the farm
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Roberts, H.A.
    Milk consumption is influenced by the quality and flavor of the milk a person drinks. Today the consumer evaluates milk solely on its taste and keeping quality. Since the flavor of milk cannot be improved after it leaves the dairy farm, it is of the utmost importance to produce milk with the best flavor quality possible. Milk is a highly perishable food and must be produced under conditions that will ensure keeping quality. Generally speaking, dairymen are doing a good job of producing high quality milk but we need to be aware that problems may occur with feeding, cow health, cleaning, sanitizing and general handling of the milk. It is important to know what is good tasting milk and then use this standard to produce top quality milk free of off flavors. Following are brief discussions regarding some of the milk flavor problems that still exist today, with suggestions on how to reduce these problems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of multiple daily injections of oxytocin on reproductive and milk characteristics of postpartum dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Stewart, R.E.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Release of oxytocin at the time of suckling or milking may delay onset of estrous cycles in postpartum cows. Twenty lactating Holsteins were used in this study to determine if multiple daily injections of oxytocin would prolong postpartum anestrus. Cows received either oxytocin or saline (controls) intravenously through indwelling jugular catheters four times daily for 28 days following calving. Treatment with oxytocin did not lengthen intervals to ovulation or estrus or alter secretion patterns of luteinizing hormone, cortisol, progesterone, or 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2α in serum. Although milk production, percentage protein, and somatic cell counts were similar between treatment groups, oxytocin appeared to increase (P<.10) percentage of fat 0.99 vs 3.68%) in milk. Involution of the reproductive tract (uterus and cervix) was also similar between oxytocin-treated and control cows. We concluded that oxytocin alone does not prevent the occurrence of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows or hasten the rate of cervical and uterine involution.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of milk intake and method of weaning on calf performance and stress in an early-weaning program
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Flynn, P.; Reddy, P.G.; Morrill, J.L.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Feeding milk at 8% of birthweight and gradual weaning resulted in the most consistent increases in weekly weight gain, highest overall weight gain, and greatest increases in dry feed consumption during an 8-wk trial compared to feeding milk at 8% and abrupt weaning, at 10% and gradual weaning, or at 10% and abrupt weaning. By 8 wk, the 8% gradually-weaned calves also had higher levels of serum protein and lower levels of urea nitrogen in blood than calves in other treatment groups. Therefore, the 8% gradual-weaning program was determined to be the most appropriate for early weaning of dairy calves.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Vitamin E requirements of dairy calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Reddy, P.G.; Morrill, J.L.; Minocha, H.C.; Frey, R.A.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Thirty-two Holstein heifer calves receiving conventional rations were supplemented with 0 (control), 125, 250, or 500 IU vitamin E/calf/day. The objective was to determine the optimum requirement based on their performance from birth to 24 wk of age. Results on weight gains, feed consumption, serum enzymes indicative of cell membrane damage, immune responses, and metabolic profile indicated that supplementation of calves receiving conventional rations with 125 to 250 IU/day may maximize their performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of buffers and supplemental potassium in diets of early-weaned calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Jordan, K.J.; Morrill, J.L.; Reddy, P.G.; Higgins, James J.; Anderson, N.V.
    Potassium chloride added to the prestarter and/or potassium bicarbonate added to the starter fed to early weaned calves helped maintain normal blood alkalinity and normal levels of blood gases, and resulted in a trend toward increased feed consumption. Potassium bicarbonate added to the starter tended to improve weight gains.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Soybean products as a protein source in milk replacers for calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Dawson, D.P.; Morrill, J.L.; Reddy, P.G.; Minocha, H.C.
    Studies were conducted to evaluate two comrnercl.al soy products and one experimental soy flour as protein sources in calf milk-replacers. Further tests were conducted to produce an improved product. None of the products were as good as milk protein, with the difference being greatest in the very young calf. Calves fed milk replacers containing soy products commonly used today will not perform as well as calves fed good quality, all milk-protein, milk replacers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of high-energy calf starter for early-weaned calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Carinder, W.H.; Reddy, P.G.; Morrill, J.L.
    An experimental calf-starter diet containing roasted whole soybeans, buffer and dehydrated alfalfa pellets was compared with a conventional calf starter for young calves on an early-weaning program. Overall means for weight gains, dry feed consumption, and fecal scores were similar for the two treatments. However, calves fed the experimental calf starter showed a trend toward higher gains at 4 and 5 wk of age. More fat than necessary in the diet and feeding of prestarter until 8 wk of age may have precluded finding significant benefits with the experimental starter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ruminal metabolic development in conventionally or early weaned calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Anderson, K.L.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; Morrill, J.L.; tnagaraj
    Accelerating the weaning age of calves appeared to increase their ruminal metabolic activity. This was indicated by the lower ruminal pH and increased, total volatile fatty acid concentration of calves weaned at 4 wk of age compared with those weaned at 6 wk of age.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect on ruminal lactic acid utilization and lactic acid-utilizing bacteria
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Miller, G.W.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; tnagaraj
    The effect of diet on in vitro lactic acid utilization rate and counts of lactic add-utilizing bacteria was determined in ruminally cannulated steers. The steers were adapted to an alfalfa diet and gradually switched to an all-grain diet. The in vitro lactic acid fermentation rate increased with increased grain intake. Concurrently, the proportion of lactic acid-utilizing bacteria also increased. The increased population of lactic acid-utilizing bacteria is responsible for preventing lactic acid accumulation in the rumen of cattle adapted to consume a high-grain diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Is a computer feeder necessary in the dry lot cow?
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Kube, J.C.; Shirley, John E.; Frantz, K.D.
    Springing heifers and dry cows were introduced to a computer feeder either 2 wk before their estimated freshening date or at calving. There was no significant difference in milk production, percentage milk fat, percentage milk protein, or somatic cell count (SCC). Lead feeding with a computer feeder resulted in a 40% decrease in concentrate consumption over bunk feeding during the dry period.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Introducing a computer feeding system at various lactational stages for dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Kube, J.C.; Shirley, John E.; Frantz, K.D.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Lactating dairy cows were introduced to a computer feeder in early (≤120 days in milk or D.I.M.), mid (120-220 D.I.M.), and late (>220 D.I.M.) lactation. Cows in the mid- and late-lactation groups adjusted quicker and exhibited a smaller decrease in production, relative to the early lactation group. Computer-controlled feeders are increasing in popularity nationwide and are creating some interest among dairy producers in the midwest. Computer-controlled feeders allow dairy producers with small to medium-sized herds to feed their cows according to production without dividing cows into groups or dispensing feed in the parlor. Many times, a producer considers only the cost of purchasing the computer feeder, but should realize that there is an additional expense involved in adjusting the cows to the feeder. This trial was designed to establish some guidelines as to when to introduce cows to a computer feeder, while holding production as close to normal as possible.