Cattlemen's Day, 1979

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Mechanical blade tenderization of meat
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Burson, D.E.; Hayward, L.H.; Hunt, Melvin C.; Kastner, Curtis L.; Kropf, Donald H.; ckastner
    We randomly assigned 112 Angus yearling steers to 14 nutritional groups fed varied ration energy levels and varied lengths of time. Blade tenderized and non-tenderized boneless rib steaks were evaluated by a taste panel and a mechanical (Instron) shearing technique. Blade tenderization significantly improved taste panel sores for both muscle fiber and overall tenderness and decreased the amount of detectable connective tissue, but did not affect juiciness and flavor scores. Peak shear force decreased with blade tenderization; but total cooking loss increased. Blade tenderization narrowed the range of detectable connective tissue scores for ration energy level groups, leading to more uniform palatability.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nutritional effects on beef palatability
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Burson, D.E.; Hunt, Melvin C.; Hayward, L.H.; Kastner, Curtis L.; Kropf, Donald H.; Allen, Dell M.; ckastner
    We assigned 112 Angus yearling steers to 14 nutritional treatments including control. Submaintenance, and 12 different combinations of ration energy (low, medium or high) and feeding period (56,91, 119, 147, or 175 days). Boneless rib steaks were evaluated by a trained taste panel and Instron Warner-Bratzler shear. Average daily gains increased as energy level increased. Slaughter weight, and USDA quality and yield grades increased as both ration energy and days fed increased. Taste panel score were not significantly affected by ration energy level, but muscle fiber tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall tenderness scores tended to increase as days fed increased. Peak shear force was no affected by ration energy level or days fed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Processing retail beef cuts from boxed beef
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Leafgreen, M.O.; McCoy, J.H.
    This analysis measured efficiencies of a centralized retail meat fabrication facility receiving all beef as boxed or as carcasses. Moving vacuum-packaged, boxed-beef subprimals through a central meat processing facility was more efficient than a corresponding operation with beef carcasses. Boxed beef saved approximately 6.0 cents per pound on wholesale cuts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance, carcass, and meat traits of different cattle types
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Different crossbred (X) cattle types were evaluated for growth, feed efficiency, carcass and meat traits. Steers were studied from mating Angus (A), Hereford (H), Brahman (B), Sahiwal (S), Pinzgauer (P), and Tarentaise (T) sires to Angus and Hereford females.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Conventional vs accelerated beef production for traditional and later-maturing cattle types
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Myers, S.M.; Dikeman, Michael E.; Riley, Jack G.; mdikeman
    Analysis of traditional and later-maturing cattle types fed under accelerated (placed directly on the finishing ration) and conventional (back grounded on a growing ration before finishing) system, indicated large differences between feeding systems but smaller differences between cattle types in the same feeding system. Differences between feeding systems stress the economic importance of maintaining maximum gain, and the disadvantages of extended feeding periods, when much of the feed consumed is required for maintenance. Later-maturing cattle on accelerated feeding required the least feed per pound of gain.
  • ItemOpen Access
    High moisture corn for finishing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Bolsen, K.; Ilg, H.; Riley, Jack G.
    W used 135 yearling steers in two trials to compare dry with high moisture (HM) corn and soybean meal (SBM) supplement with urea supplement. Results of trail 1 (88 days) show HM corn either rolled or ensiled in a stave silo or ensiled whole in a fiberglass O2-limiting silo supported faster and more efficient gains than dry rolled, steam-flaked or HM-corn treated with a preservation. A 50% SBM+ 50% urea supplement tended to be used more efficiently than either 100% SBM or 100% urea supplements. In trial 2 (97 days) steers fed dry rolled corn or HM corn ensiled with a commercial additive had similar gains and 6.2% faster gains then steers fed HM corn ensiled without an additive. HM corn ensiled with the additive produced 7.1% more efficient steer gains than dry rolled corn and 4% more efficient gains than HM corn ensiled without the additive. An all-SBM supplement gave slightly better steer performance than all-urea supplement.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Protein adjustments during temperature stress
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Ames, D.R.
    Adjusting feedlot rations to match the thermal environment can reduce costs of gains. Adjusting protein content of rations does not change average daily gain but it improves protein efficiency.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predicting feedlot performance using mathematical models
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) George, P.; Brent, B.E.
    Tables based on mathematical models illustrate how feed intake, rate of gain, and feed efficiency change during the feeding period and in response to different wing-chill temperatures. The tables wert used to calculate costs or gain.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Protein levels with and without Monensin for finishing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Thompson, W.; Riley, Jack G.
    Ration erode protein levels of 9%, 11%, 15%, 12 declining to 10.5% and 13% declining to 11% and finally to 9% were fed with and without Monensin. Steers fed 9% protein continuously gained the least and were the least efficient. Steers fed the other four protein levels had similar performances. Averaged across protein levels, Monensin had no significant effect on steer performance but it improved feed efficiency 7.4% with the 11%, 12-10.5% and 13-11-9% rations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Yield and quality of six summer annual forages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Nuwanyakpa, M.; Posler, Gerry L.; Bolsen, K.K.; Ilg, H.
    In 1977, all summer annual forages studied produced excellent yields. Based on leafiness and regrowth ability, sudangrasses and pearl millet appeared to be best for early vegetative and boot cutting management. The sorghum-sudan hybrids had suitable yields and quality at all harvest stages. The hybrid forage sorghum appeared best suited for soft-dough-stage harvest although yields of pearl millet and sorghum-Sudan hybrids were also excellent.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using wheat straw in beef cow rations
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Peverley, B.; Corah, L.; McKee, M.; Pope, Ronald V.; rvpope
    We conducted two trials to study using wheat straw in rations of either lactating or gestating beef cows maintained in dry lot. In trial 1, cow weight changes the last 60 days of lactation were: alfalfa hay, +26.88 lbs; two-thirds alfalfa hay-one third chopped wheat straw, +27.94 lbs; one-third alfalfa hay and two thirds chopped wheat straw, -26.84 pounds. Gains by the cows’ calves; 146, 143, and 144 pounds, respectively did not differ statistically. Cows receiving one-third alfalfa hay and two-thirds chopped wheat straw lost condition as measured by weight/height ratios, while those on the other two treatments gained condition. The results suggest that beef cows in dry lot can perform satisfactorily on two-thirds alfalfa hay and one-third wheat straw.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Milo stover, forage sorghum, prairie hay, soybean meal and urea compared for growing heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Bolsen, K.; Oltjen, J.; Ilg, H.
    Milo stover silage, prairie hay or forage sorghum silage was fed in rations containing 10, 12 or 14% protein from soybean meal (SBM) or 12% protein from urea; 100 heifers were fed in the 78-day growing trial (November 11, 1977 to February 2, 1978). Heifers fed forage sorghum silage, prairie hay or forage sorghum silage + prairie hay had similar rate and efficiency of gains; those fed milo stover silage made slowest and least efficient gains. Rations containing prairie hay were consumed in the greatest amounts. Feeding rations with 12 or 14% protein from SBM gave better performance than rations with 10% protein from SBM. Heifers fed urea gained slower and less efficiently than those fed SBM. Gain from a ration containing equal parts of milo stover silage and forage sorghum silage exceeded predicted gain by 7.8%, and efficiency was 13.9% better than predicted.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Minerals in esophageal samples from steers on native bluestem pastures
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Harbers, L.H.; Unoh, J.E.; Sapienza, D.A.; Brent, B.E.; Peischel, H.A.; Whitney, J.D.; Smith, E.F.
    This report summarizes monthly mineral contents of burned and control native bluestem pastures determined with samples from fisulated steers. Burning decreases calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and iron (Fe), and slightly decreases zinc (Zn). All minerals we studied were adequate for grazing cattle except that magnesium (Mg) and Potassium (K) appear to be borderline during winter months.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Survey of Kansas cow-calf producers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Thompson, W.; Riley, Jack G.
    The average producer we surveyed was 46 years old with 1 year of college. He had 125 cows and 5 bulls, usually Hereford or Angus, breeding naturally on pasture for 4 1/2 months. Most replacement heifers calved at the same time as cows. Few semen tested and only 50% pregnancy tested. Eleven percent of the cows were culled annually and 75% of the producers raised their own replacements. The average cow-calf pairs used 10 acres of pasture, 2 acres of crop residues and 1 acre of hay. Vaccinations for Blackleg (79%) and Leptospirosis (61%) were popular but less than 30% routinely vaccinated for Vibriosis or IBR. Only twenty-five percent implanted their calves, 35% used some form of preconditioning, and 40% used a wormer. Calves averaged 12 months old and 675 pounds when sold. The local auction market was the most popular (52%). In 1976-1977, when the survey was made, most producers (58%) planned to maintain their present herd size and 73% considered $50-$60/cwt. ($47 average) a realistic price for feeder calves at weaning.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating the breeding potential of yearling bulls
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Corah, L.; Kiracofe, G.; McKee, M.; Schalles, R.R.
    Two years of research with nine herds indicated one of two yearling bulls with a herd usually will sire most of the calves. In six of the nine cases, the bull we pre-evaluated as most sexually active was the sire of the most of the calves. So a brief pre-breeding libido evaluation may help estimate breeding potential. In data from one herd the bull dominant as a yearling continued to be dominant as a two-year-old. Our data also indicated active breeding yearling bulls easily breed more than 20 to 25 cows during their first breeding season.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Ralgro and DES implants during the suckling period on later reproductive performance of beef heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Sprott, L.R.; Corah, L.R.; Kiracofe, G.H.; McKee, M.; Schwartz, F.L.
    Heifers were given either one or two Ralgro implants or one DES implants during the suckling period with no obvious effect on later reproductive performance when the heifers were bred as yearlings. However, conception rates in control heifers were low in two trials, so more studies are needed for conclusive results.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Rumensin or Lasalocid on rumen fermentation in vitro
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Bartley, E.; Herod, E.; Bechtle, R.; Sapienza, D.; Brent, B.
    A series of artificial-rumen studies tested effects of Rumensin and lasalocid on rumen fermentation. At concentrations of 22, 44, and 66 ppm both depressed microbial protein synthesis. Both severely inhibited protein synthesis at 176 ppm. Both increased propionic acid and decreased acetic acid concentrations. However, only Rumensin increased lactic acid. Both inhibited total gas production and decreased the percentage of methane. We concluded that lasalocid and Rumensin have similar effects on rumen fermentation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Delayed winter supplemental feeding and year-round mineral supplementation of beef cows on native range
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Pruitt, J.; Schalles, R.R.; Harbers, L.H.; Owensby, Clenton E.; Smith, E.F.; owensby
    Polled Hereford cows on native Flint Hills pasture not supplemented until February lost more weight from December to February, lost less from February to May, and were in poorer condition before calving than cows supplemented beginning in November. But calf survival, birth weight, and calf average daily gain were similar for both groups. Feeding cows a calcium, phosphorus, trace mineral mix did not improve any measure of cow or calf performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Pelvic area, calving ease and rebreeding in first calf heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Schalles, R.R.; Fleck, A.T.; Corah, L.R.; Kiracofe, G.
    Pelvic area had little influence on the number or severity of calving problems after size and condition of two-year-old first-calf heifers, sex and weight of their calf, and genetic background of the heifer and her calf were accounted for. Little difference in rebreeding was attributed to calving difficulty, although heifers that had Caesarean deliveries rebred about two weeks later than those giving natural birth.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects from using Ralgro sequentially on sexual development of bulls and on growth and carcass characteristics of steers and bulls
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-02-18) Fink, L.; Corah, L.; Kiracofe, G.; McKee, M.
    Forty-nine Simmental X Hereford and Hereford calves (24 bulls and 25 steers) were used to study the effect of Ralgro on growth, carcass traits, sex drive, sperm production, and development of sex organs. Approximately half of the bulls and half of the steers received a total of four 36-mg. Ralgro implants, one implant each 100 days (approximately 28, 128, 228 and 328 days of age). Implanted bulls and steers had higher average daily gains; however, the effect was greater in steers than bulls. Ralgro impaired all facets of sexual development measured. None of the implanted bulls could have been used for breeding purposes as yearlings.