Dairy Day, 2009

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Land Requirements for Freestall Dairy Facilities
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Harner, Joseph P.; Smith, John F., 1962-; jharner; jfsmith
    Existing blueprints were used to estimate land requirements for new dairy facilities. The average land requirement for constructing a new dairy complex with freestall housing and a new parlor is 915 ft2 per lactating cow. Approximately 52% of the overall land space is used for dairy operations including a milk center, housing, transfer lanes, vehicle roads, a feed center, and a manure processing center. The remaining 48% is green space, areas between buildings or along driveways, and separation distance from main roads and neighboring property.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Temperature changes in a low-profile, cross-ventilated building in the high plains
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Harner, Joseph P.; Smith, John F., 1962-; jharner; jfsmith
    Performance of an evaporative cooling system was evaluated in the High Plains in a low-profile, cross-ventilated dairy facility housing 4,200 lactating cows. The temperature decrease across the 6-inch cellulose evaporative pad during the afternoon hours from July 15 to August 14, 2008, was 12.6°F. The temperature-humidity index was below 72 for 14 and 19 hours/day in pens near the outlet (exhaust fans) and inlet (near evaporative cooling pad), respectively, compared with 12 hours under ambient conditions. Throughout the study period, the evaporative cooling system decreased the number of hours that cows were housed in a heat stress environment irrespective of pen location in the building.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Differences among high, medium, and low profit dairy operations: an analysis of 2004-2008 Kansas Farm Management Association Dairy Enterprises
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Schulte, K.M.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; kcd
    The financial bottom line, or net income, is a key factor in determining how successful a dairy has been historically as well as an indicator of the financial ease or struggles the dairy might have in the future. What causes net income to vary from one operation to another is a key question for dairy farmers. For example, does milk price received, feed cost, total cost, or milk production have the greatest impact on net return variability? In this study, we evaluated Kansas Farm Management Dairy Enterprise data from the past 5 years to determine correlation of revenue, production, and cost factors among groups of high, medium, and low profit dairy operations. High-profit producers had larger operations, had slightly greater total costs ($62.63 per cow), and received slightly lower milk prices ($0.56/100 lb of milk) compared with low-profit producers. In contrast, the high profit group produced significantly more milk per cow. Milk price received and cost per cow did not affect profit nearly as much as total milk produced per cow. This study was conducted with data reported by small to midsize dairy herds. Further research should examine whether these results hold true for large herds.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of feeding increased amounts of wet corn gluten feed on dairy cow metabolism and milk production
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Bradford, Barry J.; etitgeme; bbradfor
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding increasing dietary amounts of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). Eight lactating Holstein cows were housed in a tie-stall facility and fed 1 of 4 diets containing 0, 11, 23, or 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis. To maintain similar nutrient concentrations, alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varied across diets. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and effects of WCGF inclusion rate were assessed. Increasing the level of WCGF in the diet led to increased feed intake, milk production, and body condition. Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; therefore, yield of energy-corrected milk and solids-corrected milk increased as well. In contrast, increasing dietary WCGF decreased efficiency of production and also decreased ruminal pH, possibly because treatments with greater proportions of WCGF had a decreased mean particle size. As expected, the decreased ruminal pH coincided with changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations. Furthermore, the rate of fiber digestion after 24 hours decreased when more WCGF was incorporated into diets. Results indicate that adding WCGF to dairy rations can increase energy-corrected milk yield, and this increase seems to be driven, at least in part, by an increase in feed intake.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Bradford, Barry J.; etitgeme; bbradfor
    Molasses has long been used in animal feeds for palatability and as a binding agent to ensure uniform consumption of essential nutrients. Recent work with molasses in highly fermentable diets has revealed that molasses might offer additional benefits in dairy rations. Feeding highconcentrate diets increases the risk of milk fat depression by disrupting the normal pathway of fatty acid biohydrogenation in the rumen. Preliminary research conducted at Kansas State University and other universities has indicated that dietary sugars have the potential to increase milk fat synthesis during milk fat depression. In this study, we sought to understand the reasons for this beneficial effect of molasses on milk fat synthesis. Despite the fact that molasses provides readily fermentable sugar, replacing 5% of dietary corn grain with molasses increased ruminal pH, improved fatty acid biohydrogenation, and shifted the profile of fermentation acids in a manner suggesting that growth of fiber-digesting bacteria was improved. Results of several studies suggest that 5% dietary molasses can increase milk fat yield by 5 to 10%, and the current study indicates that this effect is driven by a stabilization of ruminal pH and biohydrogenation
  • ItemOpen Access
    Luteolysis and pregnancy outcomes in dairy cows after treatment with estrumate or lutalyse
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    In Experiment 1, lactating dairy cows (n = 1,230) in 6 herds were treated with 2 injections of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) 14 days apart (Presynch), with the second injection administered 12 to 14 days before the onset of a timed AI protocol (Ovsynch). Cows were inseminated when detected in estrus after the Presynch PGF2α injections. Cows not inseminated were enrolled in the Ovsynch protocol and were assigned randomly to be treated with either Estrumate or Lutalyse as part of a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. Blood samples were collected before treatment injection (0 hour) and 48 and 72 hours later. In cows having progesterone concentrations ≥1 ng/mL at 0 hour and potentially having a functional corpus luteum (CL) responsive to a luteolytic agent, Lutalyse increased (P < 0.05) luteal regression from 83.9 to 89.3%. Despite a significant increase in luteolysis, pregnancy rate per AI did not differ between treatments. Fertility was improved in both treatments in cows having reduced progesterone concentrations at 72 hours and in those showing signs of estrus. In Experiment 2, an ovulation resynchronization (Ovsynch-Resynch) program was initiated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or saline in 427 previously inseminated lactating dairy cows of unknown pregnancy status in 1 herd. Seven days later, pregnancy was diagnosed and nonpregnant cows were blocked by number of CL and assigned randomly to receive Estrumate or Lutalyse. Diameter of each CL was recorded and blood samples were collected at 0 and 72 hours after treatment to assess serum progesterone. A fixed-time AI was given at 72 hours after treatment and approximately 16 hours after a GnRH injection to induce ovulation. Lutalyse increased(P < 0.05) luteal regression from 69.1 to 78.5% regardless of the number of CL present or the total luteal volume per cow exposed to treatment. Pregnancy rate per AI did not differ between treatments. Although Lutalyse was slightly more effective than Estrumate in inducing luteolysis in lactating dairy cows exposed to an Ovsynch or Ovsynch-Resynch protocol, resulting pregnancy outcomes did not differ between products.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of acidified fermentation by-products and prepartum DCAD on feed intake, performance, and health of transition dairy cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Bradford, Barry J.; bbradfor
    Two commercially available acidified fermentation by-products were evaluated in the close-up period (21 days before expected calving) for their effects on feed intake, postpartum performance, and cow health. Diets were formulated to contain similar protein and energy values but differed in dietary cation anion difference and anion source. Treatments were Bio-Chlor, SoyChlor, and a control. Prepartum feed intake tended to be lower for SoyChlor than for the control, but postpartum intake did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Likewise, no significant differences were detected for milk yield between treatments. Protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen, and lactose percentage were greatest for SoyChlor-treated cows. Therefore, despite a trend for a negative effect on prepartum feed intake, SoyChlor supported similar productivity in early lactation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of acidulant addition on yogurt fermentation
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Schmidt, Karen A.; kschmidt
    Yogurt was manufactured by pre-acidifying the yogurt mix with citric acid, lactic acid, or concentrated lemon juice either before or after pasteurization to a target pH of 6.2, and then the traditional manufacturing process was continued. Adding citric acid or lemon juice to the yogurt mix after pasteurization resulted in a 13% reduction in fermentation time compared with the control. This reduction in fermentation time may result in greater efficiency for yogurt manufacturers, allowing for a more sustainable manufacturing process.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influences of heat stress on serological response and performance of dairy calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Hollis, Larry C.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; lhollis
    Objectives of this study were to investigate the possible effects of heat stress on calf growth and the development of active immunity. Eighteen heifer calves born between July 21 and August 24, 2008, were housed in individual hutches, and half of the calves were provided supplemental shade from birth to 8 weeks of age. During this time, milk replacer intake, dry feed intake, and fecal scores were recorded daily. Calf weight and hip and shoulder heights were measured and recorded weekly. The bovine viral diarrhea portion of the vaccine given at 5 weeks of age was used as an indicator to track the development of humoral immunity. Intake, growth, temperature response after vaccination, and serum titers did not differ significantly between treatments. In contrast, differences in hutch temperature, relative humidity, and temperaturehumidity index were observed between treatments. Results indicated that supplemental shade provided to calves housed in hutches does not affect their performance or ability to develop active immunity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of evaporative pads and cross ventilation on core body temperature and resting time of lactating cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Smith, John F., 1962-; Bradford, Barry J.; Harner, Joseph P.; jfsmith; bbradfor; jharner
    A trial was conducted to determine the impact of evaporative cooling pads on core body temperature (CBT), time spent lying, and number of lying bouts of Holstein cows housed in cross-ventilated freestall facilities. Despite cool ambient conditions during the trial, cows without evaporative pads tended to have elevated CBT above 102°F for 2.3 more hours per day and elevated CBT above 102.5°F for 0.95 more hours per day than cows with evaporative pads. These trends were evident even though the stocking density of the freestalls was greater in the facility with evaporative pads than in the facility without pads (123 vs. 113%). Lying times and lying bouts did not differ between treatments. Results of this study indicate that CBT tended to be reduced when evaporative pads were used, even under relatively mild ambient conditions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Water consumption of an evaporative cooling system in the midwest
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Harner, Joseph P.; John, Smith; jharner; jfsmith
    Water meters were installed on the evaporative cooling system of a long, low-profile, cross-ventilated dairy in the upper Midwest. The evaporative pad along the west side measured 10 by 350 ft. The water usage per unit surface area of the evaporative pad was 0.29 gallons/hour per square foot of evaporative pad surface area. The total daily water usage per stall averaged 13 gallons with a maximum of 22.7 gallons. Results from this study indicate that peak hourly water usage may be as much as 3 times the average values. The evaporative pad efficiency was 65% between noon and 0800 hours and 79% between midnight and 0400 hours.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of supplemental phosphorus source on phosphorus utilization in lactating dairy cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Bradford, Barry J.; Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; bbradfor; jharner
    Supplemental phosphorus (P) in various forms and sources (pellet, meal, liquid, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles; DDGS) were compared in 12 multiparous Holstein cows producing 94.8 lb of milk (115 ± 55 days in milk) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-day periods. The pellet and meal diets contained monocalcium phosphate with a wheat middlings carrier, and the liquid diet contained ammonium polyphosphate in a cane molasses base. The DDGS supplied an organic P source. Cows were blocked by parity, days in milk, and milk production and randomly assigned to treatments. Phosphorus intakes were similar among all 4 diets (116, 116, 119 and 118 g/day for pellet, meal, liquid and DDGS diets, respectively). Cows consuming the liquid diet experienced greater (P < 0.001) sugar intakes. Milk yield differed (P = 0.05) among diets, with the DDGS diet yielding the most milk (76.3, 78.1, 75.2 and 80.5 lb/day for pellet, meal, liquid, and DDGS diets, respectively). There were no differences in milk fat and milk protein percentages or in daily lactose production. Excretion of P in feces tended (P = 0.07) to differ among treatments (67.4, 66.3, 57.5, and 60.0 g/day for pellet, meal, liquid and DDGS diets, respectively), resulting in a trend (P = 0.10) for greater P retention from diets, resulting in less P excretion. Secretion of P in milk did not differ among treatments. These data show that supplemental P source does not affect dry matter intake or P intake. Phosphorus source resulted in slight differences in P utilization, but it was not related to sorting of the diet. The DDGS diet showed responses similar to those of inorganic P mineral supplements and had favorable production yields, indicating that DDGS is an adequate substitute for mineral sources of P.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of encapsulated niacin on metabolism and production of periparturient holstein cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-22) Bradford, Barry J.; Mamedova, Laman K.; bbradfor; mamedova
    Niacin (nicotinic acid) can suppress lipolysis, but responses to dietary niacin have been inconsistent in cattle. A widely used commercial feed additive, niacin is thought to reduce heat stress and decrease postpartum plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Raw niacin has poor stability in the rumen, however, and it is estimated that only 5% is bioavailable. Recently, an encapsulated niacin (EN) product with an estimated 40% bioavailability became commercially available, but its effects on health and metabolism in transition cows have not been tested previously. Twenty-two Holstein cows were used in a study beginning 21 days before expected calving; cows were assigned to the EN treatment (24 g/day) or control group until 21 days postpartum. Results showed that EN decreased peak plasma NEFA and ketone concentrations after calving but also caused a 9 lb/day decrease in dry matter intake during the final 4 days before calving in multiparous cows. These results indicate that a high dose of EN can decrease postpartum plasma NEFA and ketones but also may decrease prepartum dry matter intake.