Evaluation of force distribution within a dual special moment-resisting and special concentric-brace frame system



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Kansas State University


Dual Lateral Force Resisting Systems are currently required by code to include a Moment Resisting Frame capable of resisting at least 25% of the lateral loads. This thesis evaluates the seismic performance of a specific type of dual system: a Special Moment Resisting Frame-Special Concentric Brace Frame System (SMRF-SCBF) under three different force distributions. The three distributions were 80% - 20%, 75% - 25%, and 70% - 30% with the lesser force being allotted to the Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) portion of the system. In order to evaluate the system, a parametric study was performed. The parametric study consisted of three SMRF-SCBF systems designed with different seismic force distributions. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy of the three different seismic force distributions. The accuracy was measured by comparing individual system models’ data and combined system models’ data. The data used for comparison included joint deflections (both horizontal and vertical), induced moments at moment connections, brace axial loads, column shears, and column base reactions.
Two-dimensional models using the structural software RISA 3D were used to assist in designing the independent Seismic Force Resisting Systems. The designs of the frames were not finely tuned (smallest member size for strength), but were designed for drift (horizontal deflection) requirements and constructability issues. Connection designs were outside the scope of the study, except for constructability considerations – the SMRF and the SCBF did not have a common column; the frames were a bay apart connected with a link beam. The results indicated that a seismic force distribution of 75% to the SCBF and 25% to the SMRF most accurately predicts that frame’s behavior. A force distribution of 80% to the SCBF and 20% to the SMRF resulted in moderately accurate results as well.
A vast opportunity for further research into this area of study exists. Alterations to the design process, consideration of wind loads, or additional force distributions are all recommended changes for further research into this topic.



Seismic, Seismic Force Resisting System, Special Concentric Brace Frame, Special Moment Resisting Frame, Dual system

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Master of Science


Department of Architectural Engineering and Construction Science

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Kimberly W. Kramer