Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

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dc.contributor.author DeMars, Zachary
dc.contributor.author Biswas, Silpak
dc.contributor.author Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.
dc.contributor.author Renter, David G.
dc.contributor.author Volkova, Victoriya V.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-20T17:34:03Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-20T17:34:03Z
dc.date.issued 2016-05-18 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/34060
dc.description Citation: DeMars, Z., Biswas, S., Amachawadi, R. G., Renter, D. G., & Volkova, V. V. (2016). Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions. Plos One, 11(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155599
dc.description.abstract Antimicrobial treatments result in the host's enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-TestR following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: ?-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test1 ), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n?30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment suggested that during first days in anaerobic conditions the susceptibility changes with time. The results demonstrate that assessing effects of antimicrobial treatments on resistance in the host's enteric bacteria that are Gram negative facultative Anaerobe Bacilli requires data on the bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility in the conditions resembling those in the intestine. © 2016 DeMars et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155599
dc.rights Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions
dc.type Text
dc.date.published 2016
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0155599
dc.citation.issn 1932-6203
dc.citation.issue 5
dc.citation.jtitle PLoS ONE
dc.citation.volume 11
dc.contributor.authoreid agraghav
dc.contributor.authoreid drenter
dc.contributor.authoreid vv88
dc.description.version Article: Version of Record


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