Whole genome approaches for characterizing and utilizing synthetic wheat

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dc.contributor.author Dunckel, Sandra Margarita
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-17T15:28:14Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-17T15:28:14Z
dc.date.issued 2015-12-01 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/20518
dc.description.abstract The global population is estimated to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. Together with climate change, insuring food security for this population presents a significant challenge to agriculture. In this context, a large number of breeding objectives must be targeted. The focus of the work presented here is to explore genomic approaches for tapping exotic germplasm for valuable alleles to increased yield, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. The loss of genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to bottlenecks during polyploidization, domestication and modern plant breeding can be compensated by introgressing novel exotic germplasm. Here, the potential of genomic selection (GS) for rapid introgression of synthetic derived wheat is evaluated in field trials. Overall, the GS models had moderate predictive ability. However, prediction accuracies were lower than expected likely due to complex and confounding physiological effects. As such, implementation of rapid cycle GS for introgression of exotic alleles is possible but might not perform very well with synthetic derived wheat. Disease resistance is another important trait affecting grain yield. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) has historically caused severe yield loss of wheat worldwide. In a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study with a synthetic-derived mapping population, QTLs for resistance to stem rust races TRTTF and QTHJC were identified on chromosomes 1AS, 2BS, 6AS and 6AL. Some of these genes could be new resistance genes and useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS). In addition to food insecurity through lack of sufficient source of calories, nutrient deficiency is considered the ‘hidden hunger’ and can lead to serious disorders in humans. Through biofortification, essential nutrients are increased in staple crops for improved quality of food and human health. A high-throughput elemental profiling experiment was performed with the same synthetic derived mapping population to study the wheat ionome. Twenty-seven QTL for different elements in wheat shoots and two QTL in roots were identified. Four “hotspots” for nutrient accumulation in the shoots were located on chromosomes 5AL, 5BL, 6DL and 7AL. Overall, exotic germplasm is a valuable source of favorable alleles, but improved breeding methodologies are needed to rapidly utilize this diversity. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Monsanto Beachell-Borlaug International Scholars Program, Wheat Genetics Resource Center Industry/University Collaborative Research Center supported by the National Science Foundation, United States Agency for International Development, United States Department of Agriculture, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Kansas State University en
dc.subject Utilization of exotic germplasm en_US
dc.subject Novel sources of stem rust resistance in wheat en_US
dc.subject Genomic selection for increased yield of synthetic wheat en_US
dc.subject Wheat ionomics en_US
dc.subject Genotyping-by-sequencing en_US
dc.title Whole genome approaches for characterizing and utilizing synthetic wheat en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.description.degree Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.description.level Doctoral en_US
dc.description.department Genetics - Plant Pathology en_US
dc.description.advisor Jesse A. Poland en_US
dc.subject.umi Genetics (0369) en_US
dc.date.published 2015 en_US
dc.date.graduationmonth December en_US

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