Description of clean chip residual forest harvest and its availability for horticultural uses in the southeastern United States

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dc.contributor.author Boyer, Cheryl R.
dc.contributor.author Gallagher, Thomas V.
dc.contributor.author Gilliam, Charles H.
dc.contributor.author Fain, Glenn B.
dc.contributor.author Torbert, H. Allen
dc.contributor.author Sibley, Jeff L.
dc.date.accessioned 2013-05-31T21:57:07Z
dc.date.available 2013-05-31T21:57:07Z
dc.date.issued 2013-05-31
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/15877
dc.description.abstract Residual chipping material, also called clean chip residual (CCR), has potential use as a growth substrate in the nursery and greenhouse horticultural industries. A survey was conducted in the southeastern United States among companies conducting harvesting operations on pine (Pinus sp.) plantations for the production of pulpwood in the forest industry. Fourteen operators in four states (Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida) were visited to evaluate the on-site status of residual material. Sample analysis of CCR revealed that it was composed of ≈37.7% wood (range, 14.2% to 50.5%), 36.6% bark (range, 16.1% to 68.5%), 8.8% needles (range, 0.1% to 19.2%), and 16.9% indistinguishable (fine) particles (range, 7.5% to 31%). pH ranged from 4.3 to 5.5 for all locations and electrical conductivity (EC) averaged 0.24 mmho/cm. Most nutrients were in acceptable ranges for plant growth with the exception of three sites above recommended levels for iron and four sites for manganese. Survey participants estimated that ≈27.5% of the harvest site biomass was composed of CCR. Some harvesters were able to sell CCR as fuelwood to pulp mills, while others did not recover the residual material and left it on the forest floor (44.3% total site biomass). Operations in this survey included typical pine plantation chipping and grinding operations (harvesters), woodyards (lumber, fuelwood, etc.), and operations processing mixed material (salvage from trees damaged in hurricanes or mixed tree species cleared from a site that was not under management as a plantation). Residual material varied depending on the plantation age, species composition, site quality, and natural actions such as fire. Average tree age was 11.5 years (range, 8 to 15 years), while average tree stand height was 37.0 ft (range, 25 to 50 ft) and average diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.9 inches (range, 4 to 7 inches). Residual material on site was either sold immediately (28.6%), left on site for 1 to 3 months (28.6%), left on site for up to 2 years (7.1%), or not collected/sold (35.7%). Several loggers were interested in making CCR available to horticultural industries. Adequate resources are available to horticultural industries, rendering the use of CCR in ornamental plant production a viable option. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.uri http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/22/3/381.abstract en_US
dc.subject CCR en_US
dc.subject Substrate en_US
dc.subject Alternative media en_US
dc.subject Wood fiber en_US
dc.subject Bark en_US
dc.subject Forestry en_US
dc.subject Greenhouse en_US
dc.subject Nursery en_US
dc.title Description of clean chip residual forest harvest and its availability for horticultural uses in the southeastern United States en_US
dc.type Article (publisher version) en_US
dc.date.published 2012 en_US
dc.citation.epage 387 en_US
dc.citation.issue 3 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle HortTechnology en_US
dc.citation.spage 381 en_US
dc.citation.volume 22 en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid crboyer en_US


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