Horticulture and Natural Resources Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Considerations with using unmanned aircraft systems in turfgrass
    (Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, 2023-01-23) Bremer, Dale J.; Sullivan, Dana G.; Vines, Phillip L.; McCall, David; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Mu
    In recent years, small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) and advancements in remote sensing technology have provided alternative and more affordable means for monitoring crop health and stress than ground-based (hand-held or vehicle-mounted) or other aerial-based platforms (manned aircraft or satellites). However, few scientific studies have evaluated the application of sUAS in turfgrass systems. The use of sUAS in monitoring turfgrass requires an understanding of basic remote sensing principles; identifying the target of interest and the various sUAS platforms and sensors that provide the necessary resolution and frequencies to measure and monitor that target; calibration of sensors in the field; and data processing considerations. Those topics are discussed, followed by reviews of recent turfgrass field studies conducted to predict and manage drought stress and pest outbreaks, and improve phenotyping capabilities in turfgrass breeding programs. The use of sUAS remote sensing in turfgrass offers unique possibilities and challenges, which are addressed herein.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Raccoon (Procyon lotor) Activity is Better Predicted by Water Availability than Land Cover in a Moderately Fragmented Landscape
    Heske, Edward J.; Ahlers, Adam A.; aahlers2; Ahlers, Adam A.
    Procyon lotor (Raccoon) is a habitat and dietary generalist that reaches its greatest population densities in heterogeneous, moderately fragmented landscapes. Even within such landscapes, a variety of natural and anthropogenic habitat variables can influence the local activity of Raccoons, and therefore their potential impact as nest predators. We examined Raccoon activity at 34 baited track-stations over 3 summers in forested ravines in the Shawnee National Forest (SNF), IL. We found that the dependability of water at a survey site was the best predictor of Raccoon activity, overshadowing any potential influences of land cover in the surrounding landscape. Landscape-level effects on Raccoon population size and density are likely widespread throughout moderately fragmented regions like the SNF, but variation in local activity can be predicted by the distribution of critical resources (e.g., water, den sites).
  • ItemOpen Access
    High-Temperature-Induced Defects in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Anther and Pollen Development Are Associated with Reduced Expression of B-Class Floral Patterning Genes
    Muller, F.; Xu, J. M.; Kristensen, L.; Wolters-Arts, M.; de Groot, P. F. M.; Jansma, S. Y.; Mariani, C.; Park, Sunghun; Rieu, I.; shpark; Park, Sunghun
    Sexual reproduction is a critical process in the life-cycle of plants and very sensitive to environmental perturbations. To better understand the effect of high temperature on plant reproduction, we cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in continuous mild heat. Under this condition we observed a simultaneous reduction in pollen viability and appearance of anthers with pistil-like structures, while in a more thermotolerant genotype, both traits were improved. Ectopic expression of two pistil-specific genes, TRANSMITTING TISSUE SPECIFIC and TOMATO AGAMOUS LIKE11, in the anthers confirmed that the anthers had gained partial pistil identity. Concomitantly, expression of the B-class genes TOMATO APETALA3, TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6) and LePISTILLATA was reduced in anthers under continuous mild heat. Plants in which TM6 was partially silenced reacted hypersensitively to temperature elevation with regard to the frequency of pistilloid anthers, pollen viability and pollen quantity. Taken together, these results suggest that high-temperature induced down-regulation of tomato B-class genes contributes to anther deformations and reduced male fertility. Improving our understanding of how temperature perturbs the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen development will be important in the view of maintaining agricultural output under current climate changes.
  • ItemOpen Access
  • ItemOpen Access
    Summer Precipitation Predicts Spatial Distributions of Semiaquatic Mammals
    Ahlers, Adam A.; Cotner, L. A.; Wolff, P. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Heske, E. J.; Schooley, R. L.; aahlers2
  • ItemOpen Access
    Growth Responses of Zoysia spp. under Tree Shade in the Midwestern United States
    (2015-05-08) Peterson, Kenton W.; Fry, Jack D.; Bremer, Dale J.; jfry; bremer
    ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steudel) is commonly planted on home lawns and golf courses in the transition zone; however, poor shade tolerance limits its widespread use. This study was conducted to determine changes and differences in growth among selected Zoysia cultivars and progeny under a natural shade environment over a 3-year period in the transition zone. The study was initiated in June 2010 at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center in Manhattan, KS. Soil type was a Chase silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic, Aquic, Argiudoll). Zoysia genotypes were sodded in 0.37-m2 plots and arranged in a randomized complete block with five replications under silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) shade that resulted in a 91% reduction in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Genotypes included ‘Zorro’ [Z. matrella (L.) Merrill], ‘Emerald’ [Z. japonica × Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) Hotta & Kuroki], ‘Meyer’, Chinese Common (Z. japonica), and experimental progeny Exp1 (Z. matrella × Z. japonica), and Exp2 and Exp3 [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica]. ‘Zorro’ and ‘Emerald’ experienced winter injury, which negatively affected their performance. Tiller numbers decreased 47% in ‘Meyer’ from June 2010 to June 2012, but declines in [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica] progeny were only 1% for Exp2 and 27% for Exp3, and both Exp2 and Exp3 maintained high percent green cover throughout the study. In general, by the third year of evaluation, progeny of [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica] had higher quality ratings and higher tiller numbers than ‘Meyer’ and may provide more shade-tolerant cultivar choices for transition zone turf managers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ultraviolet radiation affects intumescence development in ornamental sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas)
    (2015-05-07) Craver, Joshua K.; Miller, Chad T.; Williams, Kimberly A.; Bello, Nora M.; ctmiller; kwilliam; nbello
    Intumescences are a physiological disorder characterized by hypertrophy and possibly hyperplasia of plant tissue cells. Ultimately, this disorder results in the death of the affected cells. Previous observations and research suggest that the quality and quantity of light to which plants are exposed may be a factor in development of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation on intumescence development in ornamental sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). Two sweetpotato cultivars, Sidekick Black and Ace of Spades, were grown under light treatments consisting of 1) normal greenhouse production conditions; 2) supplemental UVB lighting; 3) supplemental UVB lighting with Mylar® sleeves over the lamps to block UVB radiation; and 4) control lighting with full spectrum lamps. Treatments were administered for 2 weeks, and the experiment was repeated twice. ‘Ace of Spades’ was highly susceptible to intumescence development, whereas ‘Sidekick Black’ was much less susceptible to the disorder. For ‘Ace of Spades’, the addition of UVB radiation significantly reduced the number of leaves affected with intumescences when compared with plants grown under the other light treatments; this UVB effect was not apparent for ‘Sidekick Black’. Furthermore, there was no evidence for reduced plant growth under UVB light in either cultivar, but side effects from the radiation included leaf discoloration and deformities. This study indicates a cultivar-specific effect of UVB light in preventing intumescence development on ornamental sweetpotato, therefore suggesting a potential genetic component in intumescence susceptibility. These results provide further insight in better understanding intumescence development and how to prevent the disorder.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Annotated list of the plants of Kansas : ferns and flowering plants, with maps showing distribution of species
    (Topeka, KS: Printed by Kansas State Printing Plant, W.C. Austin, State Printer) Gates, Frank Caleb, 1887-1955
    The purpose of this publication is to enumerate the ferns and flowering plants that occur in Kansas. This especially desirable as no list has been available for many years; the most recent is a series of maps showing distribution of Kansas specimens in the Kansas State Herbarium, published by Prof. A.S. Hitchcock some 40-odd years ago. Some years later B.B. Smyth projected a complete list, but lived to assemble but a third of it.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Springtime dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) control with seven postemergence herbicides applied at three anthesis stages
    (2015-03-04) Raudenbush, Zane; Keeley, Steven J.; skeeley
    Although spring is not considered the optimal time for herbicidal control of most cool-season broadleaf weeds in turfgrass, spring applications are often required. Most new postemergence broadleaf herbicides combine several active ingredients, possibly resulting in synergistic, antagonistic, or additive effects. Therefore, as new herbicides become available, information is needed about their performance when applied in the spring. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of spring application timing on dandelion control with seven commercially available postemergence herbicides. Products were applied at their lowest labeled rate for dandelion control at three spring application timings, which coincided with dandelion anthesis stages (pre-, peak-, or post-bloom). A grid was used to determine percent dandelion control at several rating dates. The 2010 site had a denser turfgrass stand with smaller dandelions and was irrigated more frequently compared with the 2011 site. In 2010, all herbicides gave 98% or greater control at 30 days after treatment (DAT) when applied post-bloom; when applied pre- or peak-bloom, control was 80% or greater for all herbicides except for two products applied peak-bloom. At pre- and peak-bloom, products combining a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor with a 2,4-D ester formulation were superior to most other herbicides. When evaluated at the end of the growing season in 2010, all herbicides provided 89% or greater control at all three timings. In 2011, with a less dense turfgrass stand, larger dandelions, and less frequent irrigation, control was more variable and shorter-lived among herbicides. When applied pre-bloom, all products containing 2,4-D provided 87% or greater control 60 DAT. Post-bloom application generally gave similar control to the pre-bloom timing. Peak-bloom application resulted in the poorest overall control at 60 DAT, but products combining a PPO inhibitor with a 2,4-D ester formulation performed better than most other herbicides. By the end of the season, dandelion regrowth caused reduced overall control at all timings, but overall control was poorest when applied at peak-bloom. In summary, peak-bloom applications should be avoided, especially if dandelion pressure is high. Products combining PPO inhibitors with ester forms of 2,4-D were most effective across all spring application timings. Products containing amine forms of 2,4-D may provide effective control if applied pre- or post-bloom.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Characterization and comparison of lesions on ornamental sweetpotato 'Blackie', tomato 'Maxifort', interspecific geranium 'Caliente Coral', and bat-faced cuphea 'Tiny Mice'.
    (2014-11-25) Craver, Joshua K.; Miller, Chad T.; Williams, Kimberly A.; Boyle, Daniel L.; kwilliam; ctmiller; dboyle
    Many plant species are prone to physiological disorders in which lesions develop on the leaf tissue. Nomenclature for such lesions has included intumescences, excrescences, neoplasms, galls, genetic tumors, enations, and oedemata. Interchangeably using these terms causes confusion as to whether these names refer to the same or different disorders. Two of the most commonly used names are oedema and intumescence. The objective of this research was to characterize the development of lesions on ornamental sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas ‘Blackie’), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Maxifort’), interspecific hybrid geranium(Pelargonium· ‘CalienteCoral’), and bat-faced cuphea (Cuphea llavea ‘TinyMice’) to determine similarities and differences in morphology and nomenclature among these physiological disorders. Light microscopy was used to characterize differences in cross-sectional height, width, and area of lesions on each species. Additionally, leaf tissue samples were embedded in paraffin, and 10-mm cross-sections were stained with Toluidine blue O and observed using light microscopy to identify specific cell layers involved with lesion development. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and digital photography were used to observe the microscopic and macroscopic stages of lesion development, respectively, on each species. The lesions observed on ornamental sweetpotato were significantly greater in height and area than on the other three species, whereas tomato lesions were significantly greater in width. Lesions on ornamental sweetpotato and bat-faced cuphea occurred predominantly on the adaxial surface of the leaf, whereas lesions on geraniumand tomato occurred predominantly on the abaxial surface.With lesions on tomato, ornamental sweetpotato, and bat-faced cuphea, the epidermis was often subjected to the same hypertrophy apparent in the underlying parenchyma cells, ultimately allowing for greater cell expansion. However, in geranium, the epidermis resisted the expansion of the underlying cells, resulting in the eventual tearing of this tissue layer. Previous research indicates that lesion development on geranium is closely related to water status within the plant and may result in a wound response or provide a means of facilitated gas exchange. On the contrary, development of lesions on ornamental sweetpotato and tomato is believed to involve light quality. Based on these results and observations, two disorders occur across these species. The term "intumescence’’ should be used when referring to abnormal lesions on ornamental sweetpotato and tomato, and the term ‘‘oedema’’ should be used when referring to lesions on geranium. The term ‘‘intumescence’’ should also be used when referring to bat-faced cuphea lesions resulting from the morphological and anatomical aspects of these lesions closely resembling development on ornamental sweetpotato and tomato. Future research should investigate the role of light quality regarding development on this species.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Water stress is a component of cold acclimation process essential for inducing full freezing tolerance in strawberry
    (2014-08-27) Rajashekar, Channa B.; Panda, Manasa; crajashe
    The factors involved in cold acclimation process and their role in inducing freezing tolerance were studied in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) plants. The results show that low temperature and water stress are two key components of cold acclimation, in that low temperature typically induced water stress in the plants. After a 2-week exposure of plants to 3/1°C (day/night temperature), the leaf water potential decreased markedly to below -1.6 MPa. While both of these components contribute significantly to the induction of freezing tolerance, water stress is a dominant factor in inducing freezing tolerance, contributing roughly to 56% of freezing tolerance acquired by natural cold acclimation. Typical cold acclimation treatment of plants for 2 weeks increased their freezing tolerance by about 14°C to -20.7°C while the same treatment, in the absence of the accompanying water stress, increased their freezing tolerance only by 5°C, which indicates the importance of water stress during cold acclimation. Furthermore, both low temperature and water stress independently induced the orthologs of cold-responsive genes, COR47 and COR78, however, stronger expression of these genes was observed in response to cold acclimating conditions. Thus, these results show that both of these factors are essential elements of cold acclimation process and play an important role in inducing freezing tolerance in strawberry plants.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The metabolic costs of gardening tasks in children
    (2014-06-26) Park, Sin-Ae; Lee, Ho-Sang; Lee, Kwan-Suk; Son, Ki-Cheol; Shoemaker, Candice A.; cshoemak
    The metabolic cost of 10 gardening tasks was measured in children to determine the exercise intensities associated with these tasks. Seventeen children [(mean ± SD) aged 12.4 ± 0.7 years and body mass index 21.6 ± 4.0 kg·mˉ²] participated in this study. The children performed the 10 gardening tasks at a garden previously established in Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea. They visited the garden twice and performed five different tasks on each visit. Five minutes were provided to complete each gardening task and a 5-minute rest was allowed between each task. The children wore a portable telemetric calorimeter and a heart rate monitor for measurement of oxygen uptake and heart rate during the gardening tasks. The results show that the 10 gardening tasks represented moderate- to high-intensity physical activity for the children [4.3 ± 0.5 to 6.6 ± 1.6 metabolic equivalents (MET)]. Digging (6.6 ± 1.6 MET) and raking (6.2 ± 1.5 MET) were high-intensity physical activities, and digging was more intense than the other gardening tasks performed in this study (P < 0.05). Tasks such as weeding (5.8 ± 1.1 MET), mulching (5.5 ± 1.3 MET), hoeing (5.3 ± 0.7 MET), sowing seeds (5.0 ± 1.1 MET), harvesting (4.8 ± 0.6 MET), watering (4.6 ± 1.1 MET), mixing growing medium (4.4 ± 0.6 MET), and planting transplants (4.3 ± 0.5 MET) were moderate-intensity physical activities. The MET data for the gardening tasks will facilitate the development of garden-based exercise interventions for children, which can promote health and physically active lifestyle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Prolonged drought and recovery responses of Kentucky bluegrass and ornamental groundcovers
    (2014-01-10) Domenghini, Jacob C.; Bremer, Dale J.; Fry, Jack D.; Davis, Gregory L.; bremer; jfry; gdavis
    Municipalities often restrict irrigation of urban landscapes, causing plants to experience drought stress. Few data are available regarding drought resistance of non-turfgrass landscape species. This study evaluated the performance of one turfgrass (Poa pratensis L. ‘Apollo’) and eight herbaceous landscape species (Achillea millifolium L., Ajuga reptans L. ‘Bronze Beauty’, Liriope muscari Decne., Pachysandra terminalis Siebold and Zucc., Sedum album L., Thymus serpyllum L., Vinca major L., and Vinca minor L.) during a severe drydown and subsequent recovery. This greenhouse study was conducted in the spring/summer and again in the fall of 2010. S. album performed the best, averaging 254 days to decline to a drought rating of 1 (1 to 9 scale, 1 = dead/dormant and 9 = best quality). L. muscari and P. terminalis also performed well, averaging 86 days to a drought rating of 1. V.minor and V.major declined faster than the previous species, averaging 63 days. A. millifolium, A. reptans, P. pratensis, andT. serpyllum declined the fastest to a drought rating of 1 (mean 52 days). Thereafter, the only species to recover after 60 days of resuming irrigation were P. pratensis [46% pot cover (PC)], S. album (38% PC), and V.major (35% PC) in the spring/summer study; no species recovered during the fall study. Results indicate S. album, L. muscari, and P. terminalis are the most drought-resistant among the species evaluated in landscapes where severe drought may occur. V. minor and V. major are good selections in less severe droughts as is P. pratensis if periods of dormancy are acceptable.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Lawn-watering perceptions and behaviors of residential homeowners in three Kansas (USA) cities: implications for water quantity and quality
    (2013-11-08) Bremer, Dale J.; Keeley, Steven J.; Jager, Abigail L.; Fry, Jack D.; bremer; skeeley; jager; jfry
    Urbanization is increasing the land area covered with turfgrasses, which may have implications for water quantity and quality. The largest sector of turfgrass is residential lawns. Our objectives were to survey residential homeowners in three Kansas cities about their perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors when irrigating their lawns; each city has distinctive water quantity and quality issues. Surveys were mailed to 15,500 homeowners in Wichita, 10,000 in Olathe, and 5,000 in Salina; the return rate was 11-13%. Wichita residents watered more frequently than Olathe and Salina, possibly because of greater evaporative demand than Olathe, and cheaper water and less concern about water shortages than Salina; Salina and Wichita have similar evaporative demands but Salina had a recent water crisis. Salina homeowners were most concerned about keeping their water bill from getting too high, probably because of higher water costs than the other cities. Overall, 45-60% indicated it was moderately to very important their lawns looked green all the time, while 65-77% ranked water conservation at the same level of importance. Significantly, 61-63% did not know how much water their lawns required and 71-77% did not know how much water they applied to their lawns when they irrigated. About 7-9% swept or blew clippings or lawn-care products directly into streets or storm drains, which run directly into local streams or reservoirs; 9% in Wichita is ~9,000 homeowners. The homeowner’s lawn irrigation knowledge and habits must be improved to help conserve water and protect water quality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nitrate-nitrogen sufficiency ranges in leaf petiole sap of Brassica oleracea L., pac choi grown with organic and conventional fertilizers
    (2013-08-07) Altamimi, May Elfar; Janke, Rhonda R.; Williams, Kimberly A.; Nelson, Nathan O.; Murray, Leigh W.; rrjanke; kwilliam; nonelson; lmurray
    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the response of Brassica oleracea L., pac choi to fertilizer rates and sources and to establish optimal soluble nitrogen (N) application rates and nitrate meter sufficiency ranges. Conventional soluble fertilizer was formulated from inorganic salts with a 4:1 NO[subscript 3]-N:NH[subscript 4]-N ratio. Phosphorus (P) was held at 1.72 mm and potassium (K) at 0.83 mm for all treatment levels. The organic soluble fertilizer, fish hydrolyzate (2N–1.72P–0.83K), was diluted to provide the same N levels as with conventional treatments. Both fertilizers were applied at N rates of 0, 32, 75, 150, 225, 300, and 450 mg·Lˉ¹. Seedlings were transplanted and fertilizer application began at 18 days. Plants were harvested at 7 weeks (5 weeks post-transplanting) after receiving 15 fertilizer applications during production. Samples of the most recently matured leaves were harvested weekly and analyzed for petiole sap NO[subscript 3]-N and leaf blade total N concentration. Leaf count, leaf length, and chlorophyll content were also measured weekly. Fresh and dry weights were determined on whole shoots and roots. Optimum yield was achieved at the 150-mg·Lˉ¹ fertility rate with both conventional and organic fertilizers. Field and high tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the sufficiency ranges obtained from the greenhouse studies. Sufficiency levels of NO[subscript 3]-N for pac choi petiole sap during Weeks 2 to 3 of production were 800 to 1500 mg·Lˉ¹ and then dropped to 600 to 1000 mg·Lˉ¹ during Weeks 4 through harvest for both conventional and organic fertilizers sources. Total N in leaf tissue was less responsive to fertilizer rate effects than petiole sap NO[subscript 3]-N. Chlorophyll content was not useful in evaluating pac choi N status. These guidelines will provide farmers with information for leaf petiole sap NO[subscript 3]-N to guide in-season N applications.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of container color on substrate temperatures and growth of red maple and redbud
    (2013-06-05) Markham, John W., III; Bremer, Dale J.; Boyer, Cheryl R.; Schroeder, Kenneth R.; bremer; crboyer
    Heat stress is problematic to root growth in the production of containerized nursery plants. Container color may moderate effects of solar radiation on substrate temperatures. Studies were conducted near Manhattan, KS, to evaluate effects of container color on growth of roots and shoots in bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Four treatments among studies included containers colored flat and gloss white, silver, and black; a green container color treatment was added to the tree studies. Plants were grown in bark-based soil-less substrate and temperatures were measured at 5-cm depths in the south sides and centers. After 4 months, plant variables were measured. Roots were separated into three sections: core, north, and south. In the bean study, substrate temperatures at the south side of the container averaged lowest in flat and gloss white (≈36 °C) and greatest in black containers (50.3 °C). Root density at the south side was reduced in beans by 63% to 71% in black compared with flat and gloss white. In heat-sensitive maples, substrate temperatures at the south side of containers averaged up to 7.7 °C greater in black and green than in other treatments. Substrate temperatures in the center averaged 3.5 to 3.8 °C greater in black than in flat and gloss white, resulting in up to 2.5 times greater root density in flat and gloss white than in black containers. In heat-tolerant redbuds, the effects of container color on whole-plant growth were less evident. Data suggest that heat-sensitive plants benefit from being grown in white containers or painting outer surfaces of green and black containers white.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Description of clean chip residual forest harvest and its availability for horticultural uses in the southeastern United States
    (2013-05-31) Boyer, Cheryl R.; Gallagher, Thomas V.; Gilliam, Charles H.; Fain, Glenn B.; Torbert, H. Allen; Sibley, Jeff L.; crboyer
    Residual chipping material, also called clean chip residual (CCR), has potential use as a growth substrate in the nursery and greenhouse horticultural industries. A survey was conducted in the southeastern United States among companies conducting harvesting operations on pine (Pinus sp.) plantations for the production of pulpwood in the forest industry. Fourteen operators in four states (Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida) were visited to evaluate the on-site status of residual material. Sample analysis of CCR revealed that it was composed of ≈37.7% wood (range, 14.2% to 50.5%), 36.6% bark (range, 16.1% to 68.5%), 8.8% needles (range, 0.1% to 19.2%), and 16.9% indistinguishable (fine) particles (range, 7.5% to 31%). pH ranged from 4.3 to 5.5 for all locations and electrical conductivity (EC) averaged 0.24 mmho/cm. Most nutrients were in acceptable ranges for plant growth with the exception of three sites above recommended levels for iron and four sites for manganese. Survey participants estimated that ≈27.5% of the harvest site biomass was composed of CCR. Some harvesters were able to sell CCR as fuelwood to pulp mills, while others did not recover the residual material and left it on the forest floor (44.3% total site biomass). Operations in this survey included typical pine plantation chipping and grinding operations (harvesters), woodyards (lumber, fuelwood, etc.), and operations processing mixed material (salvage from trees damaged in hurricanes or mixed tree species cleared from a site that was not under management as a plantation). Residual material varied depending on the plantation age, species composition, site quality, and natural actions such as fire. Average tree age was 11.5 years (range, 8 to 15 years), while average tree stand height was 37.0 ft (range, 25 to 50 ft) and average diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.9 inches (range, 4 to 7 inches). Residual material on site was either sold immediately (28.6%), left on site for 1 to 3 months (28.6%), left on site for up to 2 years (7.1%), or not collected/sold (35.7%). Several loggers were interested in making CCR available to horticultural industries. Adequate resources are available to horticultural industries, rendering the use of CCR in ornamental plant production a viable option.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark, and peatmoss
    (2013-05-21) Boyer, Cheryl R.; Torbert, H. Allen; Gilliam, Charles H.; Fain, Glenn B.; Gallagher, Thomas V.; Sibley, Jeff L.; crboyer
    Rising costs of potting substrates have caused horticultural growers to search for alternative, lower-costmaterials. Objectives of this study were to determine the extent of nitrogen immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate, clean chip residual. Microbial activity and nitrogen availability of two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of clean chip residual were compared to control treatments of pine bark and peatmoss in a 60-day incubation experiment. Four rates (0, 1, 2, or 3mg) of supplemental nitrogen were assessed. Peatmoss displayed little microbial respiration over the course of the study, regardless of nitrogen rate; followed by pine bark, 0.95 cm clean chip residual, and 0.48 cm clean chip residual. Respiration increased with increasing nitrogen. Total inorganic nitrogen (plant available nitrogen) was greatest with peatmoss; inorganic nitrogen in other treatments were similar at the 0, 1, and 2mg supplemental nitrogen rates, while an increase occurred with the highest rate (3 mg). Clean chip residual and pine bark were similar in available nitrogen compared to peatmoss. This study suggests that nitrogen immobilization in substrates composed of clean chip residual is similar to pine bark and can be treated with similar fertilizer amendments during nursery production.
  • ItemOpen Access
    In-ground irrigation systems affect lawn-watering behaviors of residential homeowners
    (2013-03-28) Bremer, Dale J.; Keeley, Steven J.; Jager, Abigail L.; Fry, Jack D.; Lavis, Cathie C.; bremer; skeeley; jager; jfry; clavis
    Urbanization is increasing the land area covered with turfgrasses, which may have implications for water quantity and quality. The largest sector of turfgrass is residential lawns. Our objectives were to compare lawn-irrigation perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors of residential homeowners with and without in-ground sprinkler systems (IGS and NIGS, respectively); homeowners were surveyed in three Kansas cities, each with distinctive water quantity and quality issues. Surveys were mailed to 15,500 homeowners in Wichita, 10,000 in Olathe, and 5000 in Salina; the return rate was 11% to 13%. Homeowners with IGS watered more frequently than NIGS; 67% to 90% of IGS and 19% to 31% of NIGS homeowners watered two to three times per week or more. More IGS homeowners watered routinely and applied the same amount of water each time than NIGS homeowners, who mostly watered and adjusted watering amounts based on lawn dryness. More IGS than NIGS homeowners wanted their lawn green all the time, followed lawn-care guidelines, and considered their neighborhood appearance important. Among IGS homeowners, 41% to 54% claimed to know how much water their lawns required compared with only 29% to 33% of NIGS homeowners. However, 65% to 83% in both groups did not know how much water they applied when they irrigated. About 7% to 9% of homeowners swept or blew clippings or lawn-care products into streets or storm drains; this percentage was unaffected by whether they had IGS or not. All homeowners’ lawn irrigation knowledge and habits must be improved to help conserve water and protect water quality, but educational efforts should concentrate on IGS homeowners because they water more frequently.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Soil quality after eight years under high tunnels
    (2013-02-12) Knewtson, Sharon J. B.; Kirkham, Mary B.; Janke, Rhonda R.; Murray, Leigh W.; Carey, Edward E.; rrjanke; mbk; lmurray; tcarey
    The sustainability of soil quality under high tunnels will influence management of high tunnels currently in use and grower decisions regarding design and management of new high tunnels to be constructed. Soil quality was quantified using measures of soil pH, salinity, total carbon, and particulate organic matter (POM) carbon in a silt loam soil that had been in vegetable production under high tunnels at the research station in Olathe, KS, for eight years. Soil under high tunnels was compared with that in adjacent fields in both a conventional and an organic management system. The eight-year presence of high tunnels under the conventional management system resulted in increased soil pH and salinity but did not affect soil carbon. In the organic management system, high tunnels did not affect soil pH, increased soil salinity, and influenced soil carbon (C) pools with an increase in POM carbon. The increases in soil salinity were not enough to be detrimental to crops. These results indicate that soil quality was not adversely affected by eight years under stationary high tunnels managed with conventionally or organically produced vegetable crops.