Cattlemen's Day, 2007

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementation with undegradable intake protein increases utilization of low-quality forage and microbial use of recycled urea
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:34:47Z) Wickersham, T.A.; Cochran, R.C.; Wickersham, E.E.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Low-quality forage utilization (intake and digestion) is improved by protein supplementation. Typically, the recommendation is to select supplements that are high in degradable intake protein because this fraction of the protein directly addresses the ruminal nitrogen deficiency that exists when low-quality forages are fed. However, the low cost of byproducts (e.g., distiller’s grains) that are high in undegradable intake protein makes them an attractive source of supplemental protein even though the response per unit of supplemental protein is less for undegradable protein than for degradable protein. One of the primary barriers to utilizing highly undegradable protein sources as supplements is the lack of information regarding their ability to provide nitrogen to ruminal microbes and, ultimately, their effectiveness as protein supplements to cattle fed low-quality forage. Because the protein is not ruminally degraded, the use of undegradable protein supplements to meet ruminal nitrogen requirements depends on the ability to recycle nitrogen to the rumen in the form of urea. Subsequently, the urea is utilized as a nitrogen source by ruminal microbes. Our objective was to measure how much nitrogen is recycled as urea and how much recycled nitrogen is used to meet microbial growth requirements when increasing amounts of undegradable intake protein were provided to steers consuming prairie hay. This data will be useful in developing supplementation strategies for cattle consuming low-quality forage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Microbial use of recycled urea is dependent on the level and frequency of degradable intake protein supplementation
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:34:35Z) Wickersham, T.A.; Cochran, R.C.; Wickersham, E.E.; Moore, E.S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Protein supplementation increases utilization (intake and digestion) of low-quality forage and ultimately animal performance. Despite its effectiveness, protein supplementation is often expensive. One strategy to reduce the cost of supplementation is to supplement less frequently than daily, generally every other day or every third day. By reducing the frequency of supplementation, the cost of delivering the supplement is reduced. Reducing the frequency of supplementation is an effective strategy for reducing cost, and it only minimally impacts animal performance, with less frequent supplementation resulting in slightly greater losses of body condition score and body weight during the winter supplementation period. Urea recycling, the transfer of urea from the animal’s body to the gastrointestinal tract, has been suggested as a mechanism that allows infrequently supplemented cattle to perform similarly to cattle supplemented daily. However, little data is available to substantiate this claim, and such data would be useful in helping nutritionists better understand nitrogen metabolism in infrequently supplemented ruminants. Our objective was determine the role of urea recycling in meeting ruminal nitrogen requirements in infrequently supplemented cattle fed low-quality forage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementation with degradable intake protein increases low-quality forage utilization and microbial use of recycled urea
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:34:20Z) Wickersham, T.A.; Cochran, R.C.; Wickersham, E.E.; Gnad, D.P.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    A common production practice throughout the United States is to supplement protein to cattle consuming low-quality forage (forage with a crude protein content of less than 7%) in order to improve animal performance (i.e., maintain body condition score and body weight) during the winter. Protein supplementation increases forage utilization (intake and digestion) and cow performance by supplying ruminal microbes with protein that is essential for microbial growth. Increased microbial activity in turn provides sources of both protein and energy to the cow. In addition to the protein that is fed and degraded in the rumen, ruminants have the ability to recycle urea—the same compound found in fertilizer and cattle feed—to the rumen, where microbes can use the urea to fulfill a portion of their nitrogen requirement. Although nutritionists know that recycling occurs, we have inadequate data to describe this process and, subsequently, the contribution from recycled urea is not adequately included in our present cattle feeding systems. Previous research at Kansas State University has clearly demonstrated that the greatest response to supplemental protein occurs when the supplemental protein is highly degraded within the rumen, as the degradable fraction of protein is directly available to ruminal microbes. The current project’s objective was to measure how much recycled urea is used to meet the microbial nitrogen requirement when increasing amounts of degradable intake protein were provided to steers consuming low-quality forage. Researchers hoped to generate data useful in refining supplementation recommendations for cattle consuming low-quality forage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficacy of feed grade antibiotics in finishing diets containing distiller’ grains with solubles (DGS)
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:34:09Z) Loe, E.R.; Quinn, M.J.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; bdepenbu; jdrouill; mjq
    Rumensin and Tylan, both marketed by Elanco Products Company, have proved to be valuable feed additives when fed to finishing feedlot cattle. Rumensin was approved in the mid-1970s to improve feed efficiency and average daily gain. Rumensin frequently is used to manage digestive disturbances associated with otherwise erratic intakes of high grain diets. Tylan is fed as a preventative for liver abscesses. Rumen disorders such as acidosis and rumenitis are predisposing factors for liver abscesses. Erratic intakes of high grain diets along with poor bunk management are important factors that predispose cattle to ruminal disorders. Abscessed livers can have deleterious affects on animal performance, and in extreme situations lead to excess carcass trim and reduced carcass yields. Distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS) typically contain the protein, bran, and germ portions of the grain used in the fermentation process. In studies previously conducted at Kansas State University, corn germ fed at levels as low as 5% (dry basis) significantly reduced the incidence of liver abscesses. Since DGS also contain the corn germ, we hypothesized that a similar effect could be achieved by substituting DGS for corn. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Rumensin and Tylan on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass quality of yearling heifers fed diets based on steamflaked corn with and without 25% corn wet DGS.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Degermed corn distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS) have feed value similar to traditional distiller’s grains
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:33:58Z) Loe, E.R.; Quinn, M.J.; Corrigan, M.E.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; bdepenbu; jdrouill; mjq
    Rapid expansion of the fuel ethanol industry has greatly increased availability of distillery byproducts. Distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS) are the predominant byproduct of fermenting grains into fuel ethanol. During this process, starch is removed from the grain and the residual components of the grain are concentrated in the DGS. Improvements in the conversion of cereal grains to ethanol have been fueled by recent changes in the production process. Broin Companies (Sioux Falls, SD) have developed a technology that removes the germ before the fermentation process. The resulting byproduct contains more protein, less crude fat, and less phosphorus compared to traditional distiller’s grains. Feeding even modest levels of DGS can contribute to greater phosphorus excretion from feedlots, suggesting that strategies aimed at reducing phosphorus levels are well warranted. The objective of this study was to compare diets based on steam-flaked corn with and without DGS and to compare a highprotein, low-fat, low-phosphorus byproduct to more traditional distiller’s grains.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Optimizing use of distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS) in finishing cattle diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:33:46Z) Loe, E.R.; Corrigan, M.E.; Quinn, M.J.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; bdepenbu; jdrouill; mjq
    Rapid expansion of the fuel ethanol industry has increased availability of distillery byproducts. Distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS) are the predominant byproduct of fermenting grains to fuel ethanol. During this process, the majority of starch is removed from the grain, and residual components of the grain are concentrated into the distiller’s byproduct. Distiller’s grains with solubles contain the bran, which is high in fiber; the germ, which is high in fat; and the protein. Given the relatively high fiber content of DGS, it is conceivable that DGS could serve as a replacement for roughage in finishing diets. One of the major expenses incurred with production of distiller’s byproducts is the energy needed to dehydrate byproducts to acceptable moisture levels. Moisture content is critically important because it directly impacts transportation costs, storage characteristics, and handling properties of the feed. Dehydration of byproducts also may alter the nutritive value of the DGS. Generally speaking, extensive heating can result in the formation of indigestible complexes between carbohydrates and proteins, potentially reducing energy availability and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Consequently, there is significant potential for creating differences in nutritional value of DGS as a result of drying. Corn and sorghum are the predominant grains used for ethanol production in the United States. The type of grain used is largely determined by the geographical location of the ethanol plant. For example, sorghum grain frequently is produced as a dryland crop in low rainfall areas of the Plains, and corn is produced in the High Plains and Corn Belt regions. In some regions, both corn and sorghum DGS may be available for use in livestock feeding; however, relatively little data is available pertaining to comparative nutritional values of DGS derived from corn and sorghum. The objectives of this study were to compare 1) sorghum-based DGS with corn-based DGS, 2) wet DGS with dry DGS, and 3) performance of cattle fed diets containing DGS with and without added roughage.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dried distiller’s grains improve the performance of beef cattle intensively grazing early summer bluestem pasture
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:33:36Z) Epp, M.; Barnhardt, B.; Bryant, A.; Blasi, Dale A.; mepp; dblasi
    Distiller’s grains are byproducts of the production of ethanol from grains and are an excellent source of protein and energy for cattle. The most prevalent use of distiller’s grains is in the finishing beef production sector. There is limited research available that has evaluated effectiveness of distiller’s grains as a supplement for grazing beef cattle. Digestible protein content in grass begins to decrease in midsummer, resulting in lower average daily gains. The objective of this study was to measure the daily gain of yearling steers supplemented with different levels of dried distiller’s grains while grazing doublestock Flint Hills pastures.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wet distiller’s grains with solubles in beef finishing diets comprised of steam-flaked or dry-rolled corn
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:33:22Z) May, M.L.; Quinn, M.J.; Drouillard, James S.; Walker, Charles E.; jdrouill; mjq; chuckw
    The purpose of this experiment was to determine optimal levels of distiller’s grains in finished diets with steam-flaked corn or dry rolled corn. Distiller’s grains have been used extensively in regions of the country in which dry-rolled and high-moisture grains are prevalent. Production of fuel ethanol is now expanding into the High Plains, where feedlots more commonly use steam flaking. The cost to produce flaked corn is higher than the cost to produce dry rolled corn, and with rising energy costs (especially natural gas), this spread is becoming more dramatic. Comparing the use of wet distiller’s grains fed in conjunction with these grains provides useful information concerning optimum use level.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of feed efficiency rankings of heifers fed low and high energy dense diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:33:11Z) Christopher, J.A.; Marston, T.T.
    Concepts related to energy efficiency in cattle have been the basis for many research projects. Even though differences in individuals have long been recognized, little effort has been focused on the causes of the observed variations. The concept of residual feed intake was first introduced in 1963, and is calculated as the difference between actual feed intake by an animal and its expected feed intake based on body weight and growth rate. Residual feed intakes are phenotypically independent of the production traits used to calculate expected feed intake. Consequently, residual feed intake values can be useful in comparing individuals differing in level of production during a test period. These feed efficiency calculations have been shown to be a more accurate indicator of genetic variation in efficiency because they are independent of production traits. Thus, selection for improved residual feed intake makes it feasible to reduce feed intake without compromising growth performance. Hence, this trait could have great economic value to all segments of the beef industry. Energy density of cattle diets varies substantially and the selection for the ability to efficiently utilize high roughage diets does not guarantee efficient utilization of high grain diets. The objective of this study was to determine if energy density of the diet influences the ranking of cattle within a contemporary group and to determine if residual feed intake is influenced by changes in body composition and diet digestibility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Limit-feeding a high-concentrate diet may alter nutrient absorption
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:58Z) Wallace, J.O.; Miller, W.F.; Johnson, B.J.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; cdr3
    Feeding newly arrived cattle is commonly characterized by a few days of feeding longstemmed hay followed by a series of step-up diets, wherein concentrate levels are increased to promote ruminal adaptation to a highconcentrate finishing diet. This is done to give the rumen microbes time to adjust to larger amounts of readily fermentable starches in cereal grains. Rumen epithelial adaptation may be achievable by limit-feeding a finishing diet, with gradual increases in feed intake, until the cattle are on full feed. If this can be achieved without causing ruminal disorders and days off feed, then the cost of feeding cattle can be reduced. By limit-feeding, the higher roughage step-up diets are replaced with a single high-concentrate diet. The cost of grain is less than that of roughage, and there are decreased costs in terms of storage space, waste disposal (due to decreased manure production), and mixing and hauling of rations. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of a traditional step-up program versus a limit-fed finishing diet in terms of dry matter intake, acetate to propionate ratio, and ruminal dilution rate. Diet effects on volatile fatty acid concentration and absorption were also examined by using valerate as a marker for volatile fatty acid absorption.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Energy supply affects leucine utilization by growing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:46Z) Schroeder, G.F.; Moore, E.S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    In growing pigs, when protein supply is adequate, protein deposition increases with an increase in energy intake. However, when amino acid supply is limited, protein deposition does not respond to increases in energy intake. These relationships between energy, protein supply and protein deposition, which are observed in monogastric animals, have been described as protein- and energydependent phases of growth. These relationships indicate that energy supply does not affect the efficiency of amino acid utilization, allowing the assumption of a constant efficiency across a broad range of energy intake. Although this type of relationship is assumed for cattle by most of the nutrient requirements systems, our previous experiments indicate that energy supply increases the efficiency of methionine utilization, challenging the assumption of a single efficiency of amino acid use. It is unknown, however, if the positive effects of energy supply on methionine utilization are of similar magnitude for other amino acids. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of energy supply on leucine utilization in growing steers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementation of stocker steers grazing native flint hills pasture with a protein and mineral supplement increases average daily gains
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:37Z) Barnhardt, B.B.; Epp, M.P.; Bryant, A.M.; Guiroy, P.J.; Blasi, Dale A.; mepp; dblasi
    Supplementation of range cattle with minerals is a common management practice that is used to maximize performance. Flint Hills grasses provide an adequate amount of protein for the diet through the first half of a doublestock grazing period, but declining protein content of native grasses during the latter parts of the grazing season typically cause decreases in forage digestibility and daily gains. The goal of this experiment was to measure differences in performance between steers that were supplemented with a) loose salt for the entire grazing period, b) a stocker mineral supplement for the entire grazing period, or c) a stocker mineral supplement for the first half of the grazing period followed by supplementation with a combination of protein and mineral for the second half of the grazing season.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Validation of commercial DNA tests for beef quality traits
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:26Z) Van Eenennaam, A.L.; Li, J.; Thallman, R.M.; Quaas, R.L.; Gill, C.; Franke, D.E.; Thomas, M.G.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Gene mapping and discovery programs have resulted in the detection of numerous DNA ‘markers’ for various beef cattle production traits. Prior to commercializing genetic markers, it is important to validate their purported effects on the traits of interest in different breeds and environments, and assess them for correlated responses in associated traits. One of the biggest challenges in achieving this objective is the availability of cattle populations with sufficient phenotypic data to assess the association between various traits and newly discovered genetic markers. Results from such validation studies to date have not been widely published and genetic marker tests sometimes may be commercialized prior to the collection of field validation data. In addition, conflicting reports about some commercially available markers, as well as the recognized occurrence of well-proven bulls with a high EPD for a given trait but carrying two copies of the “wrong” (unfavorable) marker for that trait, have made some producers wary of investing in DNA-based testing. Producers want to know whether DNA-based tests perform in accordance with the claims of the marketing company and are interested in third-party, independent validation of these tests. The objective of this study was to validate three commercially-available genetic tests (GeneSTAR Quality Grade8, GeneSTAR Tenderness8, and Igenity TenderGENE9).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ultrasound sorting increases feedlot profitability
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:17Z) Garmyn, A.; Moser, Daniel W.; dmoser
    Feedlot managers often market entire pens as mixed groups, resulting in lower-quality, over-finished, or heavyweight carcasses. As the cattle industry has moved towards valuebased marketing systems, finding a costeffective tool that predicts future carcass merit and sorts cattle into outcome groups, thus producing a more uniform product at harvest, is of great interest to feedyard managers. The objective of this research was to determine the profitability of sorting feedlot cattle at reimplant time by using ultrasound and computer technology to group cattle into uniform market groups.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Mature open cows are rarely persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:32:06Z) White, Bradley J.; Larson, Robert L.; Thomson, Daniel U.; thomson
    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is an immunosuppressive virus affecting cattle in a multitude of ways. The varied presentation makes this disease difficult to identify in cow herds and the signs of a BVD infection may be very subtle. The syndrome causes economic problems by reducing herd fertility and increasing disease rates. The persistently infected (PI) animal is a unique reservoir for BVDv. These cattle are the result of in utero exposure to the noncytopathic biotype of BVDv prior to the development of a competent fetal immune system at about 125 days of gestation. Persistently infected animals are the primary method for the disease to propagate over time. PI cattle consistently shed BVD virus in relatively high levels and this exposure to the breeding herd can result in new PI calves. PI animals propagate BVDv in the herd and decrease pregnancy percentages compared to herds without PI animals. Farms must assess risk and manage for biosecurity when purchasing adult animals with an unknown history of disease exposure. Breeding herds that introduce new animals to the herd face the risk of importing a BVD PI animal. To mitigate this risk, PI animals must be accurately identified prior to herd introduction, but visual appraisal is not an accurate method of discovering these animals. Multiple diagnostic tests are available to determine the BVD status of incoming animals and all have an associated cost. Economic feasibility of determining the BVD PI status of animals depends to a large degree on the frequency with which PI animals occur in a population. Previous research has illustrated that PI calves entering the feedyard phase of production are fairly rare (about three per 1,000 calves); however, very little work has been done in mature animals. This project provides an estimate of BVD PI frequency for a specific population. This assessment should allow the formulation of a BVD-specific risk management plan which addresses the economic efficiency of testing mature females upon arrival. The primary objective of this research is to determine the prevalence of BVD PI animals in a population of young (3- to 6-year-old) cows purchased as non-pregnant mature animals. The results can guide biosecurity decisions for producers when purchasing and introducing this class of animal to the herd.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Despite NAIS concerns electronic identification use by cow-calf producers is increasing
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:31:56Z) Breiner, S.J.; Grau, S.A.; Barnhardt, B.B.; Bryant, A.M.; Boone, Kris; Blasi, Dale A.; Schroeder, Ted C.; Breiner, Ryan M.; glaenzer; dblasi; tcs; rbreiner
    The proposed U.S. National Animal Identification System has generated concerns among producers relative to implementation of the system. Many of these concerns stem from the USDA’s Bovine Identification Working Group’s recommendations to use electronic Identification Plan Bovine Working Group has recommended radio frequency identification as the technology to individually identify cattle. Understanding and implementing an electronic identification system for cow-calf producers is believed to be one of the greatest challenges of implementing the National Animal Identification System.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ammonia ion selective electrode and indophenol methods can be used successfully to evaluate meat contaminated by ammonia
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:31:44Z) Hijaz, F.; Smith, J. Scott; Kastner, Curtis L.; jsschem; ckastner
    Anhydrous ammonia is used as a refrigerant in large warehouses for cooling meats, fruits, vegetables, milk, and other products. Ammonia offers several advantages over other refrigerants; it does not harm the ozone layer and is a very efficient heat transfer agent. However, cold storage facilities sometimes have ammonia leaks. When this happens, products are held for an indeterminate period or are condemned because there is no official method to evaluate the degree of product contamination. In one case, a warehouse owner discarded a product because he could not prove that it was safe. His insurance company would not compensate him because he failed to prove that the product was not safe for human consumption. Over the last several years, many owners of refrigeration warehouses have experienced this problem. Foodborne illness outbreaks caused by ammonia have been reported twice in the United States. On October 30, 1985, a foodborne outbreak was reported in two elementary school children in Wisconsin. The children suffered from burning of the mouth and throat, as well as nausea, within one hour of drinking milk packaged in half-pint containers. Analysis of the remaining containers revealed that the milk was contaminated with ammonia at levels ranging from 530 ppm to 1,524 ppm. The pH levels of the contaminated milk ranged from 9.1 to 10.0, while normal milk pH ranges from 6.7-6.9. This was the first reported incident of acute ammonia poisoning by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. On November 25, 2002, another outbreak was reported in several dozen school children in Illinois. The children suffered from stomachache, nausea, and headache within one hour of eating chicken tenders. A laboratory investigation by the U.S. Department of Agriculture=s Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) showed that the chicken tenders were contaminated with ammonia at levels ranging from 552 ppm to 2,468 ppm. Assessment of ammonia damage to determine whether food is fit for human consumption is based on tentative methods because published information is limited. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), at least three different measurement methods should be used to assess contaminated products: ammoniacal nitrogen, sensory test, and pH measurement. The objective of this study was to evaluate assays for ammonia detection so that they could be used for rapid in-plant testing of meat contaminated by ammonia refrigerant leaks and to determine the ammonia background of different meat products using the ammonia ion selective electrode (ISE).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Thermal process for jerky provides proper lethality for controlling pathogens
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:31:32Z) Roberts, M.N.; Getty, Kelly J. K.; Boyle, Elizabeth A. E.; kgetty; lboyle
    In 2003, the New Mexico Department of Health linked an outbreak of Salmonellosis with consumption of beef jerky. Due to the increasing commonality of foodborne illness associated with dried meats, in 2004 USDA/FSIS published the Compliance Guideline for Meat and Poultry Jerky Produced by Small and Very Small Plants, which addresses the issues of how to obtain adequate lethality and verify adequate drying. Small meat businesses that produce jerky products must validate that their processes achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a > 6.5-log reduction of Salmonella. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of thermal processing temperatures and times on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in chopped and formed beef jerky.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Formation and safety of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone, a unique radiolytic product in irradiated beef
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:31:21Z) Gadgil, P.; Smith, J. Scott; pgadgil; jsschem
    Treating food with ionizing radiation improves product safety and helps maintain quality. The main selling point of irradiated foods is that it is microbially safe. Beginning in October 2002, companies could petition the FDA for permission to use terms like "electronic pasteurization" on the labeling for irradiated foods. Consumers are already familiar with pasteurization and they associate the term with a safe product. There needs to be a protocol in place to test for irradiation to verify that products meet regulatory requirements. Being able to differentiate between irradiated and nonirradiated food will aid in proving the authenticity and safety of irradiated products and in detecting mislabeled products. In November 2003, Excel Corporation (Dodge City, KS) voluntarily recalled 26,000 pounds of ground beef that was mislabeled as irradiated. The incident appears to be the first case of its kind, and it emphasizes the need for a method that can reliably distinguish between irradiated and non-irradiated foods. At the doses currently approved for food irradiation, the only unique radiolytic products that have been identified are alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs). These are cyclic compounds formed by rearrangement of fatty acids when exposed to irradiation. They are found in a wide variety of lipid-containing foods and have been universally accepted as indicators of irradiation exposure. Recent studies have raised the possibility of 2-ACBs being weak genotoxins or cancer promoters when tested at high concentrations. Numerous long-term and short-term toxicity tests have demonstrated the safety of irradiated foods. In spite of these reports, some claim that irradiated foods are unsafe and have used the previous studies as proof that alkylcyclobutanones are carcinogenic. Therefore, more studies evaluating the toxicity of these chemicals at high and low concentrations are needed to conclusively prove their safety. Accordingly, the objectives of this research were to evaluate the formation of 2- dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), the alkylcyclobutanone formed from palmitic acid, in irradiated ground beef, and to assess its toxicity.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Antioxidants may reduce heterocyclic amines in commercially marinated beef steaks
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-22T22:31:11Z) Ameri, F.; Smith, J. Scott; jsschem
    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds found at a level of parts per billion in grilled fish and meats. Since the connection between consumption of dietary carcinogens and risk of different cancers in humans has been established, it is necessary to explore effective inhibitors that can prevent or reduce the formation of HCAs in cooked meats. Cooking meat with natural antioxidants decreases or eliminates HCAs in meat. Our objective was to study the inhibition of five HCAs in beef steaks marinated using commercial ingredients that are natural antioxidants.