Management Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Examining the corporate social responsibility orientation in developing countries: An empirical investigation of the Carroll's CSR pyramid
    Ehie, Ike C.; iehie; Ehie, Ike C.
    We investigate the seminal Carroll's corporate social responsibility (CSR) hierarchy using a sample from Nigerian companies. Carroll (1991) outlined four major components of CSR in a cumulative framework with economic responsibilities at the base and philanthropic responsibilities at the top of the pyramid with the legal and ethical components in between. The relevance of Carroll's CSR pyramid in the African context has been questioned and the need for an empirical study on the appropriateness of the CSR pyramid in Africa has been called for. This study is in response to this call to empirically test the relevance of the Carroll's CSR pyramid in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The study also tests the proposition that CSR is viewed through the lens of philanthropy in Africa. The findings empirically validate Visser's (2006) proposition that the philanthropic component weighs heavier than both the legal and ethical components of the CSR pyramid. The results provide a basis for the reliance on corporate philanthropy and guide CSR managers in sub-Saharan Africa in understanding the orientation that would lead to a more effective CSR implementation. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Simulation Readings Series SIMULA’s Place in Simulation History
    McHaney, Roger W.; mchaney
    SIMULA (SIMulation LAnguage) is a computer programming language that was conceptualized, designed, and created at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Originally, SIMULA was intended to facilitate development of models for complex real world systems. It contained elements of both a standardized system description and a programming language. With system concepts based on Nygaard's experience working with operations research projects in the early 1950's, SIMULA was implemented as a discrete event computer simulation language. Initial constructs were influenced by symbolic notation used in the 1950's to construct flow diagrams representing system operation and rules governing system behaviors [1]. Early foundations for SIMULA first appeared in 1961. By this time, Nygaard had developed a fragmentary set of ideas that relied on Monte Carlo techniques to represent random variation in the occurrence of delays experienced by customers passing through a network of processes. These processes consisted of a queue portion and a service portion. The service portions were constructed with a series of statements governing the action of passive entities or customers that used these stations. Customers were created at a given station and after completing service, would be transferred to the queue of another station. After obtaining and completing service there, the process would be repeated. These transfers would continue until the customer had traversed the network and left the system. The timing and sequence of these stations would determine the number of customers that could be served over a period of time [2]. Although Nygaard had experience with computers, he did not have sufficient knowledge to develop his own programming language. He recruited software expert Ole-Johan Dahl to help him move SIMULA from theory to implementation. In the spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl released the first formal proposal for SIMULA. They decided that the best way to make it a real programming language was to link it to an existing, strong language. ALGOL 60, a popular programming language in Europe at the time was selected and SIMULA was developed as an extension, which allowed discrete event simulation construction. Later, SIMULA was expanded and re-implemented as a full-scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA has never achieved wide usage, the concepts developed within the language have been highly influential on modern computer programming. SIMULA has been credited with introducing objectoriented programming concepts like classes, objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding [3]. SIMULA's primary use is to develop computer models of systems such as ticket counters, production lines, manufacturing systems, and concurrent processing of computer programs. Today a wide variety of discrete event computer simulation software packages, such as GPSS/H, SIMAN, and ProModel, are used to create similar applications [4–8]. For further reading on simulation in general see Robinson [9–11].
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of supply chain analytics on operational performance: a resource-based view
    (2014-11-06) Chae, Bongsug K.; Olson, David; Sheu, Chwen; bchae; csheu
    This study seeks to better understand the role of supply chain analytics (SCA) on supply chain planning satisfaction and operational performance. We define the architecture of SCA as the integration of three sets of resources, data management resources (DMR), IT-enabled planning resources and performance management resources (PMR), from the perspective of a resource-based view. Based on the data collected from 537 manufacturing plants, we test hypotheses exploring the relationships among these resources, supply chain planning satisfaction, and operational performance. Our analysis supports that DMR should be considered a key building block of manufacturers’ business analytics initiatives for supply chains. The value of data is transmitted to outcome values through increasing supply chain planning and performance capabilities. Additionally, the deployment of advanced IT-enabled planning resources occurs after acquisition of DMR. Manufacturers with sophisticated planning technologies are likely to take advantage of data-driven processes and quality control practices. DMR are found to be a stronger predictor of PMR than IT planning resources. All three sets of resources are related to supply chain planning satisfaction and operational performance. The paper concludes by reviewing research limitations and suggesting further SCA research issues.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of advanced analytics and data accuracy on operational performance: a contingent resource based theory (RBT) perspective
    (2014-06-12) Chae, Bongsug; Yang, Chenlung; Olson, David; Sheu, Chwen; bchae; csheu
    This study is interested in the impact of two specific business analytic (BA) resources—accurate manufacturing data and advanced analytics—on a firms’ operational performance. The use of advanced analytics, such as mathematical optimization techniques, and the importance of manufacturing data accuracy have long been recognized as potential organizational resources or assets for improving the quality of manufacturing planning and control and of a firms’ overall operational performance. This research adopted a contingent resource based theory (RBT), suggesting that the moderating and mediating role of fact-based SCM initiatives as complementary resources. This research proposition was tested using Global Manufacturing Research Group (GMRG) survey data and was analyzed using partial least squares/structured equation modeling. The research findings shed light on the critical role of fact-based SCM initiatives as complementary resources, which moderate the impact of data accuracy on manufacturing planning quality and mediate the impact of advanced analytics on operational performance. The implication is that the impact of business analytics for manufacturing is contingent on contexts, specifically, the use of fact-based SCM initiatives such as TQM, JIT, and statistical process control. Moreover, in order for manufacturers to take advantage of the use of data and analytics for better operational performance, complementary resources such as fact-based SCM initiatives must be combined with BA initiatives focusing on data quality and advanced analytics.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Estimating professional service productivity: theoretical model, empirical estimates and external validity
    (2014-03-21) Wacker, John; Hershauer, James; Walsh, Kenneth D.; Sheu, Chwen; csheu
    Productivity of professional service is difficult to measure, due to the high degree of customization, variable throughput time, and high degree of labor intensity. Using the complex design engineering for large construction projects as an example, this study reviews the common professional service productivity measurement problem of determining surrogate measures of inputs and outputs. This research was sponsored by the construction industry, and required a team of academic and construction executives to work closely to develop a procedure and a comprehensive empirical model for measuring engineering design productivity. The model addresses the complexity of productivity estimation arising from the interactions among the multiple outputs and variability of labor hours, both requiring surrogate measures. The mathematical model was statistically estimated using data from a large number of design engineering organizations. The statistical results and the model were externally validated in several organizations for their pragmatic usefulness. The proposed methodology is applicable to those service industries where there are high degrees of output variability and highly skilled professionals working to achieve complex objectives.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The link between eco-innovation and business performance: a Taiwanese industry context
    (2014-02-28) Cheng, Colin C. J.; Yang, Chen-lung; Sheu, Chwen; csheu
    In practice, there are various types of eco-innovation. While each type of innovation has its own attributes, determinants, and contribution to business performance, it is not effective to implement eco-innovation programs without a holistic view. This study draws from the resource-based view theory to investigate inter-relationships among three types of eco-innovation (process, product, organizational) and their relative impact on business performance. Using structural equation modeling with 121 samples collected from Taiwan Environmental Management Association, we find that eco-organizational innovation has the strongest effect on business performance. Additionally, eco-process and eco-product innovations partially mediate the effects of eco-organizational innovation, and eco-product innovation mediates eco-process innovations' effects on business performance. Business performance is directly and indirectly affected by eco-organizational, eco-process, and eco-product innovations. The findings suggest that, in order to develop effective eco-innovation programs, managers must understand the interdependence and co-evolutionary relationships between different types of eco-innovation. Overall, this study extends the discussion of innovation to the area of environmental innovation or eco-innovation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dilemmas, conspiracies, and Sophie’s choice: vignette themes and ethical judgments
    (2014-02-12) Mudrack, Peter E.; Mason, E. Sharon; pmudrack
    Knowledge about ethical judgments has not advanced appreciably after decades of research. Such research, however, has rarely addressed the possible importance of the content of such judgments; that is, the material appearing in the brief vignettes or scenarios on which survey respondents base their evaluations. Indeed, this content has seemed an afterthought in most investigations. This paper closely examined the vast array of vignettes that have appeared in relevant research in an effort to reduce this proliferation to a more concise set of overarching vignette themes. Six generic themes emerged from this process, labeled here as Dilemma, Classic, Conspiracy, Sophie’s Choice, Runaway Trolley, and Whistle Blowing. Each of these themes is characterized by a unique combination of four key factors that include the extent of protagonist personal benefit from relevant vignette activities and victim salience in vignette descriptions. Theme identification enabled inherent ambiguities in vignettes that threaten construct validity to come into sharp focus, provided clues regarding appropriate vignette construction, and may help to make sense of patterns of empirical findings that heretofore have seemed difficult to explain.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ethical judgments: what do we know, where do we go?
    (2014-02-12) Mudrack, Peter E.; Mason, E. Sharon; pmudrack
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions' ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of ethical judgments (primarily, but not exclusively, the Multidimensional Ethics Scale). Our review of these studies indicated a preponderance of inferences and conclusions unwarranted by empirical evidence (likely attributable at least partly to inconsistent nomenclature). Moreover, ethical judgments related consistently to few respondent characteristics or any other variables, emergent relationships may not always be especially meaningful, and much research seems inclined to repetition of already verified findings. Although we concluded that knowledge about ethical judgments seems not to have advanced appreciably after decades of investigation, we suggested a possible path forward that focuses on the content of what is actually being judged as reflected in the myriad of vignettes used in the literature to elicit judgments.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance appraisal satisfaction: the role of feedback and goal orientation
    (2013-12-20) Culbertson, Satoris S.; Henning, Jaime B.; Payne, Stephanie C.; satoris
    Employee satisfaction with performance appraisal (PA) plays a large role in the perceived effectiveness of PA. We examined the joint effects of feedback sign (positive or negative) and three goal orientation dimensions (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid) on PA satisfaction. Results revealed the negative relationship between negative feedback and PA satisfaction was stronger for those higher in performance-prove (PPGO), performance-avoid, and learning goal orientation. Additionally, the relationship between positive feedback and PA satisfaction was stronger for individuals low on PPGO and weaker for individuals high on PPGO. Implications for enhancing PA reactions are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficacy of purchasing activities and strategic involvement: an international comparison
    (2013-06-12) Yang, Chen-Lung; Lin, Ru-Jen; Krumwiede, Dennis; Stickel, Elizabeth; Sheu, Chwen; csheu
    The purchasing function plays a strategic role in a company’s ability to compete. As globalization continues to increase, what becomes interesting is the effect that national culture may have on purchasing activities and, ultimately, manufacturing competitiveness. This study examines the effects of purchasing activities and the purchasing function’s involvement with corporate strategy on manufacturing competitiveness as it is affected by national differences. In particular, we are interested in the research question: Do purchasing theories built on samples from mainly North American and Western European countries apply in other countries with different cultural contexts? The statistical results provide evidence that the engagement and efficacy of purchasing activities and strategic involvement within companies vary by national culture. Moreover, a particular cultural dimension, Long-term orientation, is significantly related to the efficacy of purchasing activities and strategic involvement. This finding has important implications from the perspective of purchasing decision-making in global operations. Specifically, top managers from different nations could adopt and implement similar purchasing activities, but those activities could lead to different outcomes depending on the culture. The paper concludes by reviewing research limitations and suggests further examination of operations management theories.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Relative impact of different ERP forms on global manufacturing organizations: an exploratory analysis of a global manufacturing survey
    (2013-03-06) Olson, David L.; Chae, Bongsug K.; Sheu, Chwen; csheu
    There are many types of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, ranging from very large and very functional vendor products such as provided by SAP and Oracle, through in-house systems, and smaller vendor products. Thus there is a substantial range of enterprise computing support available for manufacturing organizations and their manufacturing planning and control. The Global Manufacturing Research Group (GMRG) has collected a systematic survey of manufacturing organizations around the world, providing a picture of manufacturing operations. We have taken GMRG data and organized it around seven levels of ERP functionality, and analyzed this data in terms of effectiveness in terms of how ERP systems are used in global manufacturing firms, their role in accomplishing manufacturing planning and control, the relationship between ERP forms and data management practices, the satisfaction firms have across ERP forms, and finally relative perceived benefits and costs across ERP forms.
  • ItemOpen Access
    What makes outsourcing effective - a transaction-cost economics analysis
    (2012-09-26) Yang, Chenlung; Wacker, John G.; Sheu, Chwen; csheu
    This study extends the discussion of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and outsourcing to the selection of governance mechanisms for an effective outsourcing transaction. Specifically, our objective is to provide a better understanding as to how firms follow up on their outsourcing decisions to enhance manufacturing competitiveness through the governance mechanism, such as contract and relational adaptation (buyer-supplier cooperation). A TCE-based outsourcing model is developed to depict the relationships among key TCE variables, transaction attributes, governance mechanisms, and manufacturing competitiveness. Based on the data collected from 969 manufacturing plants in 17 countries, we found significant mediated effects from contractual clauses and relational adaptation. Firms in our sample rely on either or both types of governance mechanisms to safeguard uncertainties and opportunism inherent in outsourcing, which enhances manufacturing competitiveness. The important managerial and research implication is that, for making an outsourcing decision, it is insufficient to merely examine the transaction attributes without recognising how various forms of governance mechanisms can be implemented to enhance outsourcing effectiveness.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Direct and contextual effects of individual values on organizational citizenship behavior in teams
    (2012-08-31) Arthaud-Day, Marne L.; Rode, Joseph C.; Turnley, William H.; marthaud
    We utilize Schwartz’s values theory as an integrative framework for testing the relationship between individual values and peer-reported organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in teams, controlling for sex, satisfaction, and personality traits. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling in a sample of 582 students distributed across 135 class project teams, we find positive, direct effects for achievement on citizenship behaviors directed toward individuals (OCB-I), for benevolence on citizenship behaviors directed toward the group (OCB-O), and for self-direction on both OCB-I and OCB-O. Applying relational demography techniques to test for contextual effects, we find that group mean power scores negatively moderate the relationship between individual power and OCB-I, while group mean self-direction scores positively moderate the relationship between self-direction and both OCB-I and OCB-O.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A heuristic for designing manufacturing focus units with resource considerations
    (2012-07-19) Sheu, Chwen; Krajewski, Lee J.; Cai, Gangshu; csheu; gcai
    This paper presents a model of the plant-within-a-plant (PWP) design problem and demonstrates a heuristic for analyzing the problem. Although the benefits of a manufacturing focus have been articulated in the literature, methods for implementation with consideration for resource requirements have not been developed previously. In this study, we discuss the importance of including resource considerations and propose a methodology that can help managers arrive at a facility design with a high degree of focus and minimum resource needs. A heuristic is developed that incorporates the concept of order-winning criteria and volume into the focus design. The heuristic not only recognizes the effects of conflicting manufacturing tasks, but also considers resource costs and material flows between PWP units. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology offers managers the opportunity to generate and assess alternative PWP designs, which are otherwise unavailable. Overall, this research provides an analytical framework for further research in focused manufacturing.
  • ItemOpen Access
    In-store referrals on the internet
    (2012-03-21) Cai, Gangshu; Chen, Ying-Ju; gcai
    In the contemporary e-business, a retailer may display the links to the competing retailers directly (direct referral), or display the referral link provided by a third-party advertising agency (third-party referral), and these referrals may be either one-way or two-way. In this paper, we show that the referrals may align the retailers’ incentives and facilitate implicit collusion, and one-way referral may result in a win-win situation, thereby providing an economic rationale for these seemingly puzzling phenomena. Using third-party referrals may enhance the retail-ers’ collusion despite the potential disutility and revenue leakage, and referral services may be detrimental for the consumer welfare.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The non-existence of equilibrium in sequential auctions when bids are revealed.
    (2011-10-25) Cai, Gangshu; Wurman, Peter R.; Chao, Xiuli; gcai
    Sequential auctions of homogeneous objects are common in public and private marketplaces. Weber derived equilibrium results for what is now a classic model of sequential auctions. However, Weber’s results are derived in the context of two particular price quote assumptions. In this paper, we examine a model of sequential auctions based on online auctions, in which, after each auction, all bids are revealed. We show that a pure-strategic, symmetric equilibrium does not exist, regardless of whether the auctions are first- or second-price, if all bids are revealed at the end of each auction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Joint logistics and financial services by a 3PL firm
    (2011-10-13) Chen, Xiangfeng; Cai, Gangshu; gcai
    Integrated logistics and financial services have been practiced by third party logistics (3PL) firms for years; however, the literature has been silent on the value of 3PL firms as credit providers in budget-constrained supply chains. This paper investigates an extended supply chain model with a supplier, a budget-constrained retailer, a bank, and a 3PL firm, in which the retailer has insufficient initial budget and may borrow or obtain trade credit from either a bank (traditional role) or a 3PL firm (control role). Our analysis indicates that the control role model yields higher profits not only for the 3PL firm but also for the supplier, the retailer, and the entire supply chain. In comparison with a supplier credit model where the supplier provides the trade credit, the control role model yields a better performance for the supply chain as long as the 3PL firm’s marginal profit is greater than that of the supplier. We further demonstrate that, for all players, both the control role and supplier credit models can outperform the classic newsvendor model without budget constraint.