Wildcat Creek Watershed

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Watershed Assessment for River Stability and Sediment Supply Applied to Wildcat Creek Watershed in Riley County, Kansas
    (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Regional and Community Planning. Kansas State University, 2012-05-16) Buffington, Jared; Clark, Jeffrey; Denlinger, Danielle; Engelke, Jennifer; Musoke, Elizabeth; Stout, Breanna; Sullivan, Justine; Tucker, Terry; Barnes, Philip L.; Sanders, Christopher; lbarnes; whisker
    Wildcat Creek Watershed (approx. 99 square miles) in Riley County, Kansas had significant flooding in recent years. A Watershed Assessment of River Stability and Sediment Supply (WARSSS, Rosgen, 2006) of Wildcat Creek was performed to determine locations that are contributing to the flooding. WARSSS is split into three levels: Reconnaissance Level Assessment (RLA), Rapid Resource Inventory for Sediment and Stability Consequence (RRISSC), and Prediction Level Assessment (PLA). The assessment for Wildcat Creek completed to date focuses on the first two phases, RLA and RRISSC evaluations. The RLA level focuses on creating sections by similar land use and land cover to get an overall understanding of the watershed. The RRISSC level divides the watershed into nineteen sub-watersheds and takes a more detailed approach to the assessment. The WARSSS assessment is typically done on smaller watershed scale, but was adapted to encompass the entire Wildcat Creek Watershed. The assessment provided the foundation for six masters reports. The reports focused on potential solutions to the flooding and improving Wildcat Creek Watershed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating the aesthetic and amenity performance of vegetated stormwater management systems
    (Kansas State University, 2012-04-30) Buffington, Jared
    Stormwater management within the urban context has evolved over time. This evolution has been categorized by five paradigm shifts (Novotny, Ahern, & Brown, 2010). The current paradigm of stormwater management utilizes hard conveyance and treatment infrastructure designed mainly to provide protection for people from typical 1-5 year frequency storms. Consequently, this infrastructure is sometimes unable to deal with larger sized, 50 to 100 year events which can have serious consequences. Manhattan, Kansas has suffered multiple flooding episodes of severe proportion in the past decade. The dilemma of flooding within the Wildcat Creek watershed is a direct example of the current paradigm of stormwater management. This once ecologically healthy corridor is fed by conveyance systems that do not address the hydrologic needs of the watershed; decreasing the possibility for infiltration and groundwater recharge. Vegetated stormwater management systems must be implemented to help increase infiltration and address flooding problems within the Wildcat Creek watershed. The aesthetic performance of designed landscapes has a tremendous effect on the appreciation and care given to them by the surrounding population (Gobster, Nassauer, Daniel, and Fry, 2007). Landscape architecture has the ability to aid in the visual appeal and ecological design of vegetated stormwater management systems (SMS) by utilizing existing frameworks that address aesthetic reaction of the outdoor environment (Kaplan, Kaplan, and Ryan, 1998). This document evaluates design alternatives of vegetated SMS in order to discern a set of variables that inform the relationship between each systems aesthetic and amenity performance and their ecosystem and hydrological performance. Identified variables are combined into a set of guidelines for achieving different levels, or patterns of aesthetic performance found within the Understanding and Exploration Framework et al. (Kaplan, Kaplan, and Ryan, 1998) and amenity performance listed by Echols and Pennypacker’s Amenity Goals et al. (2007) through vegetated SMS. These design guidelines illustrate how aesthetic theory can be applied through ecological systems in order to increase the coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) of existing sites. Creating spaces where ecological and socio-cultural activities can coexist addresses the local characteristics of aesthetics with the universal dilemma of stormwater management.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A hydrologic approach to environmental golf and hazard design within the Wildcat Creek Watershed
    (Kansas State University, 2012-04-27) Clark, Jeffrey
    The City of Manhattan, Kansas is looking for possible solutions to mitigate flooding along Wildcat Creek within the Wildcat Creek Watershed. Recent flooding has caused substantial property damage. The project presented here brings recreation into the community by designing a golf course in a location along Wildcat Creek that addresses flooding issues, increases infiltration, and improves water quality. The golf industry has a long way to go to become more sustainable. The world is facing many challenges related to water and hydrology. Much of the opposition towards the golf industry is because critics see it as environmentally unfriendly. Golf has the potential to become a catalyst for change in the way we design and develop the landscape around us. The golf industry can become a leader in sustainable design while taking on hydrological concerns within the community. This project demonstrates the application of a golf course to help mitigate flooding along Wildcat Creek with the use of vulnerability and suitability analysis as a guide to site selection. This method of analysis illustrates the process of identifying and protecting areas vulnerable to degradation by designing a golf course in a suitable location to utilize water hazards to store flood water, provide more floodplain access to effectively increase infiltration capacity, reduce runoff rates, and improve water quality. The report explains the relationship between golf course design and environmental practices as they relate to hydrology on a theoretical site in Manhattan, Kansas. By integrating golf course design theory and environmentally sound stormwater management practices, water hazards on the golf course can become the fundamental elements used in strategizing the design of the golf course. A conceptual plan was created to maximize the infiltration capacity of the site as well as allow increased floodplain access, and provide a place to store flood water. A golf course can then be properly sited and designed hydrologically around the use of water hazards to help reduce flooding and improve water quality within the watershed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implementation of a rainwater harvesting network to manage stormwater runoff in Manhattan, Kansas
    (Kansas State University, 2012-04-27) Musoke, Elizabeth
    The City of Manhattan, Kansas has been subject to intense flooding in the last couple of years. Areas of the city, within the Wildcat Creek Watershed, have been adversely affected. The City of Manhattan and stakeholders from various walks of life are looking for solutions to alleviate flooding within the area. This Master’s Project looks into rainwater harvesting as one of the solutions to help reduce stormwater runoff and contribute to the alleviation of flooding within the Watershed. Rainwater harvesting is increasingly being recognized as an effective way to reduce stormwater runoff. The project explores the potential benefit of using a network of rainwater harvesting elements, namely rain barrels and cisterns supplemented by rain gardens and other infiltration methods to reduce runoff in the City of Manhattan, Kansas. To assess the benefit of using rainwater harvesting in the City, a neighborhood scale site was chosen and divided into land use types. Three phases were used to assess the impact and implementation of rainwater harvesting. Phase I calculates the volume of runoff generated from each land use type and how much of that runoff can be harvested from the rooftops. The values from the neighborhood scale analysis were then extrapolated to see the impact of rainwater harvesting on a larger scale. Phase II looks at the configuration of a rainwater harvesting system for the structures in each land use type and rainwater reuse options. Finally, Phase III looks at policies, regulations and incentives that can be employed by the City of Manhattan to help encourage rainwater harvesting. This Master’s project seeks to educate the City and its residents about the benefits of rainwater harvesting as a stormwater management tool and provide steps towards potentially using rainwater harvesting as a way to reduce runoff, and help alleviate flooding in the Wildcat Creek Watershed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Burning bridges, reinventing the American lawn: a strategic approach to residential stormwater management
    (Kansas State University, 2012-04-27) Sanders, Christopher L.
    Wildcat Creek watershed in Riley County, Kansas has been scene to increasingly severe and damaging flooding in recent years. Significant flood events in the summer of 2010 and 2011 have prompted the community to action. One of many areas of concern is addressed by this project in order to facilitate community efforts to reduce future flooding. Residential stormwater best management practices (BMPs) implemented by property owners to reduce the amount of stormwater runoff entering the Wildcat Creek watershed is the focus of this project. An analysis of the residential development typology in the City of Manhattan within the Wildcat Creek watershed guides stormwater BMP implementation strategies. GIS identified residential development types based on land use, land cover, and parcel size. Single family residential and high density multi-family developments are the areas of focus. Rational method stormwater calculations were conducted on one sample site selected from each of four areas identified as unique within the residential context. The four sample sites include large lot single family, small lot single family, traditional single family, and high density multi-family. The current stormwater runoff situation was constructed for residential areas of Manhattan within the Wildcat Creek watershed using these samples. Sample sites were evaluated four times. Existing stormwater runoff amounts for each site were determined. A minimal BMP treatment in the form of rain gardens was applied. Then a moderate BMP treatment including rain gardens, rain barrels, and native plantings was applied. The fourth evaluation was on a high level of rainwater BMP treatment including rain gardens, rain barrels, cisterns, native vegetation, bioretention, and permeable paving. Post-BMP runoff calculations were performed. The resulting data was compared to the pre-BMP stormwater data to determine the impact of varying degrees of BMP treatments. This work produced a series of BMP strategies specifically suited to the Wildcat Creek watershed. These site specific strategies are a valuable resource for community members to help reduce flooding in the watershed. The resulting calculations are also valuable tools for community leaders determining the value of stormwater regulations that may require or promote stormwater BMPs in Manhattan.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wetlands: a flooding solution
    (Kansas State University, 2012-04-26) Engelke, Jennifer
    Wildcat Creek in Riley County, KS has repeatedly flooded in the past 5 years causing significant damage to the watershed, private property, and community livelihood. Strategically placing wetlands throughout the watershed can help reduce stormwater runoff, increase infiltration, and increase wildlife habitat. A watershed assessment was completed to determine the best location for wetlands in the Wildcat Creek Basin. Two watershed-scale plans for wetlands were derived and evaluated based upon estimation of stormwater runoff and quality of wildlife habitat. Wetlands were then examined and incorporated into existing land cover and land uses at the site-scale for an existing golf course. Three proposals for the nine hole course (for best golf experience, wildlife habitat, and wetland creation) were developed to reflect expansion options from a Par 30 to a Par 34 or 35 course. Each proposal was evaluated based on wetland capacity from estimated stormwater runoff, quality of wildlife habitat, playability of the golf course for all skill levels, and cost of implementation. After this evaluation, the wetland proposal was moved forward and further developed into a proposal that is best suited for the site. Following wetland implementation, stormwater runoff can be collected on-site to prevent runoff and flooding at the golf course and downstream. In order to solve flooding problems in the Wildcat Creek watershed, a series of wetlands can be implemented at the smaller site scale, like the Wildcat Creek Golf Course site, throughout the watershed. Wetlands are one component of a larger stormwater management system that is needed to reduce flooding of the Wildcat Creek and the flood-prone area of Manhattan, KS.