Dairy Day, 1995

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Dairy herd profitability: effects of milk yield and cost of production on net returns
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Delano, F.D.; Langemeier, Michael R.
    Dairy cow herd enterprise records from Kansas Farm Management Association farms over the past 4 years have shown an increase in returns to labor and management from $252 to $355 per cow. Returns for higher milkproducing cows were over $400 each. Cost per hundred weight of milk produced per cow for the higher-producing herds compared with lower-producing herds was about the same. In 1994, for every extra $1.00 spent on feed and other variable costs, the higher-producing herds earned $1.28.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Management strategies: reproduction
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Smith, John F., 1962-; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jfsmith; jss
    Despite the negative effects of milk production on some reproductive traits, calving intervals between high- and low-producing groups varied by only 9 days (414 vs 423). First-service conception rates were 8 percentage points greater in the low-producing group than in the high-producing group. However, the percentage of cows not yet inseminated that were more than 120 days in milk was 18 percentage points greater in the low- than highproducing herds. When Kansas dairy herds in the DHIA program are evaluated, the higher producing herds seem to have lower firstservice conception rates and more services per conception. However, managers of high-producing herds are doing a better job of servicing cows inseminated earlier in lactation and putting replacements into the milk string at a younger age. This occurs because managers of high-producing herds have reproductive records and heat detection programs that allow them to detect a higher percentage of the cows in heat before 120 days in milk. Fine tuning the reproductive management program also can improve the profitability of a dairy operation. The reproductive losses in high-producing herds are considerably less than those in lowproducing herds ($139 vs $203). There are no magic formulas in establishing a good reproductive program. Combining good records, diligent heat detection, and sound artificial insemination technique can increase the profitability of a dairy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance of cows in the lactation following rbST treatment
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Dunham, James R.
    The first 305-2×-ME lactation record (after 45 days in milk) projected by the DHI program in 28 cows was not different from their first projected lactation record in a previous lactation in which recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) injections were begun by the 90th day of lactation. These results suggest when rbSTtreated cows are fed and managed properly during lactation and the dry period, no negative effect of rbST or so-called "burn out" occurs.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Economics of using rbsT
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Smith, John F., 1962-; jfmith
    As new technologies such as rbST become available to dairy producers, evaluating the profitability of those technologies on individual farms is essential. Costs associated with rbST include purchase of product, feed, and labor. The costs of product and labor are independent of milk response. However, feed cost will increase as the milk production response to rbST increases. If the mailbox milk price is $10, approximately 7 lb more milk per day will be required to break even. It is essential that dairy producers have the management in place to achieve a profitable milk response to rbST.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of synchronized-ovulation protocols and traditional synchronized-estrys programs using prostaglandin F2(alpha)
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Kobayashi, Y.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Five treatments were developed to compare a new synchronized ovulation protocol, which programs follicular development with the regression of the corpus luteum, and traditional prostaglandin protocols that only control the regression of the corpus luteum. The synchronized ovulation treatment, which requires no heat detection before a fixed-time insemination, tended to decrease pregnancy rates compared to a similar synchronized ovulation treatment in which inseminations occurred at a detected estrus (30 vs 50%). The traditional two-injection prostaglandin protocol that synchronized estrus by regression of the corpus luteum had a greater pregnancy rate (57%) than similar two-injection prostaglandin protocols in which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or Cystorelin®) was used to induce ovulation of the follicle before one fixed-time insemination (21%) or one fixed-time insemination was given in the absence of estrus (18%). The synchronized ovulation protocol improved pregnancy rates compared to prostaglandin protocols with fixed-time inseminations, but in either protocol, in which ovulation or estrus was synchronized, pregnancy rates were always greater when inseminations were performed after detected estrus.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparisons of commercial frozen yogurt with ksu formulation
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Kim, J.H.; Jeon, I.J; Forbes, M.S.; Schmidt, Karen A.; kschmidt
    Ten samples of vanilla frozen yogurt were purchased in Kansas and compared to a highprotein, KSU formulation. The KSU formulation had similar solids, fat, and sugar contents as the commercial samples. All commercial samples had lower protein (almost less than half) content and more lactose, and almost all samples had fewer lactic acid bacteria than the KSU formulation. All but one commercial sample had lower b-galactosidase activity than the KSU formulation. This may reflect the differing lactic acid bacterial populations in the frozen yogurts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Observations with heatwatch to detect estrus by radiotelemetry in cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Smith, M.W.; Hoffman, D.P.; Lamb, G.C.; Kobayashi, Y.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    In Experiment 1, the effectiveness of two estrus-detection methods (visual observation vs radiotelemetric, pressure-sensitive, rumpmounted devices [HeatWatch®]) were compared in heifers. A pressure sensitive device containing a battery-operated radio transmitter was affixed to the tailhead rump area of each of 41 heifers. Activation of the sensor sent a radiotelemetric signal to a microcomputer via a fixed radio antenna. Heifer identification, date, time of day, and duration of standing events were recorded. Estrus was synchronized, and heifers were observed visually for signs of estrus. Number of standing events during estrus, determined by the radiotelemetric device, averaged 50.1 ± 6.4 per heifer, with the duration of estrus ranging from 2.6 to 26.2 hr (average = 14 ± .8 hr). Number of standing events and duration of estrus were greater, but duration of standing events was similar, for heifers identified in estrus by both methods compared to those identified by the radiotelemetric device alone, indicating that heifers with a limited number of standing events and estrus of shorter duration were missed by visual observation. In Experiment 2, the average number of standing events during estrus was greater when estrus was induced early (days 6 to 9) in the cycle by PGF compared to those 2a induced later (after day 10) in the cycle. Regardless of when injections of PGF2a occurred during the cycle, duration of standing events and duration of estrus were unaffected. Radiotelemetric devices are useful in identifying a greater proportion of heifers in estrus (increased efficiency) compared to visual observation with similar accuracy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Synchronized ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandin F and fixed-time insemination
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Kobayashi, Y.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Summary Lactating Holstein cows and replacement heifers were treated with a novel synchronized ovulation protocol, which involves one fixedtime insemination without heat detection. One injection of GnRH (Cystorelin®) was given, followed in 7 days with an injection of PGF2a (Lutalyse®). Approximately 32 to 36 hr later, ovulation was induced with a second injection of GnRH, and one fixed-time insemination was given 18 hr later. Control cattle were given one injection of PGF and inseminated at observed 2a estrus. Pregnancy rates measured by palpation between 38 and 52 days after insemination in controls (47.1%) were slightly, but not significantly, greater than those in the synchronized ovulation treatment (35.3%). The treatment worked much better in lactating cows than in virgin heifers. This treatment may be particularly well suited to cows in which estrus is rarely observed, as well as for synchronizing first or repeat services.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance of lactating cows fed procressed grain sorghum and expeller soybean meal
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Shirley, John E.; etitgeme; jshirley
    Forty-four Holstein cows were used to measure milk production responses to dryrolled vs processed grain sorghum and expeller vs solvent soybean meal (SBM) in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments. Processing of grain sorghum decreased feed intake 5%, but increased milk by 3%, protein by 4%, and efficiency by 7%, with fat being unaffected. Replacement of solvent SBM with expeller SBM had little effect on intake, but increased milk by 3%, fat by 5%, and efficiency by 4%, with protein being unaffected. The processing of grain sorghum seems to be a valuable method to improve its nutritive value for lactating cows. Total milk and fat yield, but not protein yield, were increased in response to feeding expeller SBM in the place of solvent SBM.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Improving silage quality
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Bolsen, K.K.; Young, Matthew A.; Siefers, M.K.; Huck, G.L.
    Results at Kansas State University from over 200 laboratory-scale trials and 28 farmscale trials showed that bacterial inoculants consistently improved preservation efficiency and nutritive value of the ensiled material. In contrast, anhydrous ammonia or urea adversely affected dry matter recovery and production per ton of crop ensiled. Economic analysis also favored the use of bacterial inoculants over nonprotein-nitrogen additives. Research conducted using corn, sorghum, and alfalfa silages showed that sealing the exposed surface dramatically reduced top spoilage losses in bunker, trench, or stack silos.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Inclusion of fat in diets for early lactating holstein cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Scheffel, Michael V.; Shirley, John E.; jshirley; scheffel
    Twenty-four Holstein cows were used to study the effect of dietary fat on milk production and metabolic traits. Whole cottonseed and tallow were used as fat sources and substituted into the control diet on an isocaloric basis. Chopped alfalfa hay and grain sorghum silage constituted the forage in all diets. Treatments were balanced for parity, body weight, and previous lactation milk production or genetic potential (primiparous cows). Cows were housed in a tie-stall barn beginning 4 weeks prepartum, fed similar diets, and assigned to treatment on the day of calving. Diets were formulated to provide 3.3, 4.8 and 6.5% fat. Diets actually measured 2.1, 3.8, and 5.3% fat. Serum urea nitrogen and cholesterol increased with increased dry matter intake and with increasing dietary fat. Serum triglycerides decreased at parturition and were similar among diets through 20 days postpartum. Thereafter, cows fed the 2.1% fat diet had fewer serum triglycerides than cows receiving 3.8% and 5.3% fat diets. Similar differences were observed with regard to mammary uptake of triglycerides. Serum glucose peaked at calving in all cows and tended to be similar among diets. Glucose uptake by the mammary gland increased with milk production. Cows fed the 5.3% fat diet had less urine ketones by 3 weeks postpartum. Weeks to positive energy balance were 8, 7, and 5 for cows fed 2.1, 3.8, and 5.3% fat diets, respectively. Dry matter intake in kg/day and as a percentage of body weight tended to be greater in the high fat group after 3 weeks of lactation. Milk yield (total and 3.5% FCM) was similar among diets through 10 weeks of lactation. Thereafter, lactation curves in cows fed the 5.3% fat diet were more persistent. Similar trends were observed for milk fat and protein. Milk protein percentage was slightly depressed on the 5.3% fat diet, but protein yield increased.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cash operating income and liquidity management for dairy farms
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-05) Elliott, B.D.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Featherstone, Allen M.; mlange; afeather
    Net cash flow measures the amount of cash remaining after all cash expense obligations are satisfied. This cash is available for additional farm investment, off-farm investment, family living, and additional debt repayment. A 5- year average monthly cash flow statement was used to determine net cash flow for 19 Kansas dairy farms. Results indicated that excess cash and debt were used primarily to invest in machinery, vehicles, and nonfarm assets and increase the allocation for family living. Investments in land and buildings increased moderately during the study period.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Management strategies: the nutrition program
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-05) Dunham, James R.
    Reduced milk prices and greater feed costs dictate that dairy farmers carefully manage their nutrition program in order to maintain profitable milk production. Reducing feed cost by feeding less will result in lower milk production and less income over feed cost. Some by-product feeds are less expensive than traditional grain mixes and can be fed to reduce feed cost and maintain greater income over feed cost. Poorer quality hay is less expensive than better quality hay, but income over feed cost will be reduced when low quality hay is purchased and fed.