Hospitality Management Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Past and present streams in international hospitality research
    Lin, Naiqing; Ottenbacher, Michael; nlin
    According to definition, modern hospitality management could be defined as classified business management based on six multidimensional core industry like restaurants, hotels, travel, attractions, conventions, and leisure with its constituent and relevant interdependent relationships. In this chapter, we reviewed the growth of international hospitality management, and the new emerged managerial challenges related to the research of international hospitality management. We also provided a brief review of history and summarized the current findings from empirical research related to research methodology and managerial problems. Nevertheless, this chapter serves as a brief introduction to the background, history, and challenges currently facing international hospitality management. This chapter will help guide readers to the relevant background and research topics about to come in the later chapters of this book. With an increased understanding of the multi-national business behavior, future hospitality managers will find the knowledge to embrace in an increasing difficult challenge and find scientific solutions in a complexing political, diversified social-cultural and legal systems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leading By Example: A Three-Wave Sequential Mixed Method Food Safety Study Item
    Lin, Naiqing; nlin
    Foodservice employees that fail to adhere to food safety practices may directly introduce pathogens that can cause illness and death. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore managerial practices that influence employee’s food safety behaviors, using a two-phase sequential mixed-method approach. A total of 642 foodservice employees currently working in the United States participated in a survey about food safety knowledge and food safety behavioral intentions. Among these, 263 were invited to answer a set of open-ended qualitative questions, 36 participants responded to the questions, and two participants were selected for in-depth interviews. The majority of the employees are optimistic about their daily food safety practices. However, cross-analyses noted that the majority of employees failed the quiz regarding basic food safety knowledge. Further analyses documented that time-constraint and lack of managerial role modeling in daily food safety practices can post a considerable threat to maintaining food safety behaviors.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leading by example: A three-wave sequential mixed method food safety study
    Lin, Naiqing; Paez, Paola; nlin
    (Best Paper Award/ 253 submissions) According to the most recent government data, approximately 61% of foodborne illness outbreaks were attributed to lack of personal hygiene and improper food handling by employees in the foodservice industry. Foodservice employees fail to adhere to safe food preparation practices, may directly introduce pathogens that can cause illness and death. Few qualitative studies have examined the barriers of effective managerial practices that influence employee’s food safety behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to explore employees’ perspectives about managerial practices that influence their food safety behaviors.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Destination personality: how to make the metaphor simpler?
    (2019-03-11) Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R.
    A well-established destination personality facilitates differentiation of destinations and helps to create emotional loyalty and increase repeat visitors. Although destination personality and brand marketing have become increasingly important, there is still a lack of applied research that simplifies the salient dimensions of destination personality. This study applies parsimony analysis to help establish the simplest possible determination of destination personality to identify the top destination personality traits of Kansas. Participants (N = 209) were recruited by an online marketing company, and descriptive statistics, Garrett ranking analysis, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were conducted. The top brand personalities of Kansas identified amongst all visitors included hardworking and reliable. Compared to first-time visitors, repeat visitors perceived Kansas as contemporary, outdoorsy, and less sincere.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Are employees with higher organization-based self-esteem less likely to quit? A moderated mediation model
    Lin, Naiqing; Jang, Jichul; Roberts, Kevin R.; kevrob; Lin, Naiqing; Jang, Jichul; Roberts, Kevin R.
    This study focuses on striving for achievement as an important antecedent forming Organization-Based Self-Esteem (OBSE) and the relationship between achievement striving and turnover intention in the hospitality industry. More specifically, employees with higher achievement striving traits show a stronger negative correlation between OBSE and turnover intention, through organizational commitment. An online survey was distributed to restaurant employees; 160 valid responses were analyzed. An analytic framework based on confirmatory factor analysis and logic regression was used to examine the hypotheses. The results show that organizational commitment fully mediated the relationship between OBSE and turnover intention, and higher levels of individual achievement striving significantly modified the conditional indirect relationship. The results showed that the mediation model and achievement striving strength accounted for 15.7% of the variance in turnover intention at the 50?th, 75?th, and 90?th level and was most effective for low OBSE employees. Theoretical implications and future research are included.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers
    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R.; nlin; kevrob; Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R.
    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, simple hand washing is one of the most effective methods to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.1,2,3 The literature shows a strong and consistent association between personal hand hygiene and reduced gastrointestinal disease, respiratory illness, and absenteeism in the work force.1,4,5 Hands are the primary mode of transmission for many infectious diseases, particularly among military personnel.6 Hand hygiene is a proven measure of controlling infection in military settings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effectiveness of Healthy Menu Changes in a Nontrainee Military Dining Facility
    Belanger, Bethany A.; Kwon, Junehee; jkwon
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing the Initial Military Training (IMT) menu standards in nontrainee dining facilities (DFAC) on food selection, nutrient intake, and satisfaction of soldiers. Participants were recruited during lunch before and 3 weeks after the menu changes. Direct observations, digital photography, and plate waste methods were used to assess soldiers’ food selection and consumption, along with a survey assessing soldiers’ meal satisfaction under the two menu standards. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were used to summarize and compare the data. A total of 172 and 140 soldiers participated before and after menu changes, respectively. Soldiers consumed 886 kcals (38.6% from total fat and 11.2% from saturated fat) and 1,784 mg of sodium before the menu change. Three weeks after the change, all figures improved ( p < 0.01). The percentage of healthier food selections mirrored food items served at the DFAC and improved after the intervention ( p < 0.001). There were no differences observed in overall satisfaction and meal acceptability after the intervention. Our findings suggest implementing the Initial Military Training menu standards in nontrainee Army DFACs is feasible and has the potential to improve the overall healthfulness of soldiers’ food selection and consumption.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Food Safety Training Needs at Evacuation Shelters Operated by Faith-Based Organizations
    Kwon, Junehee; Zottarrelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojn; jkwon
    The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 ± 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 ± 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Exploration of Effects of Chinese Cultural Values on the Attitudes and Behaviors of Chinese Restaurateurs Toward Food Safety Training
    Liu, Pei; Kwon, Junehee; jkwon
    Foodborne illness is a challenge in the production and service of ethnic foods. The purpose of the study described in this article was to explore variables influencing the behaviors of U.S. Chinese restaurant owners/operators regarding the provision of food safety training in their restaurants. Seventeen major Chinese cultural values were identified through individual interviews with 20 Chinese restaurant owners/operators. Most participants felt satisfied with their previous health inspections. Several expressed having difficulty, however, following the health inspectors’ instructions and in understanding the health inspection report. A few participants provided food safety training to their employees due to state law. Lack of money, time, labor/energy, and a perceived need for food safety training were recognized as major challenges to providing food safety training in Chinese restaurants. Videos, case studies, and food safety training handbooks were the most preferred food safety training methods of Chinese restaurant owners/operators, and Chinese was the preferred language in which to conduct the training.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Analysis of School Food Safety Programs Based on HACCP Principles
    Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin L.; Sneed, Jeanie; Kwon, Junehee; Olds, David; Cole, Kerri; Shanklin, Carol W.; jkwon
    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine how school districts have implemented food safety programs based on HACCP principles. Specific objectives included: 1. Evaluate how schools are implementing components of food safety programs and 2. Determine foodservice employees food-handling practices related to food safety. Methods: The study included a national sample of 34 school districts in eight states, including 11 small, 9 medium, 6 large, and 8 mega districts. Six researchers collected data on-site in each of the school's food production facilities. Data collection instruments included a Facility Observation Form, a Food Safety Observation Form, and a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) Verification Checklist. All instruments were pilot tested prior to use. The research protocol was reviewed and approved by the University's Institutional Review Board prior to data collection. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. A recent health inspection report was collected from each school and qualitative data were also compiled. Results: Of 34 schools visited, food safety plans were available in 33 schools, although few were customized to the specific school. Most of the recommended standard operating procedures related to HACCP were used. However, researchers found few records of corrective actions. The health inspection scores for most schools were high, which reflects that food safety practices had been adequately operationalized. Overall, school facility observations were positive. Approximately 60% of employees failed to wash their hands as recommended by the 2009 Food Code. Most employees washed their hands before preparing food, but many times, improper hand washing procedures were used. Applications to Child Nutrition Professionals: School foodservice employees performed well, but there are opportunities for food contamination to occur. Directors and managers can utilize this data to evaluate their food safety programs and practices to assure they are achieving their intended goal to serve safe and wholesome food to schoolchildren.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices
    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin L.; jkwon
    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial responsibilities from a midwestern state. Responses to guided, open-ended questions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed to identify common themes. Results: Participants felt that the prevalence and types of food allergies affecting school nutrition programs have increased in recent years. They also felt that communicating with other stakeholders and verifying physicians' recommendations regarding food allergies can be difficult. Participants agreed that training could improve food allergy knowledge and awareness of their employees and improve safety of children with food allergies. However, only a few reported providing specific food allergy training for employees. Cost, scheduling difficulties, and time constraints were identified as barriers to providing food allergy training. Participants preferred having credentialed professionals to conduct employee food allergy training. Support from school administrators and witnessing a food allergic reaction in the cafeteria would trigger a decision to initiate food allergy training. Applications to Child Nutrition Professionals: Improved communication between school foodservice staff and other stakeholders is crucial to better serve students with food allergies. A well-planned, structured training program could better prepare school foodservice employees serving students with food allergies. CNPs might need continuous guidance and assistance regarding employee food allergy training. State agencies and professional organizations should work with CNPs to develop and communicate best practices for prevention and management of food allergic reactions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    School Nutrition Directors’ Perceptions of Technology Use in School Nutrition Programs
    Pratt, Peggy; Bednar, Caralyn; Kwon, Junehee; jkwon
    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the types of technology/software currently used by Southwest Region school nutrition directors (SNDs) and assessed their perceptions of barriers to purchasing new technology/software. In addition, the importance of future technology/software acquisitions in meeting school nutrition program (SNP) goals was examined. Methods: A questionnaire was developed by the researchers, validated by an expert panel using the Delphi technique, converted to an online format, and pilot tested. A randomized group of School Nutrition Association SNDs and members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics School Nutrition Services Dietetic Practice Group listserv participated. Participants (N = 111) identified technology/software currently used, their perceived computer skill level, and other demographics. Likert-type scales were used to rate agreement/disagreement with barriers to purchasing new technology/software and the importance of future technology/software acquisitions. Multivariate analyses were used to determine differences in SND ratings according to demographic variables. Results: SNDs who completed the survey used a variety of technology/software. The majority of respondents worked in suburban or metropolitan communities and perceived themselves as having advanced/expert computer skills. Older SNDs, SNDs with less education, and SNDs serving fewer meals per day found inadequate funds, outdated computers, and lack of information technology and administrative support to be barriers to acquiring new technology/software. However, SNDs with higher perceived computer skills (p = .003) and higher education levels (p = .073) were more likely to disagree with these barriers. SNDs with higher perceived computer skills utilized the most technology/software (p = .000) and were more likely to see future technology/software acquisitions (p = .551) as important to meeting SNP goals. Applications to Child Nutrition Professionals: Although technology is widely used by many SNDs, some SNDs have not implemented software applications that could help reduce costs and improve productivity. The school nutrition industry needs influential leaders who can develop local mentorship programs, initiate computer skill building classes, and encourage online training for this group of SNDs.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Motivating Foodservice Employees to Follow Safe Food Handling Practices: Perspectives From a Multigenerational Workforce
    (2014-12-02) Arendta, Susan W.; Roberts, Kevin R.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Arroyo, Paola Paez; Ellis, Jason D.; Meyer, Janell; kevrob; jdellis
    Hospitality managers deal with a very diverse workforce, employing workers from up to four different generations, which poses a challenge for managers as they attempt to train and motivate employees. Food safety is of particular concern in foodservice organizations. This study assessed the generational differences related to foodservice employees’ perceptions of their supervisors’ roles in food safety and how supervisors could improve their effectiveness. A mixed methods approach (survey and focus groups) was used. Qualitative data analysis revealed four themes: consistency, training, managers’ behaviors, and employees’ behaviors. Based on these, best practices are suggested for motivating a multigenerational workforce.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Educating future managers on how to help motivate employees to follow food safety practices.
    (2014-05-08) Roberts, Kevin R.; Arendt, Susan W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Ellis, Jason D.; Paez, Paola; kevrob; jdellis
    Current and future foodservice managers’ perceptions about motivating employees to practice safe food handling were examined as a basis for developing recommendations to improve dietetics and hospitality educators’ pedagogy related to employee motivation. Perceptions about teaching and delivery methods also were explored. Four focus groups were conducted in Iowa and Kansas; two with future managers (students) and two with current managers. Five major themes emerged from the qualitative data analysis: communication, customization, operations, training methods/materials, and human resources. Each motivator is discussed and suggestions are provided for enhancing teaching and learning in foodservice management programs.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of observing employees for food safety compliance rates.
    (2014-05-08) York, Valerie K.; Brannon, Laura A.; Roberts, Kevin R.; Shanklin, Carol W.; Howells, Amber D.; Barrett, Elizabeth B.; kevrob; vyork; shanklin; geist78
    Research investigating foodservice employees’ compliance with food safety guidelines often utilizes observational methodology where an observer is present and recording employees’ behaviors as they work. Research must determine if the observer’s presence influences employees who are trained in food safety and those who are not. A group who had received a four‐hour ServSafe® food safety training course and a control group were included in the study (N=252). Both groups’ compliance rates were higher during the first hour of the observation compared to the last two hours of the observation. Implications for foodservice managers, researchers, and health inspectors are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficacy of cooling beef taco meat and steamed rice in United States school foodservice operations
    (2014-01-27) Olds, David A.; Roberts, Kevin R.; Sauer, Kevin L.; Sneed, Jeannie; Shanklin, Carol W.; kevrob; ksauer; jsneed; shanklin
    Food is frequently cooked, cooled and reheated for service at a later time in schools and other foodservice operations in the United States [US]. Inadequate cooling of food has been associated with foodborne illness. The purpose of this study was to determine if practices commonly used in school foodservice to cool beef taco meat and steamed rice would meet US Food and Drug Administration [FDA] 2009 Food Code standards. Prepared products cooled at 5.08 cm and 7.62 cm depths in stainless steel counter pans were placed uncovered in a walk-in refrigerator, a walk-in freezer (beef taco meat only), and a walk-in refrigerator with an ice water bath. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including mean times and temperatures, with standard deviations. Cooling beef taco meat in a walk-in freezer at a depth of two inches and cooling steamed rice in a walk-in refrigerator at a depth of two inches with an ice water bath were the only methods that met both FDA Food Code time and temperature standards. Results suggest that challenges and risks exist with common methods used to cool food, especially if food volume is not reduced before cooling. Specific protocols for cooling procedures based on types of food and equipment are needed. These findings and recommendations are important for foodservice professionals who oversee food services and cooling practices in schools and other operations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of qualitative research in foodservice organizations: a review of challenges, strategies, and applications
    (2012-09-24) Arendt, Susan W.; Roberts, Kevin R.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Ellis, Jason D.; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell; kevrob; jdellis
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the challenges encountered when conducting qualitative research in foodservice operations and to discuss the strategies to overcome the identified challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The researchers conducted food safety observations, interviews, and focus groups with more than 600 foodservice employees and managers. The researchers encountered multiple challenges including institutional review board approvals, managements’ willingness to participate, and organizational and cultural barriers. Findings – Obtaining in-depth, credible information through observations, interviews, and focus groups adds depth and breadth to hospitality studies. However, given high industry turnover, recruitment and retention throughout a study is problematic. Moreover, researchers encounter many barriers as they obtain data, such as establishing authenticity and overcoming Hawthorne and halo effects. Originality/value – Strategies to increase participation and thereby improve qualitative research have not been previously addressed in the hospitality literature
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predicting congregate meal program participation: applying the extended theory of planned behavior
    (2012-06-22) Lee, Kuei-I; Gould, Rebecca A.; ragou
    Authorized under Title III-C of Older Americans Act, congregate meal programs provides individuals 60 years of age and older nutritious meals in senior centers. Declining participation in recent years underscores the need to understand factors that affects participation. This study applies the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explain the intention of community-dwelling older adults to participate in congregate meal programs. One additional variable, past behavior, was added to increase the prediction power of participation intention. A total of 238 participant surveys were collected and analyzed. Seven hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. The data fits the TPB model well. All predictor variables (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior control and past behavior) had a significant positive effect on participation intention. Perceived behavior control (PBC) had the greatest prediction power on intention. Based on the research findings suggestions were made to increase congregate meal program participation.
  • ItemRestricted
    Restaurant managers’ beliefs about food safety training: An application of the theory of planned behavior
    (2012-03-01) Roberts, Kevin R.; Barrett, Betsy B.; kevrob; ebb
    Little research has been conducted in applying a theoretical framework to explore restaurant managers’ beliefs about food safety training. Understanding managers’ perceptions of employee food safety training is integral in assuring food safety education is provided for food handlers. The goal of this study was to investigate the antecedents that affect restaurant managers’ willingness to support food safety training for employees utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Results revealed that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control play a key role in determining if a manager or supervisor will offer training to employees. Implications for research and model development are discussed.