K-State Electronic Theses, Dissertations, and Reports, Prior to 2004

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In the year 2004, K-State began to accept digital-only submissions of theses, dissertations, and reports (TDRs) and phasing out of accepting paper versions.This collection contains only a small portion of the TDRs submitted by K-State students prior to 2004. These items were digitized to preserve deteriorating paper copies or were added with permission of the author. Many items available in this collection are from the years 1969 to 1989.


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Now showing 1 - 20 of 11578
  • ItemOpen Access
    An analysis of the usefulness of readership research conducted by a midwestern daily newspaper
    (Kansas State University) Gill, Karen L.
    This case study attempted to determine whether a readership survey of a Midwestern daily newspaper was conducted and prepared according to accepted survey research standards for sampling the target population, dealing with nonresponse and writing survey questions. It also attempted to determine whether the readership survey results provided the newspaper's editors with the type of information they needed and wanted to know about reader and nonreader in order to make decisions about the newspaper's content. Information was gathered by conducting individual interviews with the survey's lead researcher and newspaper' executive editor and a focus group interview with the newspaper's other decision-making editors. Also the readership un e questionnaire and results report were compared to accepted survey research standards. The study 's findings were that the readership survey failed to meet survey research standards in each of the areas studied. The sampling methods used to recruit respondents could create bias for groups such as those at home more often and those with higher incomes. The survey questions were plagued with ambiguity, unintended meaning effects of social desirability and the use of various confusing rating scales. Because the newspaper executive editor reviewed the readership survey questions and had access to the results, the survey seemed to provide him with useful information. But the other editors were not involved in creating the survey or writing the questions. Their knowledge of the survey and its results was so limited as to render the survey practically useless to them.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Methodology for appraisal of dynamic e-commerce business models
    (Kansas State University, 2001) Rai, Manish K.
    E-commerce is transforming the way products, services and information are bought, sold and exchanged. Companies are discovering that a well-planned and executed e-commerce presence is crucial to overall business success. Statistics show that e-commerce is growing very rapidly. According to Goldman Sachs Investment Research [May 2000], the expected worldwide gross value of commerce transactions being done online is to grow to 7.6 trillion by 2005 from 225 billion in 1999. One of the most significant determinants of online business performance is the business model. The business model spells out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain. Given the central role the business models play in a firm's performance, it is important to be able to understand how one business model compares with another. When making choices about the components and linkages of a business model, a firm needs to be able to determine which business model alternatives are best. A good analysis of competitors also ought to include a comparison of business models. This thesis aims at developing a methodology to compare the e-commerce business models with respect to pre -defined parameters, which signify the robustness of any e-commerce business model. After a detailed literature review of the broad business model categories (B2B, B2C, C2B and C2C) and current e-commerce business models, generic models were selected and a taxonomy for the models was developed. Parameters for appraisal of the business models were identified. Each attribute for all the business models was assigned a numerical score (based on sub-attributes and qualitative factors) on a bipolar scale and normalized weights were assigned for each attribute. Different Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) techniques were applied to the decision matrix to rank the business models, and the results of the techniques were then compared. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of changes in input variables on the ranking of business models. Programs in C language were developed for carrying out both MADM and Sensitivity Analysis simulations. Results show that the Auction model is the strongest business model while Advertising model is the weakest.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Application of neural networks to automatically classify rotational parts into part families
    (Kansas State University, 1990) Desai, Hiren H
    This thesis details the procedure for automatic classification of rotational parts into part families using an artificial neural network. The classification is based on geometric features and tolerances. The neural network paradigm employed belongs to a class of Adaptive Resonance Theory Models. The training of the network was done on a commercially available software package. The major conclusions that can be drawn from this research are: 1) The ART2 paradigm in neural networks is capable of automatically grouping parts into part families. 2) The number of groups increased with an increase in vigilance of the system. The number of groups also decreased with a decrease in vigilance. 3) The order in which the parts are input to the system has no effect on the system performance. Thus the overall conclusion of this thesis is that neural networks are indeed an appropriate tool to automatically group rotational parts into part families.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The future of the Tuttle Creek Reservoir project, Kansas
    (Kansas State University, 2003) Archer, Jon
    River fragmentation in the form of dams and reservoirs has changed the environment nationally. These reservoirs are only temporary, because sedimentation will cause many to become unusable by the middle of the twenty-first century. A number have become multi -resource facilities, and as such require holistic management. Despite the continued change of processes impacting dams and reservoirs, and uses of them, there is generally a lack of forward planning beyond the next five -to -ten years on the part of the federal and state organizations involved. This lack of planning leaves the far-reaching benefits, and populations used to the presence of the dams and reservoirs, as vulnerable, and recreational users under threat of losing a much -enjoyed resource. Using the case of the Tuttle Creek project in northeastern Kansas, this thesis investigates the background situation of big dam construction in the United States of America, including policies and changing perceptions. Investigating the dynamic factors impacting the project, including sedimentation, seismic activity, global climate change, recreational uses and wildlife habitation, alternative future uses are discussed. In this thesis, three possible futures are identified and evaluated, including removing the dam, reengineering it, and a no -action alternative. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks are the major management organizations involved in the project. Successful execution of ensuing decisions for the future requires collaboration, something that could be difficult in the face of differing structures and management strategies.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Women, medicine and science: Kansas female physicians 1880-1910
    (Kansas State University, 1990) Brackney, Gail Louise
    Female physicians in the nineteenth century faced opposition from the medical profession and from societal norms that dictated specified roles for females in Victorian society. Females who practiced medicine in Kansas struggled with these problems which were manifest nationwide. They clung to traditional therapeutics compatible with their domestic role extended into the public sphere. The advent of new bacteriological principals seemed to contradict the justification women's place in medicine. Six female physicians were selected for this study to represent practitioners within the state. Their medical education patterns reflect the overall pattern in the state, and their practices spanned the years of the study, 1880 to 1910. Chosen for the study were Dr. Deborah K. Longshore, Dr. Maggie McCrea, Dr. Ida Barnes, Dr. Frances Storrs, Dr. Sara Greenfield, and Dr. Frances Harper. . .
  • ItemOpen Access
    An evaluation of parking on the Kansas State University campus
    (Kansas State University, 1994) Vellanki, Bharath Kumar
    The rapidly increasing student enrollments, early concentrated development on inner campuses, and the wide spread growth in the use of private automobile have all combined in recent years to magnify the problems of access, circulation, and parking on the K-State campus. Kansas State University has been experiencing the problem of parking on campus since 1977. Restrictions for freshman to park on campus has created on-street parking problems and traffic congestion in residential areas within six blocks of campus. This study evaluated increasing the surface parking lots, constructing multi-level parking garages, and implementation of a shuttle system to solve the parking problem on campus. This study also considered the long range university planning goals in order to anticipate future potential sites for new buildings, possible additions to the existing buildings and/or parking structures. A feasibility analysis in terms of total costs, student share, application methodology, practical applicability to the K-State campus and impact on future campus developments are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Historical channel adjustments of the lower Big Blue River below Tuttle Creek Reservoir, Manhattan, Kansas, 1857-1991
    (Kansas State University, 1994) Weatherly, Jeffrey John
    The complex channel adjustments identified below Tuttle Creek Reservoir along the lower Big Blue River occur as channel degradation, bank erosion, and isolated zones of channel deposition or widening. As a result of the impoundment of the Big Blue River, the regulated clear water discharge from Tuttle Creek Reservoir frequently exceeds the critical -power threshold for stream power. Channel bank erosion and steepening have been the principal changes resulting from river regulation below the Tuttle Creek Dam. The lower Big Blue River is additionally impacted by Rocky Ford Dam. At this spillwater dam, which is located 1.4 miles (2.3 km) downstream of Tuttle Creek Dam, river velocity is increased because of a steeper slope. Excess stream power below Rocky Ford is dispersed through channel bank erosion and channel widening. Channel degradation below Rocky Ford is impeded by extensive channel bed armoring. Channel bed armoring below Rocky Ford has protected a small channel island from scour since 1937. At Casement Road bridge, which is located 2.5 miles (4.0 km) downstream from Tuttle Creek Dam, 12.1 feet (3.69 m) of degradation have occurred in the last 40 years. Sand dredging operations along the lower Big Blue River have severely impacted the channel morphology along the reach of river approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) downstream of Tuttle Creek Reservoir. Channel widening has occurred in both of the channel bends in which sand dredging activities occurred. Significant channel adjustments along the lower Big Blue River are primarily a result of the 1951 flood, the construction of Tuttle Creek Reservoir, and sand dredging activities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The relationship between the performance of certain household bending activities and the age and physical limitations of sixty aged homemakers in Manhattan, Kansas
    (Kansas State University, 1961) Warta, Marjorie Hamon
    Americans are increasingly becoming more aware of the large increase in the proportion of the population who are over 65 years of age. It is expected that the number of Americans who are over 65 years of age will increase from 16 million to 20 million just 15 years from now. Although the husband may retire from industry, a homemaker never really "retires" but continues to be responsible for the household activities. This study investigated the extent to which age and physical limitations of aged homemakers affect their performance of household activities which require bending. An interview -schedule was used in gathering data during the month of June, 1960, from a randomly selected sample of 60 women between the ages of 70-79 living in 'Wards 3 and 4 of Manhattan, Kansas. For purposes of comparison the women were divided into age groups, the younger group 70-74, the older group 75-79 and according to the presence or absence of physical limitations. The interview -schedule contained questions to determine the extent of household activities requiring bending performed by aged homemakers and the changes made in the extent or method because of age and physical limitations. Nearly half of the 60 women lived alone in a household. Almost three fourths lived in a single family dwelling. About half of the 60 women lived in dwelling units of three or four rooms. Nearly one fourth of the women were responsible for the care of rooms other than those they occupied. Physical limitations were claimed by almost three fourths with arthritis being the most prevalent. Although the homemakers were in charge of the management of the household activities, half of them received some help, mostly from family members. The upkeep of the homes in which these women lived was rated subjectively by the interviewers as average or better for eight tenths of the homes. Vacuum cleaning was the method most widely used to care for floors, followed by wet mopping, hand cleaning and application of wax. The room most commonly vacuum cleaned was the living room, while the rooms most commonly wet mopped and hand cleaned were the kitchen and bathroom. None of the women had changed their method of vacuum cleaning floors, although nearly one third of those who wet mopped had changed their method of using a wet mop by using a different body position and/or different equipment. Half of the women did not presently hand clean floors, although 90 percent had hand cleaned floors at one time. Two thirds of the women waxed floors applying the wax by hand or using an applicator. The rooms most commonly waxed were the kitchen and bathroom. The cleaning of furniture and baseboards were done by nearly all women, with some doing little or no bending by using a handled dusting tool, by tilting the small furniture, or by using vacuum cleaner attachments. The bathroom fixtures were cleaned by nearly all of the women, although one fourth thought they did less now than at age 65. No bending was necessary for most when cleaning the bathtub or stool. Three fourths of the women thought they had problems when cleaning the bathroom fixtures, with cleaning the bathtub and lower outside stool being mentioned most frequently. It was hypothesized that age and the presence of physical limitations affect the household activities requiring bending which was done by these aged women. When the Chi Square test was applied, some significant differences were found for the physical limitations variable, but no significant differences were found for the age variable.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Detecting soil information on the Konza prairie using high resolution satellite data
    (Kansas State University, 1988) Su, Haiping
    Computer pattern recognition techniques were used to discriminate soil information from Landsat TM and French SPOT satellite data on the Konza prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were merged to Landsat TM and SPOT data to delineate soil mapping units within the study area. Soil mapping units from a digitized soil map were compared with a classified soil spectral map obtained from Landsat TM or SPOT, and DEM derived elevation, slope, and aspect data using an overall accuracy assessment. The overall accuracy of soil spectral classes from TM and SPOT data was improved after DEM data were merged. Higher separability of soil mapping units derived from Landsat TM and DEM data on upland positions of the study area was obtained using statistical divergence analysis. Ratioing, intensity transformation, and low frequency filtering were performed before supervised classification was used. A better average accuracy of soil mapping units was found from low frequency filtering. A higher overall accuracy derived from TM data in the dormant season was obtained compared with the accuracy in the growing season. This result indicates that satellite data acquired in dormant season are more useful for soil information detection. The overall accuracy from Landsat TM and SPOT data was not significantly different because of scale reduction of SPOT data. The overall accuracy from Landsat TM and SPOT data was about 55 to 57 %. This study demonstrates that high resolution Landsat TM and SPOT satellite data can be used to aid soil consociation delineation at the second order level in areas where the dominant land use is rangeland.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Silage investigations
    (Kansas State University, 1916) Cave, H. W.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A visual study of the coanda effect on a circular wall water jet off-set from a smooth flat plate
    (Kansas State University, 1996) Mahmoud, Samer H.
    This work includes a visual study of the conda effects on the three dimensional laminar wall jet issuing from a circular opening parallel to a flat plate that is offset certain distance away from the nozzle center. The effect of varying the plate-to-nozzle distance on the laminar jet was investigated for five values of the plate-to-nozzle heights. It was verified as predicted by previous research that the point of the jet attachment to the wall moves away from the nozzle as the jet-to-nozzle distance increased. Also, the effect of the temperature variation between the jet and its surroundings were investigated qualitatively. The temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding was changed for a fixed nozzle-to-plate height. For the cold jet, at the low Reynolds Number, the jet remained detached from the plate. Some periodic instabilities were observed in the axial shape of the jet at distances further away from the nozzle. The effect of varying the flow rate on the jet were studied qualitatively. The jet axial and cross-sectional images obtained show how the jet shape changed with time. Simple two-dimensional theory was used to predict the attachment distance for the isothermal circular jet. No quantitative velocity profile measurements of the jet were undertaken in this study which was a preliminary investigation for building a scaled model for later studying of the air diffusion mechanisms of jet-wall interaction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Needs and interests of students in home management at Bishop College
    (Kansas State University, 1943) Coleman, Zelia Simington
  • ItemOpen Access
    A case study of physical environment and facility management in a long-term care facility
    (Kansas State University, 1994) Essmiller, Mary
    With the increasing older population and the expectation that an increasing number of these people will at some time reside in a long-term care facility (Urban Land Institute, 1983), there is a need to describe and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the physical environment and facility management in such settings. Because of the expansion in the older population, long-term care facilities are evolving in the development of resources that provide housing, nursing, and other care services for older persons. The growth in long-term care facilities warrants continued research involving the environment of such settings. In 1988, 72% of the 50 largest retirement housing operators reported that they had increased their total facilities, total units, or both during the year (Contemporary Long Term Care, 1990). The responsiveness of the environments for their residents, as well as for the staff, is of increasing importance. Because residents of long-term care facilities are no longer able to live completely independently, they depend on the help of staff members for many of life's daily functions. Assisting with dressing, toileting, bathing, and social activities are only a few tasks that staff frequently provide for residents. The humane and efficient provision of such services are the concern of residents and their families, as well as owners and administrators of such settings. While research has addressed the resident needs and functional abilities in such settings, the concerns for staff and their ability to perform effectively have received less attention. In depth inquiry and observation is warranted to describe the physical environment and facility management of long-term care facilities, as well as any relationship they may have regarding support for the staff in its caregiving role. The setting for the research was a long-term care facility located in Manhattan, Kansas. The objectives of the research were: (1) to develop a case study of this long-term care facility by observing and describing its physical environment; (2) to describe the management of the facility; and (3) to explore relationships of the physical environment and facility management. Outcomes regarding the relationship of design and management were documented, as well as any benefits with which these outcomes might be associated. The study offered additional knowledge to owners and administrators regarding how well their facility functioned, which, in turn, should help them to better understand their facility, the needs of management and staff, as well as help identify shared goals. These findings also could help formulate the design and development of future facilities, as well as help owners and administrators achieve more effective management.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of brand extension on the updated hotel brand personality and attitude toward the brand
    (Kansas State University, 2006) Ryu, Hyungseo
    The objective of this research is to identify how different types of brand personalities affect brand extension and to then address what the most appropriate brand extension types for hotel brands are. This offers a better position to assess the broader impact of extension strategy for the marketer. The methodology for achieving these objectives are described in the following sections: developing measurements based on extensive reviews of literature; conducting a pretest with 15 graduate students and faculty members; establishing validity and reliability of the instrument through a pilot test; modifying brand personality measurement items based on the descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis of the pilot test; collecting data from students and faculty members at a Midwestern university and residents in Midwestern and Southern area; and analyzing data used a exploratory factor analysis, t -tests and a series of simple linier regression analyses. Descriptive analyses were performed on all attributes of brand personality, customer personality, brand personality congruence and extended brand personality and updated brand congruence in the questionnaire. The results of this study showed customer's brand congruence have a greater impact on the customers' positive attitude toward core brand. However, customers' attitude toward core brand had no impact on the updated attitude. The findings provide some theoretical and practical implications for hotel operators. The results of the present study suggest that hotel marketers should develop marketing information systems that continuously monitor hotel customers' perceptions of hotel brand image.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Senator John Brooks Henderson, U.S. Senator from Missouri
    (Kansas State University, 1971) Mattingly, Arthur Herman
    The career of John Brooks Henderson has been overlooked by Missouri historians. This work attempts to partially solve the oversight by focusing on his political career from 1848 until defeat for re-election to the United States Senate in 1869. Out of necessity, many of Henderson's senatorial activities have been deferred to permit examination of his role in the major issues in the decade of the sixties. From candidate for county clerk to United States Senator, Henderson's elective career mirrors the turmoil faced by a politician in the state and nation on the eve of the Civil War. His political ascendancy in the state Democratic party parallels the splintering of party allegiances on the issues of: popular sovereignty, banks, slavery expansion, and the Mexican War. Henderson's attempts to win national office preceding the Civil War were thwarted each time by division within the Democratic party over national questions. When the problem of Missouri's relation to the national government came before the people on the eve of the war, Henderson steadfastly stood for the Union. In the state conventions of 1861 he was an ardent spokesman for the "Unconditional Union" faction. From his first political office to his last, he exemplified character which would not allow him to place party before personal integrity or the country. His devotion to the law and Constitution are clearly evident throughout his career, but was best manifested in his search for a constitutional solution to slavery. Henderson took a leading role in Missouri and the border states, first as the spokesman for President Abraham Lincoln's compensated emancipation and later as the author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. After the war, as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, he sought an equitable answer to the constant friction between Indians and whites by sponsoring the bill that authorized the Indian Peace Commission of 1867. While a commission member, he urged the Indians to accept a new reservation system with a program of government help. He proposed, as Commission spokesman at the meetings, a gradual transition to agricultural pursuits instead of the hunt, because the buffalo were rapidly disappearing. Although successful in obtaining Indian approval, Henderson was unable in the crucial months after the treaties to give his full attention to enacting the necessary congressional legislation to implement the treaty provisions, and successfully settle the difficult problem. His concern in the spring of 1868 was increasingly drawn to the struggle between the President and Congress. Originally a struggle over reconstruction of the southern states, it soon widened into a struggle for control of the national government, culminating in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Henderson's vote in the trial is the nearest he came to national fame, when along with six other Republican senators he acquitted the President. For this act of personal integrity and honor he and the others were abused. But unlike the others, Henderson suffered the least permanent harm. In later years he enjoyed influence in the state and national Republican parties and received several nominations for state and national offices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wheat transformation with HVA1 gene by microprojectile bombardment
    (Kansas State University, 2001) Detvisitsakun, Chanitchote
    To improve drought tolerance, a gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, HVAJ, from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was introduced into winter wheat Jagger (hard red winter wheat) and Lakin (hard white winter wheat). The gene construction, containing HVA1 gene driven by the rice Actl promoter and the selectable marker gene, bar, under the control of CaMV35S promoter, was delivered to wheat embryogenic calli by means of microprojectile bombardment. One transgenic wheat plant of Jagger was obtained in this study. This plant survived in medium containing 5 mg/1 ammonium glufosinate during the tissue culture processes and has normal morphology. The plant tested positive for the PCR analysis of bar gene and was resistant to 0.1% (v/v) herbicide LibertyTM. Southern blot analysis showed the integration of bar and HVA1 gene into the genome of this plant. The 27 kDa of HVA1 protein also was detected in this plant as revealed by Western blot analysis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Atomistic studies of manipulation, growth and diffusion on fcc metal surfaces
    (Kansas State University, 2003) Ghosh, Chandana
    In this dissertation I present an extensive study of several issues related to manipulation, growth and diffusion of atoms and nanoclusters on fcc metal surfaces. One of the important aspects in understanding the effect of adatoms or clusters or even the effect of a tip is to examine the energy landscape of the surface in the presence of these objects. In our study of lateral manipulation using a tip, the use of the Grid method to obtain the energy landscape, has revealed useful information about the shift in the saddle point. Calculations on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous fcc(111) metal systems have been performed. Vertical manipulation on flat, stepped and kinked surfaces have given interesting results about the ease of manipulation on these surfaces. During growth, atoms at the edges of stepped surfaces experience an effect called the Kink Ehrlich Schwoebel Effect (KESE). Fluctuations that occur along the step edges play an important role in island decay for islands in the vicinity of a step edge, as observed in many experiments. Our standard Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) study on the vicinals of Cu(001) systems has shown that the KES barrier is in fact responsible for the ledge morphology that we see in our systems. To investigate cluster diffusion on fcc(111) systems which are more complex due to the occurrence of two types of step edge microfacets ((100) and (111)) in them, a KMC technique involving a unique pattern recognition scheme was developed to classify the environment of an atom. The energy barriers for different mechanisms were calculated extensively for Cu/Cu(111) as well as Ag/Ag(111) systems, using the NEB. The intriguing results obtained for these two-dimensional clusters, show magic cluster sizes having much lower diffusivity at 300 K as compared to the general clusters. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature as well as size of cluster has also been explored. Diffusion prefactors play an important role in the diffusion mechanisms. Most of the KMC studies assume a fixed prefactor. However, realistically this is not true. To get an understanding of the prefactors and their ratios for the important mechanisms, a study on the Ag/Ag(111) system shows that the ratio of the prefactors for step edge to terrace diffusion > 1, at low temperatures, which is in agreement with experimental observations. A molecular dynamics (MD) study was also performed to get an understanding of the initial evolution of certain clusters and the important mechanisms involved. All these investigations have given us a deep insight into several intriguing surface phenomena, observed in experiments and theoretical simulations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A history of the Paxico community, Wabaunsee County, Kansas
    (Kansas State University, 1953) Thompson, Louis Carlton
  • ItemOpen Access
    Spider lamb syndrome: hereditary chondrodysplasia, a congenital skeletal defect in sheep
    (Kansas State University, 1989) Dedrickson, Byron Joe
    Spider lamb, a lay term, identifies a pathologic syndrome in which congenital skeletal deformities are present. Initial findings were made in the late 1970's with the incidence increasing in the 1980's. It was a syndrome first reported in the veterinary literature in 1985. It was reported only in Suffolk and Suffolk cross lambs. The present study was initiated to make a detailed evaluation of the spider lamb syndrome. Emphasis was placed on cataloging and categorizing specific defects present and separating the syndrome from other lamb deformities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of discourse force, sentence importance, and claim type on comprehension and recognition
    (Kansas State University, 1992) Pounds, Julia C.
    Studies of discourse have not resolved the question of whether different types of texts are comprehended and remembered differently. To clarify this question the present study used three print message forms (business memoranda, personal letters, and newspaper advertisements) used in other studies. Direct assertions and pragmatic implications were embedded in constructed messages. The stimulus sentences were independently rated as more important or less important to the message. Subjects rated truth-value while reading and again in a recognition task. Results indicated that the form in which the message appeared, the claim type in which the sentence was written, and the importance of the sentence to its text influenced truth-value ratings. The commonly held notion that people do not believe advertising was evident when subjects were reading. Results suggest that studies of message miscomprehension need to account for how subjects perceive the intention of the writer and how this perception influences the inferences readers make about the message.
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