Apparel, Textiles, and Interior Design Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Pounded plants on cotton: Methods, outcomes, and colorfastness of post-treatments
    Haar, Sherry J.; Doty, Kelsie; haar; Haar, Sherry J.
    Plant pounding is the transfer of plant pigment onto textiles through the mechanical force of hammering. The resulting image can mimic the original petal or leaf. A challenge can be poor colorfastness. Even though this is a popular technique with several writings on the process, we could find no research examining colorfastness properties. Thus, we examined orange cosmos petals and purple sweet potato leaf pounded onto cotton print cloth for colorfastness to laundering and light exposure following AATCC procedures. Fabric was scoured and mordanted with aluminum acetate. Following pounding, three post-treatments were applied, including steam, a sodium silicate fixative, and a cationic dye fixative. CIELab color coordinates were taken with a spectrocolorimeter. Cosmos exposed to laundering and light had considerable color change with steam having the most similar color ratings and appearance to its standard. Purple sweet potato leaves had noticeable color change following laundering, with steam retaining original color and imagery best. Conversely, colorfastness to light was poor for all treatments. Overall, a steam treatment is recommended to assist with color and image retention for pounded plants onto cotton fabric that is scoured and mordanted with aluminum acetate.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Multi-jet electrospinning of polystyrene/polyamide 6 blend: thermal and mechanical properties
    Yoon, Jae Won; Park, Yaewon; Kim, Jooyoun; Park, Chung Hee; jkim256; Kim, Jooyoun
    Polystyrene (PS) has high thermal resistance thus can be applied as thermally comfortable textile. However, the application is limited due its low mechanical strength. In this study, polyamide 6 (PA6) was blended with PS to improve the mechanical strength of PS, by means of a multi-jet electrospinning. Content ratio of the blend web was measured by chemical immersion test and confocal microscopy analysis. Fiber content was in accordance with the number of syringes used for PS and PA6 respectively. The effects of content ratio on the web morphology, thermal resistance, tensile behavior, air and water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity were investigated. The influence of environmental humidity during electrospinning process on three dimensional (3D) web structure was also reported. PS web produced from higher humidity had more pores and corrugations at the surface. The increased surface roughness and porosity led to the increased hydrophobicity and thermal resistance. Though the blending of PA6 with PS enhanced the mechanical strength, the added PA6 decreased air/water vapor permeability and thermal resistance. The lowered thermal resistance by the addition of PA6 was mainly attributed to higher thermal conductivity of PA6 material and lowered air content with PA6 fibers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Black walnut, Osage orange and eastern redcedar sawmill waste as natural dyes: effect of aluminum mordant on color parameters
    Doty, Kelsie; Haar, Sherry J.; Kim, Jooyoun; haar; jkim256; Haar, Sherry J.; Kim, Jooyoun
    The triple bottom line can be impacted in both positive and negative ways by the use of tree sawmill waste as a natural dye. Trees contain a biomordant in the form of tannin which may eliminate the need for metallic mordants, thus reducing water, thermal energy, residual waste, and exposure to a mordant chemical. Dyeing with mill waste provides an economic option for an existing timber manufacturing byproduct. This research analyzed the impact of potassium aluminum sulfate (PAS) on dye concentration, hue, and colorfastness to light and laundering for three regional dyewoods (black walnut, Osage orange, and eastern redcedar) on wool yarn. Dye concentrations were pre-tested to find a standard depth of shade between mordanted and nonmordanted yarns. Tests for colorfastness to light and laundering were performed according to AATCC methods. Resulting colors for exposed and unexposed specimens were rated using CIE L*a*b* values and descriptive statistics were used to examine directional relationship within independent variables mordant and exposure (light and laundering). Two-sample t test was performed to investigate the effect of a PAS mordant versus no mordant on overall color difference between specimens exposed to light and laundering. Findings indicated that dye absorption was improved with the use of a PAS mordant. For yarns premordanted with PAS the dyewood colors became warmer. A PAS mordant slightly improved colorfastness to light for black walnut and eastern redcedar, but did not influence Osage orange which had a color change from bright yellow to warm brown after exposure to light. Colorfastness to laundering improved only for Osage orange with a PAS mordant.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Processing Beyond Drawing: A Case Study Exploring Ideation for Teaching Design
    Orthel, Bryan D.; Day, Julia K.; orthel; juliakday; Orthel, Bryan D.; Day, Julia K.
    Designers’ internal thought processes can be externally expressed and represented through sketching and other forms of communication. Novice designers often struggle to communicate their ideas. This article reports an analysis of student design processes during conceptual and schematic design development with the intention to inform teaching and learning activities. Interior design student teams provided sketches, written journal entries, digital drawings and models, and graphic images to illustrate their collective design processes. The work was analyzed to understand the students’ representation and development of ideas. Analysis revealed that sketching, digital media, and non-graphic process work were all valuable in the students’ design process. Significantly, the strength of the design outcomes aligned more with the overall quality of conceptual process work, rather than the way in which students represented their ideas. Ultimately, student understanding of the design process varied. Teaching and learning activities should develop direct connections with design thinking processes to improve design education. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Fair trade consumption from the perspective of US Baby Boomers
    (2014-11-25) Benson, Ebony; Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; kyhc
    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge base of Baby Boomers’ attitudes, behaviours and perceived barriers related to fair trade purchasing. Design/methodology/approach – This study included 168 Baby Boomers. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. Data analysis included a combination of both quantitative (descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests and correlation analysis) and qualitative techniques. Findings – Findings indicated that the participants exhibited positive attitudes towards fair trade but were minimally engaged in fair trade purchasing. Furthermore, the participants perceived numerous barriers to purchasing fair trade products including the incompatibility of fair trade merchandise with lifestyles, the inability to touch and see fair trade products prior to purchase and difficulty in identifying fair trade items. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of this study is that the sample was well-educated university faculty and it is not representative of all Baby Boomers. Practical implications – Fair trade entities need to be more effective in marketing the advantages of the fair trade. Fair trade organizations should consider targeting marketing strategies specific to the unique demographic and psychographic characteristics of Baby Boomer consumers. Originality/value – This research expands understanding of the consumer behaviours of US Baby Boomers related to fair trade. An additional contribution is the comparison of differences in fair trade knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of Early vs Late Baby Boomers. It also has potentially important implications for fair trade organizations, as the paper discusses marketing strategies specific to Baby Boomers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Millennial graduate student: implications for educators in the fashion discipline
    (2014-01-24) Kozar, Joy M.; Hiller Connell, Kim; jkozar; kyhc
    The purpose of this study was to expand upon an overall understanding of today’s Millennial graduate student. Information related to the motivations of Millennial generation students in pursuing master’s degrees in fashion programs were collected, in addition to analysing the expectations of Millennial students while in graduate programs. Participants included both master’s-level graduate students enrolled in fashion programs and graduate faculty at the students’ home institutions. The similarities and expectations among students and faculty were identified. A major finding was that Millennial graduate students are primarily motivated by industry-related career goals, and do not perceive conducting empirical research as central to their education. The educational implications for graduate faculty based on the findings of this study are addressed, noting areas of educational reform and additional research.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessing sustainability education in a transdisciplinary undergraduate course focused on real-world problem solving: a case for disciplinary grounding
    (2013-10-23) Remington, Sonya M.; Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Armstrong, Cosette M.; Musgrove, Sheryl; kyhc
    Purpose – University sustainability programs intend to provide an integrated education that fosters the key competencies that students need to solve real-world sustainability problems. Translating these key competencies into pedagogical practice in integrated academic programs is not straightforward and the effectiveness of certain teaching methods in fostering sustainability competencies is largely unknown. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a classroom assessment aimed at determining the extent to which key sustainability competencies develop in students during an introductory transdisciplinary sustainability course. Design/methodology/approach – The paper summarizes three previously identified key sustainability competencies and describes teaching methodologies used in the introductory course described here to foster these competencies in students. The development of these competencies over the course of one semester is assessed using a pre-/post-test based on case analyses. The implications of these findings for academic sustainability programs are discussed. Findings – Based on the assessment used here, the sustainability competencies developed differently in students with different disciplinary affiliations as a result of the introductory sustainability course. Business majors did not improve any of the key competencies, Sustainability majors improved systems thinking competence only, and Sustainability minors who were majoring in another traditional discipline improved all competencies. Practical implications -- Universities incorporate sustainability into their undergraduate curricula in many ways, ranging from infusing sustainability into courses based in traditional disciplines to creating academic programs focused entirely on sustainability that offer stand-alone sustainability courses. The results of this assessment suggest that universities should pay attention to the different preconceptions and disciplinary affiliations of students, as well as the overall structure of their undergraduate curriculum, as they figure out how to make sustainability part of undergraduate education. Originality/value – The paper contributes to undergraduate sustainability education by shedding light on how sustainability might best be incorporated into specific academic programs. This information may help create more effective sustainability courses and academic programs, which may maintain the viability of current sustainability programs and promote the institutionalization of sustainability in higher education in general.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Design of a garment for data collection of toddler language and physical activity
    (2013-08-21) Haar, Sherry J.; Fees, Bronwyn S.; Trost, Stewart; Crowe, Linda K.; Murray, Ann D.; haar; fees; admurray
    Design process phases of development, evaluation and implementation were used to create a garment to simultaneously collect reliable data of speech production and intensity of movement of toddlers (18-36 months). A series of prototypes were developed and evaluated that housed accelerometer-based motion sensors and a digital transmitter with microphone. The approved test garment was a top constructed from loop-faced fabric with interior pockets to house devices. Extended side panels allowed for sizing. In total, 56 toddlers (28 male; 28 female; 16-36 months of age) participated in the study providing pilot and baseline data. The test garment was effective in collecting data as evaluated for accuracy and reliability using ANOVA for accelerometer data, transcription of video for type of movement, and number and length of utterances for speech production. The data collection garment has been implemented in various studies across disciplines.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of aluminum mordants on the colorfastness of natural dyes on cotton
    (2013-08-21) Haar, Sherry J.; Schrader, Erica; Gatewood, Barbara M.; haar; bgatewd
    Two mordanting agents, aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum acetate, in three concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20% owf) were evaluated for colorfastness to laundering and light of natural dye extracts (madder, weld, and coreopsis) on cotton print cloth. The type of aluminum mordant had a greater influence on colorfastness to laundering, whereas dye type had a greater influence on fastness to light. Aluminum acetate at 5% owf concentration gave slightly higher Gray Scale ratings for colorfastness to laundering of coreopsis and weld. All treatments had negligible to no staining on cotton. Weld had slightly better colorfastness to light ratings than the other dye types with 20% aluminum potassium sulfate rating highest. Even though the aluminum acetate mordant improved the colorfastness to laundering on weld and coreopsis at the 5% and 10% owf concentrations, it did not improve fastness to light and resulted in slightly lower fastness to light grades on coreopsis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sustainability knowledge and behaviors of apparel and textile undergraduates
    (2012-10-01) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Kozar, Joy M.; kyhc; jkozar
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze changes in undergraduate student knowledge of issues of sustainability relevant to the apparel and textiles industry. Assessment occurred prior to and upon completion of a course that addressed topics specific to the global production and distribution of apparel and textile goods. The study also examined modifications in students’ reported apparel purchasing behaviors. Design/methodology/approach – Participants included those in their third, fourth or fifth year of undergraduate education in the apparel and textile discipline at a higher education institution located in the Midwestern USA. All participants were enrolled in a course focused on globalization and the apparel and textile industry. Measures used to assess students’ knowledge of social and environmental sustainability issues related to the industry and their apparel purchasing behavior were included in the research instrument. Findings – Pre and post comparisons revealed significant changes in students’ knowledge of social and environmental issues relevant to the apparel and textile industry. However, the study found no significant adjustments in apparel purchasing behavior. Further, a post hoc analysis revealed no significant relationship between students’ knowledge and their reported purchasing behavior. Originality/value – Limited resources exist which examine methods for educating apparel and textile students about sustainability issues, with even less research documented on assessing the effectiveness of these methods. The paper analyzes the contributions sustainability-focused curriculum can make in modifying the level of knowledge and purchasing behavior of students and recommends further strategies to yield possibly even greater results.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Assessing systems thinking skills in two undergraduate sustainability courses: a comparison of teaching strategies
    (2012-05-02) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Remington, Sonya M.; Armstrong, Cosette M.; kyhc
    The purpose of this study was to determine systems thinking skill development among undergraduate students and assess the effectiveness of two different instructional methods for increasing these skills. Undergraduate students from two four-year state institutions, one located in the Midwestern region (n=20) of the United States and one in the Southwestern region (n=16) participated in the study. To accomplish the research object, the study employed a mixed between-within subjects experiment. Employing two different systems thinking teaching interventions, one group of students was exposed to a one-time intervention while the other group was exposed to a more extended and holistic intervention. Data were collected at two points in time: pre- and post-intervention. At the beginning (pre-intervention) and end (postintervention) of one semester, students read case studies describing apparel firms’ sustainability efforts. The students were then tasked to identify sustainability challenges, analyze conflicts between challenges, and offer business recommendations. Using a rubric, the authors scored the students’ responses on a scale of 0 to 5 and assessed ability to 1) think holistically and 2)perceive interrelationships and resolve resulting conflicts. T-tests revealed that prior to the teaching interventions, as a whole, the students had unsophisticated skills related to their ability to think in systems. ANOVA revealed that, through instructional methods focused on systems thinking, it is possible to increase students’ ability to think in systems. Additionally, the study revealed that, compared to a constrained one-time intervention, a long-term, holistic, and integrated approach is significantly more effective in encouraging students’ system thinking competencies. Results of this study support the need for educators to integrate teaching methods designed to increase students’ systems thinking competencies holistically throughout course curriculum. Additionally, the study outlines a transferrable approach to assessing systems thinking skills within postsecondary education.
  • ItemOpen Access
    From-the-garden garments
    (2011-12-16) Haar, Sherry J.; haar
  • ItemOpen Access
    Studio practices for shaping and heat-setting synthetic fabric
    (2011-10-13) Haar, Sherry J.; haar
    Heat-setting of synthetic fabrics is an industrial stabilization process that has been adapted by designers to create dimensional textures through shaped-resists and non-industrial heat-setting methods. The article overviews heat-setting properties, physical resist techniques, and presents an experiment to determine best practices for heat-setting physically resisted polyester fabric. Two polyester fabrics, organza and lining, were gathered and secured to a wooden dowel and heat-set under four heating conditions: steaming in a pressure cooker, boiling in a pot of water, dry heat in a conventional oven, and radiation waves in a microwave oven. Pre- and post-treatment lengths were analyzed using GLM for two-way ANOVA and post hoc tests. Based on results from the statistical analysis and visual evaluation, steaming in a pressure cooker is recommended for sheer fabrics such as organza and dry heat from a conventional oven for lining weight fabrics.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Socially responsible knowledge and behaviors: comparing upper- vs. lower-classmen
    (2011-04-04) Kozar, Joy M.; Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; jkozar; kyhc
    Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel purchasing behavior. Findings revealed that approximately half of the sample indicated being knowledgeable about socially responsible clothing businesses. Participants were also generally informed of environmental issues related to apparel production. Overall, upper-classmen were more informed about labor issues and tended to be more engaged in socially responsible apparel purchasing behavior. The findings of this study are useful to educators in creating effective curriculum to encourage greater socially responsible purchasing behavior.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploring consumers’ perceptions of eco-conscious apparel acquisition behaviors
    (2011-03-15) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; kyhc
    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to advance understanding of the socially responsible apparel consumer by exploring apparel consumption behaviors perceived by consumers to be eco-conscious. Design/methodology/approach – This study used a qualitative approach to collect and analyze data from 26 American apparel consumers. Data collection for the study occurred through semi-structured interviews. Findings – Results indicate that the participants engaged in a number of perceived eco-conscious apparel acquisition behaviors. First, they adhered to acquisition limits by acquiring apparel based on need and extending the lifetime of their apparel. Second, they acquired apparel made from fibers or having other attributes perceived as environmentally preferable. Finally, they acquired apparel through sources believed to be environmentally preferable, including second-hand sources, eco-conscious companies, independently owned companies, and home sewing. Research limitations/implications – The sample of 26 American consumers means that the results cannot be widely generalized. Future research should examine the apparel acquisition behaviors of a larger sample and include consumers from outside the USA. Practical implications – This study provides evidence that consumers engage in a range of eco-conscious apparel acquisition behaviors, and a market segment of eco-conscious apparel consumers exists. Apparel industry professionals can use this baseline information to aid in the development of eco-conscious apparel consumption strategies. Originality/value – This study contributes to increased understanding of eco-conscious apparel consumption, an area with limited previous research, by identifying apparel acquisition behaviors that consumers perceive to be eco-conscious. The findings are valuable in the promotion of eco-conscious apparel consumption.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Identifying environmentally conscious apparel acquisition behaviors among eco-conscious consumers
    (International Textile and Apparel Association, Inc., 2011-03-10) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Sontag, M. Suzanne; kyhc
    The last few years has seen significant increased mass media coverage of environmentally conscious apparel consumption. However, despite the increased attention in mass media, eco-conscious apparel acquisition remains relatively under-researched from a scientific perspective. As the vulnerability of the natural environment continues and the encouragement of sustainable consumption patterns becomes even more important, this lack of both depth and breadth in knowledge about eco-conscious apparel acquisition needs addressing. The overall purpose of this research study is to expand the knowledge base of eco-conscious apparel consumption by identifying specific apparel acquisition behaviors that eco-conscious consumers engage in as they aim to lower the environmental impact of their apparel consumption.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Students’ attitude-behavior gap on issues of labor exploitation
    (International Textile and Apparel Association, Inc., 2011-03-10) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; Kozar, Joy M.; kyhc
    A study by Kim and Damhorst (1998) found that, despite holding attitudes of environmental concern, only a limited degree of socially responsible apparel consumption behaviors were present among apparel consumers. The present study seeks to examine further the relationship between consumers’ knowledge and attitudes of labor exploitation issues in the production and distribution of apparel goods and their apparel purchasing decisions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exploration of second-hand apparel acquisition behaviors and barriers
    (International Textile and Apparel Association, Inc., 2011-03-10) Hiller Connell, Kim Y.; kyhc
    Post-consumer textile waste, including garments discarded by the original owner, is an environmental issue. In 2006, 11.8 million tons of textiles entered the United States municipal solid waste stream, with only 1.81 million tons being recovered for recycling, a recovery rate of 15.3%. On a yearly basis, Americans throw away approximately 68 pounds of apparel and textile products per person. Although American consumers (primarily through charity and donation programs) do prevent approximately 1.25 million tons of textile products from entering the municipal waste stream on an annual basis, a large portion of discarded clothing becomes solid waste. Furthermore, it is estimated that only 40% of all donated apparel is actually sold as clothing to American consumers. There remains very little understanding of how to increase the number of new consumers acquiring apparel through second-hand sources. This is the knowledge gap this exploratory study begins to fill.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The significance of the door in nursing homes: a symbol of control in the domestic sphere
    (2011-02-10) Kaup, Migette L.; kaup
    This article explores how public/private contradictions can be enacted in the space of the nursing home through the use of architectural features that signal transition and passage, most specifically the door. To explore these relationships, two alternative forms of the institutionalized skilled care setting will be described. The first represents the state of the most common form of nursing home, the institution that has been patterned after a hospital; the second represents an emerging place type in long-term care called a "household," patterned after the domestic home. The divergent spatial experiences of these settings will be expressed through the role of the door and the supporting transitional features that are architecturally determined and will compare and contrast the dramatic changes that can occur in the ideological communication of these domains. Their use, their language, and therefore their meaning within the spaces are suggested through the patterns of behavior they support.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Regulating “Culture Change” in Long-term Care
    (2010-08-31T17:06:43Z) Kaup, Migette L.; kaup
    As an institutional type, nursing homes can be most closely linked to the hospitals created during the Industrial era of our nation’s history, and have adopted similar approaches to providing clinical care. While often physically and cognitively frail the needs of nursing home residents are more complex than simply needing medical treatment. These individuals often become permanent residents of these facilities and require a setting that recognizes them as individuals. As America ages, projections point to an increasing use of nursing homes in the next ten to twenty years. Therefore, nursing homes will become an increasingly important place-type in our country. Since 1997, groups increasingly called for more patient-centered approaches. In the field of long-term care, this is often referred to as “culture change.” The goal of culture change is to create a system of “interdependency” that enhances the quality of life for residents as well as the quality of the work environment for staff. This approach focuses on the capacity of residents and their abilities to participate fully in the lives and the decision about their daily routines and care. This type of care requires rethinking the way that residents interact with care professionals as well as the built environment. Finding a fit between these new approaches and existing regulatory requirements is daunting. Nursing homes derive a majority of their resources from federal dollars, and eligibility is contingent upon meeting federal regulatory policies. The existing regulatory statutes may be too clinically focused to provide for the necessary flexibility that is required in a person-centered care approach. Some argue that “negative attributes of nursing home culture are reinforced by governmental regulation and payment mechanisms, as part of a mutually-reinforcing and mutually-symbiotic relationship between government and the nursing home industry (Vladeck, 2003, p. 3).” This paper will focus on understanding of the existing regulatory framework and the implications and contradictions of the new interpretive guidelines that are intended to advance the quality of life in long-term care settings. It will conclude with recommended actions to increase the efforts to ensure that long-term care regulations make quality of life a top priority.