Dairy Day, 2006

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Milk quality as a funcion of temperature-cycled, reduced-fat milk stored in various size containers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Julstron, L.F.; Schmidt, Karen A.; kschmidt
    Packaged, reduced-fat milk was subjected to a 20 min/day temperature cycle during a 7-day refrigeration period to determine the ef-fect on milk quality. Temperature cycling did not affect the compositional or microbial counts in reduced-fat milk stored in various package sizes. Analysis of headspace com-pounds during the 7 days of storage, however, showed that benzaldehyde, 2-butanone, 2-heptanone, hexanal, and octanal concentra-tions significantly changed, indicating that milk flavor was altered. Concentration of heptanal, a compound associated with lipid oxidation, was higher in milk packaged in half-gallon and 1-gallon containers, compared
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ovulation potential of human chorionic gonadotropin versus GnRH
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Buttrey, B.S.; Burns, M.G.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Experiments have shown human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to be more effective than GnRH as a means to induce ovulation of folli-cles. Dosages used, however, have differed greatly among experiments. A study was per-formed to determine the minimum effective dose of hCG needed to induce ovulation of ovarian follicles in dairy cows. Ovaries of Holstein cows were mapped by using transrec-tal ultrasonography 7 days before a bi-weekly pregnancy diagnosis. Cows were assigned randomly to treatments of saline, 100 μg of GnRH (2 mL of Fertagyl, Intervet, Inc., Mills-boro, NJ), or 500, 1000, 2000, or 3000 IU of hCG (0.5, 1, 2, or 3 mL of Chorulon, Intervet, Inc., Millsboro, NJ). Ovarian structures were monitored again 7 days later, and the propor-tion of cows, and proportion of follicles ≥ 8 mm in diameter, that ovulated were recorded. A dose of at least 1000 IU of hCG resulted in a greater ovulatory response than saline, GnRH, or 500 IU of hCG.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ovarian responses and conception rates in response to gNrh, Hcg, and progesterone
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Portaluppi, M.A.; Tenhouse, D.E.; Lloyd, A.; Eborn, D.R.; Kacuba, S.; DeJarnette, J.M; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    We hypothesized that increasing concentrations of progesterone after artificial insemination (AI) would increase fertility. Our objective was to assess changes in ovarian structures, incidence of ovulation, and change in serum progesterone in response to GnRH, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or exogenous progesterone (controlled internal drug release; CIDR insert) treatment, beginning 4 to 9 days after AI (d 0) and again 7 days later (Exp. 1). Blood was collected from 753 cows in 3 herds on days 0 and 7. Ovaries of 162 cows in 1 herd were scanned and mapped to confirm the presence a corpus luteum (CL), and cows were assigned randomly to serve as control (n = 41) or to receive a CIDR insert for 7 days (n = 41), 100 μg of GnRH (n = 40), or 3,300 IU of hCG (n = 40). More cows were induced to ovulate in response to GnRH (60%) and hCG (78%), compared with control (2.4%). Compared with control, cows treated with GnRH or hCG had more induced CL (d 7) and more total CL (d 7), but serum progesterone was increased only in response to hCG. Volume of the original luteal structures was increased by hCG, but tended to be reduced by CIDR and GnRH, compared with luteal volume in control. Total CL volume was increased by hCG, but reduced by CIDR, compared with CL volume of control. In Exp. 2, cows in 5 herds were used to assess conception rates in response to the same treatments described in Exp. 1: control (n = 708), CIDR (n = 711), GnRH (n = 719), and hCG (n = 714). Tendencies for interactions of treatment × herd and treatment × lactation group were detected, but no 3-way interactions were found. Treatment with hCG increased conception rates in second-lactation cows. The CIDR tended to increase, and hCG increased, conception rates in 2 herds, whereas the CIDR decreased conception rates in 1 herd. We concluded that GnRH and hCG effectively induced ovulation, and increased number of CL, but only hCG increased serum progesterone. Further, treatment with the CIDR or hCG increased conception rates, but only in some herds.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Resynchronization of ovulation and conception in nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Portaluppi, M.A.; Tenhouse, D.E.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Our objectives were to determine various factors influencing upfront single and multiple ovulation in response to GnRH in a timed arti-ficial insemination (TAI) protocol and subse-quent fertility after altering timing of the sec-ond GnRH injection and AI relative to PGF2α injection. Replacement heifers (n = 86) and 613 lactating cows previously inseminated were diagnosed not pregnant at biweekly in-tervals to form 77 breeding clusters spanning 36 months. At not-pregnant diagnosis (day 0), females received 100 μg of GnRH, and they received 25 mg of PGF2α 7 days later. Females in 2 treatments received GnRH 48 hr (G48) after PGF2α injection and TAI at the time of the second GnRH injection (G48 + TAI48) or 24 hr later (G48 + TAI72). Females in the third treatment received GnRH 72 hr after PGF2α, when inseminated (G72 + TAI72). Ovaries of females in 65 clusters were scanned at day 0 (first GnRH injection) and 7 days later (PGF2α injection). Ovarian struc-tures were mapped, and ovulation in response to the first GnRH injection was detected on day 7. When estrus was detected before scheduled TAI, females were inseminated; otherwise TAI conception of remaining fe-males was based on timing of GnRH and AI in 3 treatments. On day 7, 1 or more luteal struc-tures (CL) were detected in 46% of females. Conception rate was 26.5% (98/701) in fe-males that showed estrus and were insemi-nated early. Pregnancy rate was greater in fe-males that ovulated after the first GnRH injec-tion (day 0) and during nonsummer months. Compared with females in late diestrus at nonpregnant diagnosis, cows in early diestrus or those with functional cysts had greater pregnancy rates, but rates were not different from those of cows in proestrus or in metestrus or anestrus. Pregnancy rates did not differ among treatments, but a tendency was detected for a treatment × lactation number interaction. In heifers and first-lactation cows, the G72 + TAI72 treatment produced fewer pregnancies, whereas G48 + TAI48 treatment was least efficacious in older cows. In a TAI protocol for previously inseminated dairy fe-males that are diagnosed not pregnant, subse-quent timed AI pregnancy rates are greater when females are in early diestrus, ovulate in response to the first GnRH injection, or both. (Key Words: Luteolysis, Ovsynch, Ovulation,
  • ItemOpen Access
    Delaying Injection of prostaglandin F2a in an ovsynch protocol
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Portaluppi, M.A.; Tenhouse, D.E.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Our objective was to determine whether delaying the PGF2α injection by 24 or 48 hr after the first GnRH injection in an Ovsynch protocol (from a standard 7 days) altered ovar-ian characteristics in lactating dairy cows. Es-trous cycles were synchronized in 36 Hol-steins after removal of a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert and injection of PGF2α. On day 6 of the estrous cycle, cows were administered 100 μg of GnRH (81 ± 2 days postpartum) and assigned randomly to receive a treatment in-jection of PGF2α 7, 8, or 9 days later. Timed artificial insemination (TAI) was performed at 48 hr after PGF2α, at which time a second in-jection of GnRH was administered. Ovarian structures were mapped by ultrasonography on day 0 (first GnRH injection), on day 2 to de-termine responses to the first GnRH injection, at PGF2α injection, and daily thereafter through 72 hr after PGF2α to monitor ovula-tion of preovulatory follicles. Blood was col-lected on day 0, day 2, at PGF2α injection, and at 24 and 48 hr after PGF2α, to monitor serum changes estradiol-17ß and progesterone. On the basis of serum progesterone and ovarian exams, 2 cows were eliminated because of anestrus and their failure ovulate a follicle in response to the first GnRH injection. Two other cows in which luteolysis failed to occur after PGF2α treatment also were eliminated. Final numbers of cows per treatment were: 7 days (n = 13), 8 days (n = 9), and 9 days (n = 10). Twenty-nine of 32 cows ovulated (90.6%) in response to the first GnRH injec-tion. Despite a 24- or 48-hr delay between first GnRH and PGF2α injections, the diameter (mm) and volume (mm3) of the ovulatory fol-licle did not differ among treatments. In all 32 cows, at least 1 follicle ovulated after treat-ment, but ovulation rates did not differ. Serum concentrations of estradiol-17ß did not differ among treatments. Two cows in the 7-day treatment and 2 cows in the 8-day treatment were inseminated 24 hr late and were ex-cluded before assessing conception rates: 5/9 (55.6%), 5/9 (55.6%), and 1/10 (10%), respec-tively. We concluded that delaying PGF2α in-jection by 24 hr had little effect on outcomes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Responses of lactating holstein cows to increasing amounts of wet corn gluten feed
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Smith, John F., 1962-; Grigsby, K.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; jfsmith
    Forty lactating Holstein cows were allocated into groups of 5 cows each and assigned to 8 pens containing 10 freestalls each. Each group contained 3 heifers and 2 multiparous cows. Groups were balanced by milk production and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain none (control), 12, 24, or 36% wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Increasing amounts of WCGF and heat-treated expeller soybean meal replaced a portion of the corn silage, alfalfa hay, corn grain, soybean meal, and soybean hulls of the control diet to maintain similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), ruminally undegraded crude protein (RUP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A Latin Square design with 4-week periods was used. Periods were 4 weeks in duration, with 2 weeks of adjustment followed by 2 weeks of data collection. Milk weights were recorded at each milking, and weekly milk samples (a.m. and p.m.) were collected for milk component analysis. Milk and feed data were averaged by pen and week before analysis. Milk production, energy-corrected milk production, and efficiency of energy-corrected milk production increased with increasing amounts of WCGF. Dry matter intake was unaffected by diet. These data indicate that WCGF can be utilized effectively at 36% of the ration DM if concentrations of RUP, CP, and NDF are maintained in the diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficiency of phosphorus utilization in dairy operations
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; jharner
    Efficient utilization of nutrients is a must on modern dairies. Most of the phosphorus arriving at the dairy will either be found in purchased feedstuffs or commercial fertilizer used to raise grain and forage for the dairy. In general, those dairies that purchase all feeds are more efficient with phosphorus utilization than those that grow forage and grain. This is likely due to increased inefficiencies associ-ated with feeding and crop enterprises. Care-ful evaluation of diets to reduce feeding ex-cess phosphorus can reduce phosphorus excre-tion in the manure by as much as 50%. This not only reduces input costs, but also reduces the total cost of land application. The most efficient way to manage dairy farm nutrients is to develop a comprehensive nutrient manage-ment plan that includes both the cropping and animal enterprises. This plan will help pro-ducers predict phosphorus requirements of cattle and crops, and then allow the producer to control phosphorus inputs to meet the re-quirements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of facilities on cow time budgets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Harner, Joseph P.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Brouk, Michael J.; jharner; jfsmith; mbrouk
    A model was developed to evaluate the impact of facilities on cow time budgets. The model suggests that in inadequate facilities overcrowding of the facility by 25% or more resulted because occupancy rate exceeded 100%. The model also is useful in evaluating the impact of time at milking center and milk-ing frequency on cow time budget. In general, the first groups of cows through the milking parlor will have adequate time for resting, feeding, socializing, and watering. The last groups of cows through the parlor, however, do not have adequate time for these activities if the time at the milking center at each milk-ing is 2 or more hours. Reducing time at the milking center is critical when milking 3 times daily to ensure that the last groups of cows through the parlor have adequate time for normal behavioral activities once back in the housing area.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Characteristics of low-profile cross-ventilated freestalls
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Harner, Joseph P.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Millner, R.; jharner; jfsmith
    The first low-profile cross-ventilated (LPCV) freestall building was stocked in fall 2005 in North Dakota. There currently are 3 other LPVC freestalls operational and 6 others under construction. The LPCV building offers some of the advantages of natural ventilated and tunnel ventilated freestalls. Natural or conventional tunnel ventilation buildings normally have from 2 to 6 rows of freestalls. The first LPCV building was an 8-row con-figuration, but wider LPCV buildings with 10, 12, 16, or 24 rows of freestalls are being con-sidered. Low-profile cross-ventilated freestall buildings are another option for dairy cattle housing. These facilities allow producers to have more control over the cow’s environment during all seasons of the year. They also al-low cows to be located closer to the milking parlor, reducing time away from feed and wa-ter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Consumptive water usage of evaporative pads
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Schmidt, C.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; jfsmith; mbrouk; jharner
    Consumptive water usage by evaporative pads was measured during 7 days of a 3-week period at a Kansas (KS) dairy and a 2-day pe-riod at a North Dakota (ND) dairy. Water me-ters were installed between the water hydrants, and evaporative pads at each dairy, and were monitored. Data were recorded every 30 min-utes during 5 hr at the KS site and every 15 minutes during 1 to 2.5 hr at the ND site. Ra-tio of pad area to cow equaled 4.8 and 4.5 ft2 per cow at the KS and ND sites, respectively. Airflow rates through the pads were 1.2, 2.1, and 3.2 mph at the ND dairy and 3.3 mph at the KS dairy. During the study period in KS, the temperature humidity index ranged from 78 to 86 and water usage varied from 0.7 to 4.7 gallon per minute. Average pad efficiency equaled 62%. Water usage averaged 0.3 gal-lons per hr per ft2 of pad when airflow rate was 3.3 to 3.6 mph. At the ND dairy, the wa-ter usage averaged 0.1, 0.3, and 0.38 gallon per hr per ft2 of pad for the low, medium, and high airflow rates, respectively. The tempera-ture humidity index equaled 65, 72.5, and 71 for the low, medium, and high airflow study periods. Pad efficiency averaged 93, 86, and 81% from the low to high airflow rates. Simi-lar to pad efficiencies at the KS site, efficiency increased as the outdoor air temperature de-creased. (Key Words: Cooling
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluate the efficacy of "heat stress audits" of your cooling system through core body temperature
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-29) Smith, John F., 1962-; VanBaale, M.; Jamison, C.; Rodriguez, R.; Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; jfsmith; mbrouk; jharner
    A project to evaluate the degree of heat stress in individual dairies was carried out in the summer of 2005. The object of this project was to develop a method to evaluate or audit how effective an individual dairy is in manag-ing heat stress. Approximately 45 herds in 20 different states were audited for the degree of heat stress cows experienced during a 72-hr period. Dairies were selected based on geog-raphy, climate, and facility design. Lactating cows 40 to 100 days in milk (DIM) and dry cows within 30 days of calving were evalu-ated. Vaginal temperatures of 8 cows located in the same group were collected every 5 min by using data loggers (HOBO U12®) attached to a vaginally placed insert (blank CIDR®). Ambient climatic data were collected on the project dairies by using logging devices that collected temperature and relative humidity at 5-min intervals. Census data were collected at each dairy, and included pen sizes, milking frequency, milking times, average milk pro-duction, DIM, parity, holding-pen design, and timing of cow movements. Data were im-ported into Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) as individual cow files aligned by time. The data for an individual cow were then averaged with all other cows in the pen in hourly incre-ments over a 24-hr period. Each hour of the 24-hr period is then a summary of that hour on 3 consecutive days, with 8 devices contribut-ing 12 points per hour per day to the sum-mary. So each hour is a summary of 12 data points × 8 cows × 3 days, or 288 data points per hour. Information was summarized graphically in PowerPoint (Microsoft, Red-mond, WA) and presented to the individual producers, along with recommendations on how to improve their heat-stress abatement practices. The project was not designed as a controlled experiment; therefore, caution is advised in over-interpreting the results. That being said, the project does demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of using intra-vaginal temperature recording to monitor how well an
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of ruminal degradability and lysine bioavailability of four soybean meal products
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-23) Awawdeh, M.S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Drouillard, James S.; Beyer, R. Scott; etitgeme; jdrouill; sbeyer
    Evaluations of four soybean meal (SBM) products were conducted. The products were: solvent SBM (SSBM), expeller SBM (ESBM), lignosulfonate-treated SBM (LSBM), and SSBM treated with 0.05% Baker’s yeast and toasted at 212ºF (YSBM). In situ ruminal degradations of YSBM and LSBM were slower than those of SSBM or ESBM; thus, ruminally undegraded protein contents of YSBM and LSBM were greater than those of SSBM or ESBM. The ruminally undegraded protein of all SBM products had similar small intestine digestibility when as-sessed by susceptibility to enzymatic digestion in vitro. Available lysine contents, estimated chemically or using standard chick growth assay, were less for YSBM and LSBM than for SSBM or ESBM, suggesting deleterious effects of processing on lysine availability in those products.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of four soybean meal products on lactational performance of dairy cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-11-23) Awawdeh, M.S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Drouillard, James S.; Shirley, John E.; etitgeme; jdrouill
    Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (152 days in milk, producing 90 lb/day of milk at the beginning of the study) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods to investigate cow responsiveness to supple-mental ruminally undegraded protein from 4 soybean meal products. The 4 products were: solvent soybean meal (SSBM), expeller soy-bean meal (ESBM), lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (LSBM), and SSBM treated with 0.05% baker’s yeast and toasted at 212ºF (YSBM). Diets were formulated by substitut-ing all SSBM and part of ground corn with YSBM, ESBM, or LSBM to yield isonitroge-nous diets. Diets were formulated to provide adequate ruminally degraded protein, but defi-cient ruminally undegraded protein and me-tabolizable protein supplies. No differences among dietary treatments were observed for dry matter intake, body weight gain, milk and component yields, or efficiency of milk pro-duction. Lack of response to changes in soy-bean meal source was likely because of ade-quate ruminally undegraded protein and me-tabolizable protein supply by all diets.