Cattlemen's Day, 2008

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax) on implanted and non-implanted feedlot steer performance and carcass characteristics
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:15:39Z) Baxa, T.J.; Hutcheson, J.P.; Miller, M.F.; Nichols, W.T.; Streeter, M.N.; Yates, D.A.; Johnson, B.J.
    Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax) is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist approved as a growth promotant in feedlot cattle for use during the last 20 to 40 days prior to harvest. It is orally active and improves performance and total body lean tissue. The recommended dosage is 7.6 grams per ton of feed on a 100% dry matter basis. Steroidal implants are used in feedlot animals to improve average daily gain, feed efficiency, and total lean tissue deposition. Little is known about how Zilmax and steroidal implants influence growth performance when used in combination. Our objective was to evaluate performance of steers administered Zilmax in combination with the steroidal implant, Revalor1-S.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Forage intake by pregnant and lactating first-calf heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:15:01Z) Linden, D.R.; Anderson, David E.; Pacheco, L.A.; Bolte, J.W.; Sproul, N.A.; Thomas, M.D.; Olson, K. C.; Jaeger, John R.; Holcomb, Kelsey L.; kcolson; jrjaeger; holcombk; bolte2; mdthomas
    Forage dry matter intake by mature cows usually decreases during the final 4 to 8 weeks of gestation and then increases dramatically during the first 4 to 8 weeks of lactation. Rapid fetal growth during late pregnancy causes a physical impingement of the rumen. This reduction in ruminal capacity can cause prepartum reduction in forage intake. The rumen recovers its normal volume after calving. The increase in forage intake typical of the postpartum period is driven by milk production. Little research has focused on forage intake patterns by first-calf beef heifers during late gestation and early lactation. It is unknown if forage intake by growing heifers is similar to that of mature cows; moreover, poorly understood intake potential of heifers during the time preceding the second breeding season might contribute to the characteristically high rate of reproductive failure by these animals. Our objective was to measure the effects of advancing gestation and lactation on dry matter intake by first-calf heifers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dried distiller’s grains in steam-flaked corn finishing diets with decreased roughage levels
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:13:40Z) May, M.L.; Quinn, M.J.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; mjq; bdepenbu; jdrouill
    Distiller’s grains are the primary coproduct derived from fuel ethanol production. As the fuel ethanol industry expands into the High Plains, distiller’s grains are becoming increasingly available as an alternative feed for livestock. Optimizing the use of distiller’s grains in flaked grain rations is important to maintaining a competitive advantage among feedlot producers in this region. Because distiller’s grains are relatively high in fiber, it is conceivable that the level of roughages in feedlot diets could be reduced when distiller’s grains are fed to cattle. Roughages normally have low energy density; therefore, the cost per unit of energy from roughages usually is relatively high compared with cereal grains or grain co-products. If the use of distiller’s grains would allow roughage levels to be decreased in finishing diets without deleterious consequences for health or performance, this generally would be viewed as a positive attribute. Our objective was to evaluate performance of feedlot cattle fed diets with and without distiller’s grains, and assess the effect of reducing the level of added roughage in diets containing distiller’s grains.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dried distiller’s grains with solubles in steam-flaked or dry-rolled corn diets with reduced roughage levels
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:13:12Z) May, M.L.; Hands, M.L.; Quinn, M.J.; Wallace, J.O.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; Drouillard, James S.; mjq; bdepenbu; cdr3; jdrouill
    Distiller’s grains have been used extensively in the U.S. Corn Belt, where producers commonly feed dry-rolled or highmoisture corn. Fuel ethanol production is expanding into the High Plains, where most feedlots flake grain. Compared with dry- rolled corn, steam-flaked corn usually increases or has no change in average daily gain, yields lower dry matter intake and results in 12 to 16% improvement in efficiency. Previous research at Kansas State University and elsewhere suggests that the value of distiller’s grains is different in flaked grain diets than in dry-rolled diets. We think this might be due to lower rumen pH when flaked grains are fed, perhaps reducing digestibility of the diet, especially the fibrous components. Because distiller’s grains contain considerable amounts of fiber, it might be possible to add less roughage to finishing diets that contain distiller’s grains, and doing so, improve efficiency.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Digestibility of dried distiller’s grains with solubles in steam-flaked or dry-rolled corn diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:13:00Z) May, M.L.; Hands, M.J.; Quinn, M.J.; Wallace, J.O.; Murray, Leigh W.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; Drouillard, James S.; mjq; cdr3; lmurray; jdrouill
    In previous experiments, we observed that the nutritional value of dried distiller’s grains is less when added to finishing diets made of steam-flaked corn than when added to diets of dry-rolled corn. We hypothesized that effects of grain processing on value of distiller’s grains are attributable to differences in the digestion characteristics of grains processed via flaking or dry rolling. In this study, our objective was to evaluate differences in ruminal metabolism and total tract digestion of diets made from dry-rolled or steam-flaked corn with and without dried distiller’s grains.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Determining optimum flake density for feedlot heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:12:33Z) May, M.L.; Quinn, M.J.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; mjq; bdepenbu; jdrouill
    Escalating costs of natural gas and electrical utilities have greatly increased the cost of flaking grain for feedlots. Energy demand for flaking is inversely related to bulk density of flaked grain; the lighter, more highly processed flakes typically require longer steaming times and greater roll pressures, which ultimately decreases mill. Corn is most commonly flaked to a density of about 28 lb/bushel, and published research results indicate that levels less than 28 lb/bushel afford no further advantage with respect to animal performance. Little information is available concerning the relative feed value of grains flaked to heavier bulk densities. Flaking grains to heavier bulk densities could make it possible to increase mill throughput and reduce energy costs associated with flaking. In this study, our objective was to evaluate milling efficiency and cattle performance when grains were flaked to densities of 28, 32, and 36 lb/bushel.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of dried distiller’s grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:11:42Z) Uwituze, S.; Parsons, G.L.; Shelor, M.K.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; mshelor2; bdepenbu; jdrouill
    Dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) are the main byproduct of dry milling, the process used most frequently for fuel ethanol production. DDGS consist of the spent grains following ethanol distillation and are high in protein, fat, fiber, and minerals. Alfalfa hay and corn silage are roughages most commonly included in feedlot diets and are one of the most expensive ingredients in feedlot diets on an energy basis. Comparing use of alfalfa hay and corn silage in conjunction with DDGS can provide useful information on how to obtain maximum benefit from these ingredients. Our objective was to evaluate the use of corn DDGS as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn when corn silage or alfalfa hay were used in feedlot diets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Substituting steam-flaked corn with distiller’s grains alters ruminal fermentation and diet digestibility
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-01-21T20:09:57Z) Uwituze, S.; Parsons, G.L.; Shelor, M.K.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; mshelor2; bdepenbu; jdrouill
    Rapid expansion of fuel ethanol production in the High Plains, where feedlots commonly use steam-flaked corn diets, has popularized substituting dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) for a portion of the steam- flaked corn. Most of the starch in corn is removed during ethanol production. The residual material is rich in fiber, ruminal undegradable protein, and fat. Adding roughage to high-concentrate finishing diets helps maintain ruminal function by stimulating salivation, rumination, and gut motility. The source and level of roughage can influence dry matter intake. Our objective was to examine ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility when steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets were fed with either 0 or 25% DDGS, using alfalfa hay or corn silage as roughage sources.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Crude glycerin in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-14T21:14:20Z) Parsons, G.L.; Shelor, M.K.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; mshelor2; jdrouill
    Plant oils contain large amounts of triglycerides that will react to a catalyst, such as methanol. The transesterification reaction between the oil and alcohol will produce approximately 10% crude glycerin and 90% biodiesel. Crude glycerin is distilled for use in human products such as soaps, cosmetics, and moisturizers, but the usefulness of glycerin as a feed source for livestock is unclear. Rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry has created excess supplies of crude glycerin. It is thought that glycerin can be used in ruminant diets to decrease feed costs, but crude glycerin from biodiesel production can contain various levels of methanol, which can be toxic to livestock at increased levels. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding crude glycerin derived from soybean oil in steam-flaked corn finishing diets fed to beef cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Restricted feeding improves performance of growing steers during subsequent grazing on native flint hills pasture
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-14T21:13:16Z) Anglin, C.O.; Epp, M.P.; Derstein, R.D.; Barnhardt, B.B.; Blasi, Dale A.; Olson, K. C.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; dblasi; kcolson; cdr3; mepp
    Beef stocker operators are margin-operators, and rising feed costs force them to consider alternative feeding strategies to reduce production costs. Limit-feeding is a management technique that has positive implications for cost control. In this experiment, we restricted dry matter intake to determine if steers could compensate for a period of dietary restriction during intensive early grazing. This study illustrated that limit-feeding could reduce feed costs for stocker and background operators.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Distiller’s grain market price relationships, discovery, and risk management
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-14T21:12:13Z) Van Winkle, T.W.; Schroeder, Ted C.; tcs
    The substantial increase in corn use by the ethanol refinery industry (Figure 1) has resulted in livestock producers, especially cattle feeders, substituting distiller’s grain (DG) for corn in feed rations. DG futures markets do not exist, but actively traded corn and soybean meal (SBM) futures are the most probable markets for hedging DG price risk. Therefore, the ability to offset DG price risk using corn and SBM futures is incorporated into analysis to quantify the strength of price relationships. If DG prices and corn or SBM futures prices are strongly related, then a viable cross hedging opportunity might exist. If they are not related, then cross hedging DG price risk in corn or SBM could increase risk. The growing importance of DG markets demonstrates a need for information regarding price relationships in the industry. The purpose of this study is to determine DG price relationships across locations and over time. Particular objectives include estimating how strongly related DG prices are across different locations, determining whether price leadership is present, and quantifying risk in cross hedging DG using existing futures contracts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Heifers sired by bulls with low residual feed intake estimated breeding values have lower residual feed intake than heifers sired by bulls with high residual feed intake estimated breeding values
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-14T21:10:30Z) Minick Bormann, J.; Moser, Daniel W.; Marston, T.T.; dmoser
    Feed is one of the largest costs in a cow/calf or feedlot operation. However, very little data is available to aid producers in genetically improving their herd for feed efficiency. In Australia, bull tests record individual feed intakes, which are used to calculate Estimated Breeding Values (EBV) (analogous to EPD) for residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake measures the degree to which feed intake deviates from expected levels based on the animal size and rate of gain. Negative values are good; they indicate the animal ate less than expected for its size and growth rate. Our objective was to determine differences in feed efficiency traits of progeny from bulls with divergent genetic merit for RFI.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Length of the weaning period does not affect post-weaning growth or health of lightweight summer-weaned beef calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-10T17:16:26Z) Bolte, J.W.; Olson, K. C.; White, Bradley J.; Larson, Robert L.; Milliken, George A.; Sproul, N.A.; Thomas, M.D.; Jaeger, John R.; Thomson, Daniel U.; bolte2; kcolson; jrjaeger; thomson; milliken; mdthomas
    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most economically devastating feedlot disease. Risk factors associated with incidence of BRD include: 1) stress associated with maternal separation; 2) stress associated with introduction to an unfamiliar environment; 3) low feed intake associated with the introduction of novel feedstuffs into the diet; 4) exposure to novel pathogens upon transport to a feeding facility and commingling with unfamiliar cattle; and 5) inappropriately administered respiratory disease vaccination programs. Management practices collectively referred to as preconditioning are thought to minimize carcass damage resulting from BRD. Preconditioning management attempts to eliminate or reduce risk factors for respiratory disease by: 1) employing a relatively long ranch-of-origin weaning period following maternal separation, 2) exposing calves to concentrate-type feedstuffs, and 3) improving resistance to respiratory pathogens through a pre-weaning vaccination program. The effectiveness of such programs for preserving animal performance is highly touted by certain segments of the beef industry. Ranch-of-origin weaning periods of up to 60 days are suggested for preconditioning beef calves prior to sale; however, the optimal length of the weaning period has not been determined experimentally. The objective of this study was to test the validity of beef industry assumptions about the appropriate length of ranch-of-origin weaning periods for summer-weaned calves aged 100 to 160 days.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Behavior of beef cows grazing topographically rugged native range is influenced by mineral delivery system
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-10T17:15:24Z) Sproul, N.A.; Bolte, J.W.; Linden, D.R.; Kreikemeier, R.A.; Pacheco, L.A.; Thomas, M.D.; Higgins, James J.; Olson, K. C.; Drouillard, James S.; Jaeger, John R.; kcolson; jdrouill; jrjaeger; bolte2; mdthomas; jhiggins
    Poor grazing distribution is a major problem on rangelands of the western United States. Grazing animals tend to congregate in areas near water, shade, and level terrain. These areas typically become overgrazed, while less preferred areas of pasture remain undergrazed. Solutions to localized overgrazing include cross-fencing and water development; however, most land managers are unwilling to bear the expense associated with these strategies. Most types of supplements, including mineral supplements, have potential to lure cattle into under-utilized areas of range and pasture. Cows spend up to 40% of their time within 650 yards of self-fed supplements, but relationships between terrain use, mineral supplement delivery method, and mineral supplement consumption remain unclear.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nutrient balance of a commercial feedlot
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-10T17:15:02Z) Jones, S.Q.; Ham, J.M.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; jderouch
    The ability to develop nutrient balance for a livestock operation is important for maintaining a long-term sustainable production system and for compliance with current and future environmental regulations. Producers invest considerable financial resources in farm inputs, primarily feed and livestock. When animals leave the farm, they retain a portion of the feed nutrients they consumed, but the majority of consumed nutrients are excreted. Once excreted, certain compounds in the manure volatilize, which lowers the manure nutrient content and diminishes economic value of the manure as fertilizer. In addition, these volatile compounds can create air quality concerns. Operations designated as concentrated animal feeding operations must develop nutrient management plans to provide documentation that the manure produced will be applied at agronomic rates for environmental protection. Understanding the nutrient balance of a livestock operation is critical in developing whole-farm manure management plans. Objectives of this experiment were to determine the nutrient balance of a commercial feedlot and measure amounts of recoverable nitrogen and phosphorus from the feedlot pen surface.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Costs of adopting radio frequency identification reader systems and tagging services in livestock auction markets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-10T17:14:38Z) Bolte, K.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Schroeder, Ted C.; bolte2; kcd; tcs
    Livestock industry initiatives such as the National Animal Identification System (NAIS), marketing alliances, and production verification programs are leading to increased use of electronic animal identification systems. Livestock markets are one place where animal movement and identification information can be recorded easily. Auction market facilities can differentiate themselves by offering electronic individual animal identification and tracking services to customers. However, facility modifications, installation, and operating equipment needed to record electronic animal identification information at the speed of commerce involves costs. The more animals that the radio frequency identification (RFID) reading technology would be used on, the lower the cost of investment per animal for the livestock market. Thus, auction markets will be reluctant to invest in RFID reading and recording equipment if there is little demand for the service by customers. This concern has likely increased with the NAIS becoming explicitly voluntary. Also, some market operators are concerned that producers will expect livestock markets to offer tagging services if RFID equipment is available for use. The investment required to adopt an electronic animal identification system and how this investment would affect a livestock market’s business are also major concerns. This study examines the investments required for livestock markets to adopt RFID reader systems and tagging services.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Information needs regarding the national animal identification system in the livestock auction market industry
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-09T19:16:33Z) Bolte, K.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Schroeder, Ted C.; bolte2; kcd; tcs
    The National Animal Identification System (NAIS) is a federal-level voluntary program that uses a streamlined information system designed to help animal health officials and producers respond to animal health threats in a timely manner.2 Electronic individual animal identification systems likely will be the popular choice among cattle producers who adopt individual animal identification systems. Because auction markets are the first market for many cattle, livestock markets are a natural place to implement animal identification scanning and recording. Therefore, it is important to understand livestock market operators’ knowledge, concerns, views, and adoption of the NAIS and electronic animal identification systems. If livestock market operators do not understand the NAIS or animal identification systems they might misconstrue or misunderstand information on these systems. In addition, it is important to identify livestock market operators’ concerns about electronic animal identification systems so issues can be addressed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Prepartum supplementation influences response to timed artificial insemination by suckled mature beef cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-09T19:16:24Z) Thomas, M.D.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Bolte, J.W.; Sproul, N.A.; Linden, D.A.; Olson, K. C.; Jaeger, John R.; mdthomas; kcolson; jrjaeger; bolte2
    Fat supplementation before calving (i.e., prepartum) can alter reproductive performance of beef cows. These effects do not seem to be related to energy or protein content of the supplement. Chemical structures of some plant fats are similar to chemical structures of certain reproductive hormones; moreover, some fats are precursors to prostaglandin production. Prepartum vegetable fat supplementation has been associated with improved reproductive performance by cows and heifers managed for artificial insemination (AI) breeding. The biological basis for this effect is not clearly understood but is believed to reflect the influence of fat supplements on cyclicity, body weight, body condition, and other factors. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementing whole fuzzy cottonseed or whole raw soybeans on pregnancy rates following ovulation synchronization and timed AI of mature beef cows.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Vitamin A restriction during finishing benefits beef retail color display life
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-09T19:16:12Z) Daniel, M.J.; Arnett, A.M.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Because the beef industry commonly uses marbling as an indicator of meat palatability, determining the most cost effective methods of increasing quality grade in cattle is a high priority. Previous research showed that weaning calves at around 90 instead of 200 days of age can be beneficial in reducing cow production costs and increasing marbling in feedlot steers. Other studies demonstrated that high levels of vitamin A inhibit development of intramuscular fat. Vitamin A restriction is used commonly in Japanese cattle to increase marbling scores; this stimulated interest in applying this restriction in U.S. beef production systems. However, little research has been conducted to determine the effect that vitamin A restriction might have on other meat quality components. Therefore, our objective was to determine the effects of feeding high and restricted levels of vitamin A to early and traditionally weaned calves during finishing on color display life, lipid oxidation, and sensory attributes of two beef muscles.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Restricting Vitamin A in cattle diets improves beef carcass marbling and USDA quality and yield grades
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2009-12-09T19:15:56Z) Arnett, A.M.; Daniel, M.J.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Marbling continues to be a major factor affecting profitability for beef producers, processors, retailers, and restaurateurs. However, feeding animals to ‘fatten’ is quite inefficient, requiring about 2.25 times more energy than is needed for producing lean muscle. For the cattle feeding industry to be sustainable in the future, increases in marbling must be accomplished without increasing days on feed, slaughter age carcass weight, and fatness and without sacrificing feed efficiency and carcass cutability. A 2002 survey of feedlot nutritionists revealed that most recommended supplementation of vitamin A to feedlot cattle at levels exceeding the guidelines of the National Research Council (NRC) by three to five times. Because vitamin A fortification of cattle diets is an inexpensive method used to improve the immune response of receiving cattle, it is likely that few have considered the negative consequences of over-supplementing vitamin A on marbling and carcass quality grades of feedlot cattle. The objective of our research was to evaluate the effects of supplementing vitamin A at either zero (NA) or seven times (HA) the NRC-recommended level in feedlot diets and age at weaning on carcass marbling development and USDA quality grade of crossbred beef steers.