Dairy Day, 2003

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Fresh cow health issues
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Olson, Jerry D.
    The post-calving period is a critical time in a cow’s life. The first few weeks post-calving pose the highest risk period for a number of diseases including milk fever, mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, retained fetal membranes, ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Post-calving diseases adversely affect dry matter intake, peak milk production, and reproductive performance, in addition to increasing the risk of involuntary culling and death. Consequences of disease can be costly. The ideal strategy is to minimize losses associated with disease by preventing their occurrence. However, even with the best management practices in place, it is impossible to prevent all post-calving diseases. For cows that develop post-calving diseases, the challenge is to minimize losses by developing a strategy to identify them as early as possible, implementing effective treatment protocols, evaluating effectiveness of those protocols, and tracking incidence so preventive practices can be re-evaluated when the incidence exceeds a threshold level for an individual disease. A “fresh cow program” is an effective approach to systematically managing post-calving disease by close daily observation of cows during the first 10 to 14 days after calving. By conducting a brief, but systematic physical examination, including monitoring body temperature, disease can be identified as soon as possible and treatment protocols implemented. This approach minimizes losses associated with post-calving disease.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Variations in the ovsynch protocol alter pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Portaluppi, M.A.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Initiation of the Ovsynch protocol at random stages of the estrous cycle produces differences in synchronization and pregnancy rates. Use of two injections of PGF2α administered 14 days apart, with the second injection given 12 days before initiating the Ovsynch protocol increased the percentage of cows that start the Ovsynch protocol at a more desirable stage of the estrous cycle (e.g., between days 5 and 13). In this experiment, after applying the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, timing of the second injection of GnRH and insemination were altered to determine their effect on pregnancy rates. Cows that received the second GnRH injection at the same time as they were inseminated at 72 hours after PGF2α had greater pregnancy rates than cows that received the second GnRH injection at 48 hours after PGF2α and were inseminated 0 or 24 hours later.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Increasing milking frequency in fresh cows: milk characteristics and reproductive performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Shirley, John E.; jss; jshirley
    Increased milking frequency during partial or whole lactations increases milk yields, but generally reduces percentages of milk fat and protein. Because of greater milk volume, total fat and protein are not reduced. Combining bovine somatotropin (bST) with increased milking frequency is additive. In other words, milk increases in response to both factors. In some studies, increased milking frequency during early lactation improves udder health, as evidenced by reduced somatic cell scores. Reproductive efficiency generally declines when examined on whole herd basis. When examined in single herds with or without bST, pregnancy rates may not be reduced because of increased milking frequency, and in some cases may be improved.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of three fresh cow feeding programs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Miller, W.F.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Park, A.F.; Burgos, M.V.; Hammond, A.K.; Scheffel, Michael V.; Shirley, John E.; jshirley; etitgeme; scheffel
    We evaluated the impact on performance of top dressing a based total mixed ration (TMR) with long-stem alfalfa hay with or without additional dry-rolled corn to the lactating cow diet during the first 5 days postpartum. The three dietary treatments and numbers of cows assigned to each diet were: 1) total mixed ration (TMR; n = 19); 2) TMR + long-stem alfalfa hay (TMR + A; n= 20); and 3) TMR + long-stemmed alfalfa hay + dry-rolled corn (TMR + A + C; n = 20). Top dressing the lactating TMR with long-stem alfalfa hay with or without dry-rolled corn did not reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders in early lactating cows. Six cows, two on each diet, were treated for displaced abomasums. Cows consuming only the TMR lost slightly more body weight during the first 30 days after calving compared to cows fed the other diets. Milk and energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were similar among diets. Fat, protein, and urea nitrogen content in milk were not different among dietary treatments. Lactose content in milk was greater for cows consuming TMR + A than those consuming TMR or TMR + A + C. Concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen in plasma were not affected by treatment during the initial 5 days of lactation. Concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen on days 2 and 3 were less for multiparous cows consuming TMR than for multiparous cows consuming TMR + A. Rumen contractions during the first 5 days of lactation were not different among diets. Top dressing the lactating TMR with long-stem alfalfa hay with or without dry-rolled corn was not beneficial in this study. On a dry matter basis, the lactating TMR contained 22% chopped alfalfa hay, 10% corn silage, 20% wet corn gluten feed, 9% whole fuzzy cottonseed, 7.1% expeller soybean meal, 27.4% ground shelled corn, 1.2% molasses, 1.3% Menhaden fishmeal, and 2.0% mineral-vitamin premix. Cows fed diets containing corn silage as the predominant fiber source may respond differently.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Transition cow nutrition and management
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Shirley, John E.; jshirley
    Dairy cows are generally provided with a 60-day dry period. The first part of the dry period is called the “far-off dry period” beginning at dry off and continuing until 21 days before projected calving date. The second part of the dry period is called the “close-up dry period” beginning at 21 days before projected calving date and ending at parturition. Diets formulated for far-off dry cows are generally high in forage and are designed to support body maintenance and fetal growth. Rumen function and microbial populations adjust to these diets by the end of the far-off period and require a period of adaptation before switching to a high-energy lactation diet. Thus, a close-up diet should not be formulated as an entity unto itself, but as a bridge between a low and high-energy diet, retaining some characteristics of both the far-off and lactation diets. The ultimate success of a transition cow nutrition and management program is a lactation characterized by high milk and yields of its component and an absence of ruminal, metabolic, mammary gland, and reproductive disorders. Therefore, close-up diets should encourage ruminal adaptation to subsequent lactation diets, prevent metabolic disorders, and minimize tissue mobilization prior to parturition. Rumen bacteria, protozoa, and fungi are sensitive to new diet ingredients and the amount of substrate available (dry matter intake). Thus, adequate time should be allocated to exposure to the close-up diet before parturition. Our studies indicate that cows should be offered a close-up diet that contains 13.5 to 14.5% crude protein and 35% nonfiber carbohydrate for approximately 28 days before parturition.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Clinical mastitis perceptions of Kansas dairy producers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Roberson, J.R.
    Mastitis is considered the most costly disease in the U.S. dairy industry. Treatment of clinical mastitis is the major reason for antibiotic contamination of products on U.S. dairy farms. A survey of 183 dairy producers was conducted to determine their perceptions regarding clinical mastitis treatments and what constituted their treatment regimens. Results indicated that 33% of dairy producers used a coliform vaccine, 10% used a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine, and 38% did no prestripping before milking cows. Obtaining a clinical cure (restoration of normal milk) was considered the most important aspect of mastitis treatment success (110/183; 60%) compared to bacteriological cure (absence of bacterial pathogen), somatic cell count cure (cells count back to near normal concentrations), milk production (back to near pre-mastitis levels), and udder firmness (back to near normal firmness). Average treatment success for mastitis reported by the 183 producers was 70%, with a range of 10 to 100%. Seventy-three (92%) producers listed “off-feed” as a good measure of the severity of clinical mastitis, followed closely by general appearance (91%). Appearance of udder and milk, droopy ears, appearance of the eyes, and low milk production were other popular methods used to determine the severity of clinical mastitis. Dairy producers believed that 5.3 days (range of 1 to 45 days) passed between first recognition of a clinical case until normal milk was restored. Only 34% of producers utilized rectal temperatures as a diagnostic tool for mastitis. Many treatments used were extra-label and some were potentially illegal. However, the results presented demonstrate a wide diversity of products used and a general lack of consensus of what is considered efficacious mastitis treatment. In addition, drug dosages and duration of therapy varied considerably. Greater education on proper dosages, durations, and potential efficacy of treatments should be beneficial. A clear need exists for conducting efficacy studies to help establish necessary and justified treatments for clinical mastitis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of two new teat dip prepatations on teat condition, somatic cell count, and incidence of mastitis under natural exposure
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Burkitt, E.L.; Miller, W.F.; Scheffel, Michael V.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Shirley, John E.; jshirley; scheffel; etitgeme
    Application of an iodophor teat dip before and after milking is a common practice in the dairy industry as an effective method of preventing mastitis by reducing microbial populations at the teat end. Overall effectiveness of a teat dip is a function of its ability to reduce the microbial population and maintain a pliable teat skin condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new conditioning component in iodophor teat dips containing either 0.5% or 1.0% iodine. Two experiments were conducted during late winter (133 cows) and during summer (104 cows) to evaluate two new iodophor teat dips developed by KO Manufacturing, Inc., Springfield, Mo. The two teat dips contain a nontraditional conditioning agent designed to sustain the lipid bilayer of the teat skin and improve skin condition. Dinerin (0.5% iodine) was equally effective as Westfalia-Surge Derma-Kote during the winter study in preventing new mammary infections based on the number of new clinical cases of mastitis and somatic cell counts. Teat and teat end condition were similarly maintained by both teat dips during the winter study. Two Dinerin teat dips, 0.5% and 1.0% iodine, were compared to Westfalia-Surge Teat-Kote 10-3 (0.5% iodine) during the summer. The Dinerin 0.5% iodine dip was most effective in preventing new cases of clinical mastitis. Teat and teat end conditions were maintained similarly by all three dips. Somatic cell counts were similar among treatments when cows that developed clinical mastitis were deleted from the analysis. The numbers of clinical mastitis cases were 5, 0, and 6 for cows dipped with Westfalia-Surge Teat-Kote 10-3, Dinerin 0.5% iodine, and Dinerin 1.0% iodine, respectively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Small-sized milk processing plant considerations
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Rosario, B. Macias; McVay, L.; Aramouni, Fadi M.; Schmidt, Karen A.; aramouni; kschmidt
    Milk is widely considered one of the world’s most valuable foods. As a raw material, it is available in various forms, and is found in an ever-increasing variety of nutritional products. Milk is a complex biological fluid consisting of the following components: water (87.4%), sugar or lactose (4.8%), fat (3.7%), protein (3.4%), minerals (0.7%), as well as minute amounts of vitamins. This document presents the standards, process needs, and labeling requirements of pasteurized fluid milk for the state of Kansas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of soaking and misting on respiration rate, body surface temperature, and body temperature of heat stressed dairy cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-10) Harner, Joseph P.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Hammond, A.K.; Miller, W.F.; Park, A.F.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; jharner; jfsmith
    Reducing heat stress is a key issue for dairy producers. Use of feedline soaking and supplemental airflow effectively reduces heat stress and increases milk production and profitability. High-pressure misting allows water to evaporate in the air, reduces air temperature, and increases relative humidity. Misting also soaks the skin of cattle, resulting in additional cooling as water evaporates from skin surfaces, similar to the cooling effect of feedline soaking. Impact of soaking frequency (5-, 10-, or 15-minute intervals) was compared to continuous high-pressure misting. Cows cooled with either system had lower respiration rates, body surface temperatures, and internal body temperatures than controls. Soaking cattle every 5 minutes or 5-minute soaking plus high-pressure misting produced similar body temperatures, but lower (P<0.01) than those when soaking occurred every 10 or 15 minutes. Skin surface temperatures from the thurl, shoulder, and rear udder were less when cattle were cooled with high-pressure misting. Cattle cooled with high-pressure misting became soaked, thus the cooling effect is the combination of cooler air and water evaporation from the skin. These results indicate that either frequent soaking (every 5 minutes) or continuous high-pressure misting that soaks the skin could be equally effective in reducing heat stress in dairy cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cow comfort through the transition period
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-08) Smith, John F., 1962-; Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; jfsmith; jharner; mbrouk
    Managing transition cows is a significant problem on dairy farms. The issues include nutritional considerations, stocking rates, metabolic disorders, heat stress, and access to feed and water. Often management of transition cows is limited to nutritional considerations. Facilities, grouping strategies, stocking rates, heat stress, and access to feed and water also have a dramatic impact on milk production, herd health, culling rates, and reproductive efficiency. Often nutritional benefits can be negated by not managing cow comfort issues. Producers can improve profitability by managing those variables.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Developing and using monitoring programs for fresh cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-08) Smith, John F., 1962-; Harner, Joseph P.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; jfsmith; jharner
    Metabolic disorders and related health problems are a significant problem on dairy farms, resulting in increased culling and decreased profitability for producers. Early detection and treatment of disorders and disease is critical in minimizing losses and increasing probability of cow recovery. Fresh cow monitoring systems that evaluate several key factors – general appearance, body temperature, intake or appetite, rumen motility, milk production, and milk or urine concentrations of ketones – are necessary for early detection of disorders and disease. Most of these problems occur within the first 3 weeks of lactation, with most occurring during the first 10 days. Developing and implementing of fresh cow monitoring systems and early treatment should increase profitability of dairy enterprises by reducing the negative effects of metabolic disorders and forced early culling.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Leptospirosis: A new perspective on an old disease
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-12-08) Olson, Jerry
    Disease causing Leptospira can be placed in one of two broad categories for common domesticated mammals: They are either hostadapted or incidental strains. The four incidental serovars of Leptospira that are pathogenic to cattle are: L. pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. canicola and L. icterhemmorhagiae. They are transmitted to cattle from other carrier animals that act as hosts for these strains. The strains are found in chronically infected rats, dogs, deer, or even pigs and are transmitted to cattle though urine-contaminated water. When the incidental strains of Leptospira are introduced into an unvaccinated, susceptible herd of cattle, they commonly cause an outbreak of abortions in the mid- to late-term pregnant cows. Commercial five-way Leptospiral vaccines are effective in preventing the abortion storms associated with the incidental strains of Leptospira, but ineffective to the most common serovar found in cattle (hardjo-bovis). Pfizer Animal Health recently received USDA approval to market the first effective L. hardjo vaccine, known as Spirovac®, in the United States.