Dairy Day, 2013

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • ItemOpen Access
    Consumer acceptance of cysteine-enhanced yogurt
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2014-03-26) Bala, Soumya; Schmidt, Karen A.; soumya; kschmidt
    Within cells, cysteine can be synthesized from methionine by the enzyme γ-cystathionase. Cysteine is then utilized to synthesize glutathione, which has many functions in cells that contribute to good health. Certain subpopulations, however, especially the elderly, have decreased γ-cystathionase activity. Thus, dietary cysteine may be beneficial in maintaining health. In previous reports, a yogurt with enhanced cysteine content was made by incorporating whey protein isolate (WPI) into the mix’s dairy base combined with a process treatment to minimize cysteine denaturation. The gel quality of this yogurt matched or exceeded that of a yogurt that was formulated and processed to mimic an industrially manufactured product. More importantly, the cysteine content was 3 times greater, and the gel quality was stable throughout a 60-day shelf life. With this evidence, the question remained whether the flavor of an enhanced cysteine yogurt would be acceptable. Because addition of whey-based products in yogurt has been reported to affect flavor and texture properties, this study was undertaken to determine consumer liking of a high-cysteine yogurt. Formulas were adjusted to contain sugar and vanillin, and these mixes were processed to produce high-cysteine and low-cysteine yogurts. Yogurts were stored at 4°C for 1 week, then evaluated by a group of 119 consumers. Consumers rated yogurts based on their liking of appearance, thickness, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from dislike extremely (1) to like extremely (9). Overall, consumers rated the high- and low-cysteine yogurts similarly for flavor (6.1), aftertaste (6.1), and overall acceptability (6.3), with mean scores corresponding to “like slightly” to “like moderately.” Consumers liked the thickness of the high-cysteine yogurt more than the low-cysteine yogurt but liked the appearance of the low-cysteine yogurt more than the high-cysteine yogurt. The high-cysteine yogurt had approximately 3 times more cysteine than the low-cysteine yogurt. These results indicate that a high-cysteine yogurt may be a useful and acceptable food system to provide dietary cysteine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Automated activity monitoring of estrus and time of ovulation
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2014-03-26) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Detection of estrus can be facilitated by use of automated activity monitors that measure physical activity. Increased physical activity is largely correlated with estrus. Our objective was to determine when ovulation occurs relative to increased physical activity so we could recommend optimal timing of insemination to maximize conception rates in lactating dairy cows. Cows (n = 65) were fitted with pressure-sensitive rump-mounted transmitters (HeatWatch; HW) that are activated by a mounting herdmate to indicate standing estrus. The same cows also were fitted with neck-mounted activity monitors (Select Detect; SD). Additional cows (n = 68) were fitted with only the activity monitor. Beginning approximately 14.5 hours after the individual activity monitor on a cow reached a set threshold, transrectal ultrasonography was used to identify the ovarian preovulatory follicle. Repeated ovarian scans were performed every 3 hours until ovulation occurred or 36 hours after threshold was reached. Although average intervals to ovulation actually differed (P < 0.05) by only 1.5 h (27.2 ± 0.6 h for HW vs. 25.7 ± 0.4 h for SD), deviations between onsets differed by 2.0 ± 0.4 h (increased activity preceded time of standing to be mounted). Increased physical activity tended to increase before the first standing event and endured longer than the duration of estrus measured by HW. We concluded that the activity monitor was a reliable tool to detect estrus, and ovulation occurred at similar intervals from increased activity as from the first standing event associated with estrus.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Five-day resynch programs in dairy cows including controlled internal drug release at two stages post-artificial insemination
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2014-03-26) Pulley, Stephanie Leeann; Hill, Scott L.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; spulley; scotth22; jss
    Two experiments were conducted to assess pregnancy outcomes after a 5-day Ovsynch-56 Resynch (RES; gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection 5 days before [GnRH-1; d 0] and 56 hours (GnRH-2) after PGF2α [PG] injections on day 5 and 6, timed artificial insemination [TAI] on day 8) with and without a progesterone-releasing intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR) 5-day insert. In Exp. 1, nonpregnant cows were enrolled on day 34 post- AI: day 34 RES-CON (n = 528) or day 34 RES-CIDR (n = 503). Blood was collected for progesterone assay. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was diagnosed by uterine palpation per rectum at 34 and 62 days post-TAI. Only 76% of 1,031 cows had high progesterone (≥1 ng/mL) on day 34 at the nonpregnant diagnosis. No differences in P/AI were detected between treatments. The day-34 RES-CIDR cows with low (<1 ng/mL) progesterone, however, had greater (P = 0.036) P/AI than day-34 RES-CON cows (37.7 vs. 29.4%), whereas day-34 RES-CIDR cows with high progesterone had lesser P/AI than day-34 RES-CON (27.4 vs. 34.3%). In Exp. 2, cows were enrolled on day 31 post-AI after a nonpregnant diagnosis: (1) day 31 PG-3-G (n = 102): Pre-PG on day 31, Pre-GnRH on day 34, and RES on day 41 (n = 102); (2) day 41 RES-CON (n = 108) as Exp. 1, but on day 41; and (3) day 41 RES-CIDR (n = 101) as Exp. 2, but on day 41. Blood was collected for progesterone assay and ovarian structures were mapped by ultrasonography on days 31, 34, 41, 46, and 48. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on days 31 and 59 post-TAI. The proportion of cows with high progesterone on day 31 was 70.6%. More (P < 0.001) cows ovulated after Pre-GnRH on day 31 PG-3-G (60.4%) than for day 41 RES-CON (12.5%) or day 41 RES-CIDR (17.1%). More (P < 0.001) PG-3-G cows had luteolysis after Pre-PG on day 31 than other treatments (73.7 vs. < 11%). The proportion of cows with high progesterone on day 41 at GnRH-1 tended (P = 0.10) to be greater for PG-3-G (75.6%) than for other treatments (65 to 70%). The P/AI was greater in cows starting RES on day 41 when progesterone was low (44%) than when it was high (33%), but no treatment differences were detected 31 days after TAI (PG-3-G = 33.3%; d 41 RES-CON = 38.9%; d 41 RES-CIDR = 35.6%). We concluded that improved P/AI for cows initiating the 5-day RES on day 34 without a corpus luteum is progesterone-dependent because addition of the CIDR insert to the RES treatment improved P/AI in cows with low progesterone (Exp. 1). Although day-31 PG-3-G increased luteolysis and produced greater ovulation rates before the onset of RES, no increase in P/AI was detected compared with RES started on day 41 with or without a CIDR insert.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Concentrations of luteinizing hormone and ovulatory responses in dairy cows before timed artificial insemination
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2014-03-26) Pulley, Stephanie Leeann; Keisler, D. H.; Hill, Scott L.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; spulley; scotth22; jss
    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of spontaneous and gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH)-induced surges of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses in lactating dairy cows enrolled in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. Cows (n = 70) in a single herd were assigned to one of two presynchronization protocols: Pre- 10 or PG-3-G. Cows assigned to the Pre-10 treatment received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) 14 days apart (Presynch), with the second injection administered 10 days before the onset of a TAI protocol. Cows assigned to the PG-3-G treatment received an injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), then 3 days later an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) 7 days before the onset of a TAI protocol. All cows received the first GnRH injection (GnRH-2) of the Ovsynch protocol and a PGF2α injection 7 days later, then cows received the breeding injection of GnRH (GnRH-3) at either 56 or 72 hours after PGF2α, with insemination occurring 12 to 16 hours after the second GnRH injection. Blood samples were collected during the study to monitor serum changes in LH, progesterone, and estradiol to determine why ovulatory responses to GnRH-induced LH release did not approach 100% when follicle dominance and adequate follicle size was achieved. Presynchronization administration of GnRH-1 increased the incidence of LH surges and ovulation rates in cows presynchronized with PG-3-G compared with Pre-10. Incidence of ovulation and occurrence of LH surges did not differ after GnRH-2, but more LH was released in Pre-10 than PG-3-G cows. Luteolysis, LH surge incidence, and ovulation rates were similar among the 4 treatment-time combinations after GnRH-3. Pregnancy per TAI was decreased in Pre-10 at 56 hours compared with Pre-10 at 72 hours and PG-3-G at 56 and 72 hours. We concluded that administration of GnRH 56 hours before breeding decreased pregnancy per TAI compared with administration of GnRH at 72 hours when cows were presynchronized with Pre-10. Presynchronization with PG-3-G resulted in acceptable pregnancy per TAI with GnRH administration occurring at either 56 or 72 hours before TAI. The flexibility of GnRH timing with the PG-3-G presynchronization protocol may be an advantage compared with the Pre-10 protocol for dairy cattle when programmed for a TAI at first service.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of chromium propionate and supplemental amino acids on dairy cattle performance near peak lactation
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2014-03-26) Vargas, Francisco J.; Yuan, Kai; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Mamedova, Laman; Bradford, Barry J.; vargasfrancisco; kyuan; etitgeme; mamedova; bbradfor
    Feeding chromium in early lactation can increase milk production, but responses during peak lactation have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate responses to chromium propionate during this period as well as interactions with rumen-protected lysine and methionine. Chromium propionate increased feed intake and tended to increase energy-corrected milk yield, and primiparous cows showed greater responses in feed intake and milk protein yield than multiparous cows. In this study, feeding chromium propionate near peak lactation increased feed intake and tended to increase productivity, but no benefits of supplementing rumen-protected lysine and methionine were observed.