Cattlemen's Day, 2010

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Packaging systems and storage times serve as post-lethality treatments for Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steaks
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Lobaton-Sulabo, A.; Uppal, K.; Getty, Kelly J. K.; Boyle, Elizabeth A. E.; Harper, N.; Barry, B.; Higgins, James J.; kgetty; lboyle; jhiggins
    Following several outbreaks involving Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service required that processors of these products implement post-processing intervention strategies for controlling L. monocytogenes. The USDA defines a postlethality treatment as a process that reduces L. monocytogenes by at least 1 log. Research has shown that packaging can generate a 1 log L. monocytogenes reduction following 1 or more weeks of storage at room temperature. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of packaging system and storage time on reducing L. monocytogenes in shelf-stable kippered beef steak.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Packaging systems and storage times serve as post-lethality treatments for Listeria monocytogenes on whole muscle beef jerky
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Lobaton-Sulabo, A.; Axman, T.; Getty, Kelly J. K.; Boyle, Elizabeth A. E.; Harper, N.; Uppal, K.; Barry, B.; Higgins, James J.; kgetty; lboyle; jhiggins
    Following several outbreaks involving Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service required that processors of these products implement post-processing intervention strategies for controlling L. monocytogenes. The USDA defines a postlethality treatment as a process that reduces L. monocytogenes by at least 1 log. Research has shown that packaging can generate a 1 log L. monocytogenes reduction following 1 or more weeks of storage at room temperature. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of packaging system and storage time on reducing L. monocytogenes on shelf-stable whole muscle jerky.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Needle-free injection enhancement of beef strip loins with phosphate and salt has potential to improve yield, tenderness, and juiciness but harm texture and flavor
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Crow, B.A.; Dikeman, Michael E.; Ray, A.N.; Houser, Terry A.; Grobbel, J.P.; Hollis, Larry C.; Phebus, Randall K.; mdikeman; lhollis; phebus; houser; jgrobbel
    Meat tenderness is the most important palatability attribute affecting consumers’ overall eating experience. Injection enhancement and blade tenderization have long been used to improve this important trait. Injection enhancement has been shown to improve tenderness, juiciness, color stability, and cooking yield, but not all solutions have been adequately evaluated. Thus, there is a need to conduct research on the effectiveness of common enhancement solutions. We published results from an extensive study comparing a solution of phosphate, salt, and rosemary with a solution of calcium lactate and rosemary injected by using traditional needle injection. There were no differences in Warner-Bratzler shear force values between treatments, but trained panelists scored steaks enhanced with calcium lactate and rosemary to be less tender and juicy than steaks enhanced with phosphate, salt, and rosemary. However, steaks enhanced with the phosphate solution had a higher incidence of metallic and salty off-flavors, a darker initial color, and more color deterioration. Because needle-free injection enhancement is relatively similar to traditional needle-injection enhancement with regard to food safety, it should be evaluated for its effects on meat color, instrumental tenderness, sensory traits, and yields. Objectives of this research were to determine the effects of injection method (needlefree vs. needle injection) and solution (calcium lactate vs. phosphate solution) on meat color, instrumental tenderness, sensory traits, pump yield, and cooking loss of beef Longissimus lumborum muscles.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of feeding low levels of crude glycerin with or without other by-products on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Schneider, C.J.; Parsons, G.L.; Miller, K.A.; Thompson, L.K.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; jdrouill
    Expansion of the renewable fuels industries has increased availability of by-products that are well suited for use as cattle feed. Glycerin is among the principal by-products of biodiesel production, comprising approximately 10% (by weight) of the soybean oil that is used to manufacture soy-based diesel fuel. Our previous research evaluated effects of including between 0% and 16% glycerin in flaked-corn finishing diets and revealed that optimal growth performance was achieved with 2% glycerin addition. Our laboratory experiments have suggested that even lower levels of glycerin may be effective at stimulating digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of low levels of glycerin in the diet on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing cattle. Furthermore, because distillers grains and other by-products are increasingly common in feedlot rations, we opted to evaluate glycerin in corn-based finishing diets as well as in diets that consisted of a combination of corn grain, distillers grains, and soybean hulls.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Morinda citrifolia on growth performance and health of high-risk calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Hibbard, L.R.; Godbee, R.G.; Epp, M.P.; Oleen, Brandon E.; Blasi, Dale A.; Olson, K. C.; dblasi; mepp; kcolson
    Bovine respiratory disease continues to be the most costly disease affecting productivity and profitability in the stocker segment. Long-acting injectable antimicrobials are presently used to reduce the incidence and severity of bovine respiratory disease. However, future use of antimicrobial treatment may be significantly curtailed in light of an increasing negative perception of antibiotic usage in food animals by consumers and governmental agencies. Consequently, preconditioning and enhanced nutrition programs that may include nutraceuticals could become more prevalent. MorindaMax (Morinda International, Provo, UT) is a natural product manufactured from the Morinda citrifolia fruit (i.e., Noni). Published literature suggests this plant extract has a broad range of immune-enhancing effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects.
  • ItemOpen Access
    FlaxLic supplementation improves growth performance of Angus bulls
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Pesta, A.C.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Nutrition can affect bull fertility. Omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids can affect motility and morphology of sperm. Flaxseed is an excellent source of alpha linolenic acid and has been shown to increase tissue concentrations of both alpha linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are involved in synthesis of important reproductive hormones. Flax can be difficult to transport, process, and store, but the FlaxLic block (New Generation Feeds, Belle Fourche, SD) is stable and easy to handle, contains high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, and may be a useful supplement for developing beef bulls. In a previous study at Kansas State University, feeding FlaxLic blocks to developing bulls for 61 days prior to breeding soundness examinations increased rate of gain and percentages of motile and normal sperm. The FlaxLic block is a high-density, low-moisture product that resists heat and humidity. Blocks of this type typically are made with molasses. One of our study objectives was to determine whether corn steep liquor, when combined with molasses and subjected to high process temperatures (248°F to 284°F), could partially substitute for molasses with no significant change in block integrity or animal performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of supplemental protein and energy on digestion and urea kinetics in beef cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Bailey, E.A.; Brake, D.W.; Anderson, David E.; Jones, M.L.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Olson, K. C.; etitgeme; kcolson
    Previous research at Kansas State University has shown that providing supplemental energy when protein is deficient will cause a decrease in digestion of low-quality forage. Our project examined the effects of supplemental glucose on low-quality forage intake and digestion. Urea recycling is a mechanism by which cattle preserve nitrogen when faced with a deficiency. Young, growing cattle receiving sufficient protein recycle large amounts of nitrogen to the rumen. Our goal was to explore the effects of providing supplemental energy and protein to cattle that are on the downward side of their growth curve. Specifically, we measured intake, digestion, and urea kinetics in these animals.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cornstalk round bale processing method does not influence feeding characteristics or feed refusals
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Jones, S.Q.; Marston, T.T.; Kraus, T.J.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Waggoner, Justin W.; Breiner, Ryan M.; jderouch; jwaggon; rbreiner
    Nutritionists and producers often assume that ingredients in a total mixed ration are uniformly mixed. However, many factors can affect ration homogeneity, including particle size, particle shape, differences in density of feed ingredients, and relative point at which the mixture is discharged from a mixer batch. Forages often are ground prior to mixing in a total mixed ration to reduce variation in forage particle length. Preprocessing forages during baling may facilitate particle length reduction, eliminating the need to grind forages prior to mixing. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage processing on (1) uniformity of the ration discharged from the mixer at different points, (2) particle length throughout the mixing process by bale type, and (3) difference in feed refusals of mixed rations based on forages processed by different methods.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea recycling in steers consuming corn-based diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Drake, D.W.; Jones, M.L.; Anderson, David E.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Nitrogen absorbed in the small intestine of cattle can be recycled to the rumen and incorporated into microbially synthesized amino acids. This is an advantage when dietary protein is low or when ruminally available nitrogen is limited by poor ruminal protein degradation. In a survey, consulting feedlot nutritionists reported that 83% of their clients used ethanol coproducts in finishing diets. Ruminal availability of nitrogen in dried distillers grains with solubles is low (i.e., 25% of total nitrogen). Thus, urea recycling may be of greater relative importance when distillers grains are used to supplement protein to cattle. The goals of our study were to better predict the amount of urea recycled by growing cattle fed corn-based diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles or urea and quantify use of recycled urea by ruminal microbes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    High sulfur content in distillers grains with solubles may be deleterious to beef steer performance and carcass quality
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Uwituze, S.; Parsons, G.L.; Schneider, C.J.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Hollis, Larry C.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; lhollis; jdrouill
    Distillers grains with solubles are becoming an increasingly important staple of cattle diets because of rapid expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. Sulfuric acid often is used in ethanol production processes to clean and control the pH of fermenters. Consequently, distillers grains with solubles can occasionally contain high sulfur concentrations. Within the rumen, sulfur is converted to hydrogen sulfide gas by ruminal microbes. Hydrogen sulfide is eructated from the rumen and subsequently aspirated into the lungs; excess amounts of hydrogen sulfide can cause polioencephalomalacia (brainers). Polioencephalomalacia is characterized by increased respiration, decreased feed intake, listlessness, muscular incoordination, progressive blindness, and necrosis of brain tissue. Elevated sulfur levels also may have deleterious effects on cattle growth performance and carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of sulfur content in dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal gas concentrations, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing steers fed diets based on steam-flaked corn or dry-rolled corn.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Increased concentrations of bovine intestinal mucus encourage growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Heidenreich, J.; Aperce, C.; Drouillard, James S.; heid0129; jdrouill
    Cattle have been implicated as carriers of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Contamination of the beef supply by E. coli O157 can occur during harvest and processing, causing costly recalls or human illness. Many interventions have been applied in attempts to prevent contamination of carcasses in processing plants, such as development of HACCP procedures, carcass washes, and steam pasteurization, but contaminations still occur. Mechanisms that allow E. coli O157:H7 to thrive in cattle at sporadic times and in such large numbers are poorly understood. Understanding factors that stimulate E. coli O157 growth in cattle will aid in identifying effective interventions that can be applied in feedlots and processing plants to reduce the numbers of this pathogen. E. coli O157 resides in the intestinal tracts of cattle. Mucin is a major component of intestinal mucus and is composed of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, which many bacteria can use as a source of food. The amount of mucin available in the intestinal tract depends on the stimulation of intestinal mucus-producing cells (goblet cells), which may be influenced by the animal’s diet, stress, and a variety of other factors. Our objective in this experiment was to determine if mucin produced in the small or large intestine could affect growth of E. coli O157:H7.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of crude glycerin on ruminal metabolism and diet digestibility of flaked-corn finishing diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Parsons, G.L.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; jdrouill
    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased supplies of crude glycerin available for livestock feeding. Catalyzed reactions between methanol and triglycerides from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, yield biodiesel and a coproduct, crude glycerin. Approximately 10% of the weight of soybean oil used to produce biodiesel becomes glycerin. Limited work has been conducted to understand metabolism of glycerin in ruminant livestock. In previous studies at Kansas State University, feeding crude glycerin at 8% or less of the diet improved cattle performance. Subsequent laboratory experiments indicated that low levels of glycerin may improve ruminal fermentation. This study was conducted to determine whether adding low levels of glycerin to feedlot diets could affect diet digestibility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementing fructose-based block supplements to forage-fed cattle increases capacity for lactic acid metabolism
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Miller, K.A.; Quinn, M.J.; Drouillard, James S.; mjq; jdrouill
    Acidosis is one of the more important maladies afflicting cattle fed significant amounts of grain and has enormous economic impact for feedlots, dairies, and producers of seed stock. The highest incidence of acidosis occurs when animals are being transitioned from high-roughage diets to diets containing high levels of concentrates. When grain-based diets are consumed in excess, consumed too quickly, or fed without proper adaptation, digestive end products (organic acids) can accumulate within the rumen, resulting in acidosis. Lactic acid is one of the key organic compounds that accumulates under these conditions. Coupled with the animal’s limited ability to metabolize lactate, accumulation of lactic acid in the rumen lowers ruminal pH and subsequently depresses feed intake. One means of preventing acidosis is to directly populate the rumen with lactate-utilizing bacteria. Alternatively, exposure to low levels of lactate (i.e., levels insufficient to harm the animal) may stimulate development of a population of lactate-utilizing bacteria. The objective of our study was to determine if supplementing low-moisture blocks made of high fructose corn syrup could increase ruminal lactate concentrations and subsequently stimulate growth of lactate-metabolizing bacteria. If successful, this could prove useful for adapting forage-fed cattle to grain-based diets.
  • ItemUnknown
    Urea recycling in beef cattle fed prairie hay- based diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Bailey, E.A.; Brake, D.W.; Anderson, David E.; Jones, M.L.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Olson, K. C.; etitgeme; kcolson
    Maximizing utilization of native rangeland is an important aspect of the cow/calf phase of beef production. Native rangeland is often of poor quality (less than 7% crude protein). Protein content of the rangeland is important because nitrogen is a key growth factor used by ruminal microbes. Without adequate nitrogen, the ruminal ecosystem will not operate at peak efficiency, which subsequently reduces the supply of nutrients to the animal. Historically, producers have provided supplemental nutrients to their cattle to achieve maximum performance. Both supplemental protein and energy have been provided to cattle consuming low-quality forage with varying levels of success. Typically, supplemental energy without adequate protein reduces fiber digestion by cattle. On the other hand, supplemental protein consistently improves overall performance.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effect of nitrogen supplementation and Zilpaterol-HCl on urea recycling in steers consuming corn-based diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Brake, D.W.; Jones, M.L.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Cattle have the innate ability to recycle nitrogen absorbed post-ruminally back to the rumen as endogenously synthesized urea. Urea returning to the rumen provides an additional opportunity for ruminal microbes to benefit from nitrogen absorbed postruminally. Urea recycling may provide a significant benefit to cattle when protein requirements of ruminal microbes are high or when large amounts of the dietary protein escape ruminal degradation.
  • ItemUnknown
    Supplementing feedlot steers and heifers with Zilmax increases proportions of strip loin, chuck clod, and top sirloin steaks exceeding Warner-Bratzler shear force thresholds, whereas aging moderates this effect
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Claus, H.C.; Brooks, J.C.; Shook, J.; Hilton, G.G.; Lawrence, T.E.; Mehaffey, J.M.; Johnson, B.J.; Allen, Dell M.; Streeter, M.N.; Nichols, W.T.; Hutcheson, J.P.; Yates, D.A.; Miller, M.F.; Hunt, Melvin C.; Killefer, J.; Dikeman, Michael E.; Murray, Leigh W.; mdikeman; lmurray
    Ractopamine hydrochloride (Elanco, Greenfield, IN) and Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride; Intervet/Schering-Plough, Millsboro, DE) are β-adrenergic agonists approved in the United States and several other countries to increase growth rate, improve efficiency of feed utilization, and increase carcass meat yield. Zilmax has been shown to improve feed efficiency by 26% and increase hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and meat yield. However, a few studies have shown that Zilmax significantly increased Warner-Bratzler shear force values (decreased tenderness). The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of supplementing feedlot diets of steers and heifers with Zilmax for 0, 20, 30, or 40 days before harvest and the subsequent effects of 7, 14, and 21 days of aging on tenderness of steer and heifer Longissimus lumborum (from strip loins) and heifer Triceps brachii (from chuck clods) and Gluteus medius (from top sirloin butts) muscles.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effects of extended Zilpaterol-HCl withdrawal on performance and carcass traits of finishing beef heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Parsons, G.L.; Depenbusch, Brandon E.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; Yates, D.A.; Hutcheson, J.P.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; bdepenbu; cdr3; jdrouill
    Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the final 20 to 40 days on feed. The minimum withdrawal time for Zilmax is 3 days. Zilmax increases hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, primarily as a result of increasing lean muscle mass and decreasing body fat. Zilmax also decreases marbling and increases shear-force values (i.e., less tender) of steaks. This study was conducted to determine whether the benefits of Zilmax would be retained with longer withdrawal times while overcoming undesirable effects on shear force and marbling.
  • ItemUnknown
    Initial heifer body composition has little impact on response to Zilmax
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Thompson, L.K.; Schneider, C.; Parsons, G.; Miller, K.; Reinhardt, Christopher D.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; cdr3; jdrouill
    Using a growth promotant at the correct time of finishing is critical for maximizing profit potential. Previous studies have shown that zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro, DE) improves carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine effects of prior body composition on subsequent changes in carcass weight, fatness, and muscle in heifers fed Zilmax so producers can introduce Zilmax at the level of finish that will result in the most desirable response. We hypothesized that fatter heifers use fat as the fuel for muscle growth.
  • ItemUnknown
    High sulfur content in distillers grains alters ruminal fermentation and diet digestibility in beef steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Uwituze, S.; Parsons, G.L.; Karges, K.K.; Gibson, M.L.; Hollis, Larry C.; Drouillard, James S.; gparsons; lhollis; jdrouill
    Requirements for elemental sulfur in feedlot diets have been established to be approximately 0.15% with a maximum upper threshold of 0.40% of diet dry matter. Feeding ethanol fermentation by-products, such as distillers grains with solubles, that are high in sulfur can result in dietary sulfur levels that exceed the recommended maximum. Previous studies indicated that dietary sulfur influenced the site and extent of fiber and protein digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility when 30% (dry matter basis) dried distillers grains with solubles with various levels of sulfur was incorporated into finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn or dry-rolled corn.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effects of SmartLic Hi-Pro 40 block supplements on ruminal microbes in cattle fed low-quality forages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-03-30) Derstein, K.D.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Dormant pastures and native grass hays often are deficient in protein and other nutrients needed to support optimum performance of beef cattle. These nutrients are essential for maintaining viable populations of symbiotic rumen microorganisms that digest the fiber in forages. When nutrient deficiencies occur, microbial populations in the rumen decrease, thereby limiting digestion of low-quality forages. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in rumen microbial populations and digestive activity when cattle consuming low-protein native grass hay are given access to high-protein, free-choice block supplements.