Dairy Day, 1989

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Involution of the uterus of dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-20) Call, Edward P.
    The rate of involution of the bovine uterus is remarkable. By 20 days after calving, tissue sloughing and hemorrhaging have ceased, and the size of the uterus has been reduced by more than 80%. By 40 days, the uterus has completely involuted except for isolated pockets of leukocytes. Any reproductive or metabolic disorders around calving will delay involution. A preventive herd health program (PHHP) including a reproductive examination of cows within a month after calving will pay dividends in improved reproductive performance. With a sound PHHP, servicing cows on the first heat after 42 days fresh is recommended.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The use of Bovine Somatotropin (BST) in dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-20) Estrada, J.; Shirley, John E.
    We all have heard about the use of BST in lactating dairy cattle during the last 6 to 8 years, but what is BST? Bovine somatotropin is another dairy management tool developed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing milk. It is the newest in a list of technological advances in the dairy industry, such as genetic improvements, nutrition, health, housing, milking equipment and techniques, embryo transfer, and DHI records. BST is a natural protein produced in the anterior pituitary gland of all cattle. Like other proteins, BST is composed of various amino acids (190-199). BST is bovine growth hormone, somatotropin. It helps to allocate energy from feed to meet the physical needs of the cows, such as growth in young animals, milk production in mature animals, and other functions in the body.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Changes in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle: the animal model
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Heikes, K.
    The July 1989 USDA Sire Summary introduced a new system for genetic evaluations in dairy cattle. These evaluations, known as the Animal Model (AM), include several new features that help to increase the accuracy of evaluations compared to the way sire summaries were calculated in the past.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dairy facility design
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Muprhy, J.P.
    When planning new construction or major modification of a dairy system, consider: • calf, heifer, dry cow, and milking cow housing; • feed types, handling equipment, and storage; • manure handling method; • milking system and equipment; • labor requirements; • building environment; • sanitary and pollution control regulations; • future expansion. Many dairy farmers produce their own feeds and raise their own herd replacements. The needs of each groups require different housing, feeding, storage, and handling systems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Pregnancy rates of dairy cows at first service: influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and timing of AI relative to estrus
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Mee, M.O.; Scoby, R.K.; Folman, Y.; jss
    We demonstrated that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or Cystorelin®) failed to improve pregnancy rates at the first service. When GnRH injection and insemination are both carried out either in early or late estrus or if cows are bred in early estrus and given a GnRH injection later in estrus, pregnancy rates are reduced by 9 to 13 percentage points compared to breeding according to the am-pm rule without GnRH treatment (control). Pregnancy rates of cows injected with GnRH early in estrus and bred in late estrus were similar to controls injected with saline and inseminated late in estrus (46 vs 43%). Altering the time of breeding and the time of GnRH injection to either early or late estrus did not improve pregnancy rates. We continue to recommend using GnRH only for repeat breeders, because GnRH consistently improves pregnancy rates at 3rd or 4th service, but not at first services.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Utilization of near infrared reflectance for the determination of fat, moisture, and protein in cheddar cheese
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Zink, G.S.; Jeon, I.J.; Harbers, L.H.
    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to develop calibration equations for the rapid determination of moisture, protein, and fat in Cheddar cheese. Most mean values from NIRS data had lower standard deviations than values obtained by standard laboratory procedures. A larger number of samples is needed to refine calibrations and validate the equations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Neutrophil and lymphocyte response to vitamins C and E supplementation in young calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Pruiett, S.D.; Morrill, J.L.; Blecha, Frank; Higgins, James J.; Anderson, N.V.; Reddy, P.G.; blecha
    Calves were bottle-fed milk replacers at 10% of weekly adjusted body weight for 8 wk. Treatments were 1) no supplements (control), 2) .16 oz vitamin C, or 3) .16 oz vitamin C plus 125 IU/lb vitamin E. Lymphocytes and neutrophils isolated from day 14 and day 28 blood samples were assayed for neutrophil-mediated S. aureus phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and for mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation. Eye and nasal discharges of calves supplemented with vitamin C and vitamins C plus E were less than those of control calves for wk 1 to 8. Lymphocyte proliferation with the mitogens showed a trend for higher responses at wk 2 in vitamin C plus E supplemented calves. Neutrophils of calves supplemented with vitamin C showed decreased phagocytosis and lysis functions compared to those of control calves at wk 2 and 4. Neutrophil function of calves supplemented with vitamins C plus E was near or slightly higher than that of controls at wk 2 and 4, suggesting that the addition of vitamin E negated the adverse effects that vitamin C alone had on neutrophil functions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of water oxygenation on milk production: milk composition and somatic cell concentration in milk
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Shirley, John E.; Galdamez, C.; Estrada, J.
    Forty Holstein cows in mid-lactation were utilized to evaluate the effects of water oxygenation on milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count. Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 25% alfalfa, 25% corn silage, and 50% corn-soy concentrate on a dry matter basis. Treatments included a 7-day preliminary period followed by two 28-day periods in which the treatments were reversed. Water consumption, milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were not different between treatments. Cows receiving oxygenated water were more docile and easily managed than control cows. Ozone introduced into water forms hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide, and increases the redox potential of the water.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Whole-plant grain sorghum and inoculated corn silages in mid-lactation dairy cow diets
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Bolsen, K.K.; Shirley, John E.; Laytimi, A.; Dickerson, J.
    Whole-plant grain sorghum silage and Silo-Best-Soluble inoculated and uninoculated control corn silages were compared in complete-mixed diets for mid-lactation dairy cows. Cows fed the inoculated corn silage yielded .6 lb and those fed the grain sorghum silage yielded 1.7 lb more fat-corrected milk than those fed the control corn silage. Fat percentage for the cows fed the grain sorghum silage was .2 units greater than for those fed the control and the inoculated corn silages. Similar percentages were obtained for milk protein and solids-not-fat. Cows fed the inoculated corn silage had the highest weight gain (+150 lb), those fed the control corn silage had intermediate gains (+132 lb), and those fed the grain sorghum silage had the lowest gains (+106 lb). We conclude that dairy farmers can derive positive responses from inoculation of corn silage and that grain sorghum silage can be substituted for corn silage in mid-lactation dairy cow diets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of growth of Holstein heifers fed 100% or 115% of NRC requirements
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Daccarett, M. G.; Morrill, J.L.
    One hundred and one Holstein heifers from the KSU Dairy Unit were used in this experiment. They were assigned to two treatments in which they were fed either 100% or 115% of the 1988 NRC requirements of energy, protein, major minerals, and major vitamins. Body measurements (height, length, heart girth, weight, body condition scores, and backfat thickness) were recorded. Rations for each group were formulated using the average wt of the heifers. Results suggest that feeding 115% of NRC requirements produces larger frame heifers (without excess body condition), with potential for earlier calving, compared to feeding 100% of NRC requirements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A rapid method of analysis of corn grain for dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Lagombra, Gregorio Garcia; Malvetti, R.; Harbers, L.H.
    Calibration equations for near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) have been either purchased from the manufacturer or developed in the laboratory. Comparative analysis with standard laboratory procedures indicate that NIRS may be used for analyzing dairy feedstuffs, when proper calibration is made with local feedstuffs. NIRS is a new, rapid method of analyzing feedstuffs that reduces the time from several days to one minute or more after grinding and subsampling. The instrument needs to be calibrated from nutrient analyses made in the laboratory. Many calibrations may be purchased from the manufacturer of the instrument; however, we have found that many Kansas feedstuffs do not lend themselves well to purchased equations. Purchased equations that do appear to give acceptable results include those for alfalfa hay, mixed hay, grass hay, and corn silage. Sorghum silage equations are inadequate for the many cultivars in this state, and those for corn and milo were too expensive to purchase.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of lasalocid in rations for growing heifers
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Isbell, D.E.; Morrill, J.L.
    Sixty-four Holstein heifer calves were used from 10 to 26 wk of age to study the effects of lasalocid on growth and feed consumption. Calves were evaluated weekly for weight gain and feed consumption. Lasalocid-fed heifers gained slightly, but not significantly, more than those that did not receive lasalocid. Their hay consumption was not significantly different than that of the control heifers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of nutrient intake and protein degradability on the growth and development of Holstein heifers
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Isbell, D.E.; Morrill, J.L.
    One hundred and twelve Holstein heifers were used from 10 wk until 26 wk of age. They were assigned to receive either 100% or 115% of NRC (1978) recommended nutrients and to be fed either control or extruded SBM. There were no interaction effects between the nutrient amount and type of SBM. Heifers on the higher nutrient amounts gained 205 lb vs 168 lb for the heifers on the lower nutrient amounts. Those on the higher nutrient amounts also had greater increases in height (8.7 vs 7.5 in), length (10.2 vs 8.7 in), and heart girth (12.6 vs 10.6 in). There were no differences in body scores. There were no statistical differences or apparent trends between the extruded and control SBM-fed heifers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reproductive research in dairy cattle at KSU
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Research in reproductive physiology and breeding management of dairy cattle at Kansas State University has the following objectives: 1) to better understand those factors that influence the reestablishment of ovarian function, estrous cycles, and fertility after calving and 2) to apply that knowledge to areas of management in which pregnancy rates and calving intervals can be improved in dairy herds. Our past efforts have included 1) pioneering research into the applications of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the time of insemination and early postpartum as a prophylactic treatment for inducing estrous cyclicity; 2) application of treatments utilizing prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ) for breeding management of open cows, estrous induction for first services, and postpartum therapy for cows with periparturient problems; 3) utilization of progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (PRIDs) to induce estrus and enhance fertility; 4) studies aimed at understanding estrous behavior, including the influence of the thyroid gland; 5) efforts to understand the influence of progestogens on the function of the corpus luteum; and 6) estrous synchronization of heifers and cows utilizing PGF2α.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Why do dairy cows have reproductive problems? How can we solve those reproductive problems?
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Britt, J.S.
    Except for very low producing herds, management of reproduction does not seem to have much effect on the herd's level of production. To counter this statement, we must ask the question: "If they did not manage reproduction, what would their production level be?" Dairy cows develop reproductive problems from three major categories of causes: man-made, biological, and environmental.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reproductive status of Kansas dairy herds
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Call, Edward P.
    There has been no appreciable change in the reproduction status of Kansas dairy herds over the last 25 yr. For example, the average calving interval was 398 days in 1965 and 405 days in 1988. Analysis of other measures show similar results. Although the long-stated management goal for a dairy herd has been a calf-a-year or 365-day calving interval, few herds realize this efficiency. On the positive side, the stability of reproductive performance is noteworthy, since genetic antagonism exists between production and reproduction. From 1965 to 1988, average yearly milk production in production-tested herds (DHI) has increased 41%.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating DHI records with the dairy herd analyzer
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-09-07) Dunham, James R.
    A computer program was developed for analyzing DHI records to evaluate potential losses from 1) reproduction, 2) nutrition, 3) milk quality, and 4) genetics. Production-tested Kansas Holstein herds were grouped according to Rolling Herd Average (RHA), with the groups averaging 13,587, 15,988, 17,938 and 20,227 lb milk/cow/yr. Losses were directly related to RHA, amounting to $573, $426, $300, and $160/cow/yr, respectively. The Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program provides valuable information to dairy farmers for making feeding, breeding, and management decisions. Yet, the only economic information provided by the program is feed cost/cwt milk produced and income over feed cost. Hence, the Dairy Herd Analyzer (DHA) computer program was developed to evaluate economic losses in dairy herds, using information from the Herd Summary (DHIA-202) and Somatic Cell Count Report (DHIA-230). The program is intended to be used by dairy farmers, consultants, researchers, and Extension personnel.