Dairy Day, 1993

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of milk progesterone and PGF[subscript]2alpha in a scheduled insemination program
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Pursley, J. R.; jss
    Holstein cows milked twice daily were assigned to be inseminated at their first detected estrus (control) after 42 days in milk or received PGFza (PG) after 42 days, if they had a high milk progesterone (P4) test on any of 3 consecutive Mondays until first inseminated. Milk P4 tests and injections of PG were given on Mondays, and most of the breeding occurred on Thursdays and Fridays. The proportion of cows inseminated within 21 days of the beginning of the breeding period was greater in the milk P4 + PG group (52.8%) than in the control (38.9%). Compared to controls, use of PG reduced days to first service by 12.2 ± 3.1 d, calving intervals by 23.3 ± 8.9 d, rate of reproductive culling, and cost per pregnancy. We concluded that using PG as a management tool in an AI program is warranted and cost effective. However, the milk P4 test would not be justifiable unless its cost were significantly lower than the cost of a weekly injection of PG.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Raw milk quality - milk flavor
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Roberts, H. A.
    Flavor control in market milk begins on the farm and continues through the processing plant and into the home of the consumer. Flavor control is directly or indirectly related to the health of the cow, the feeding of the cow, the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils, the cooling of the milk, transportation to the processing plant, and all the steps in processing and distribution of the milk. Consumers judge the quality of milk largely by taste and appearance. Therefore, it is important that each load of milk be checked for off-flavors before it is loaded on the tank truck and again when it is received at the processing plant. Learning to recognize and distinguish certain characteristics of each possible offflavor that may be present in milk is important. This will help the dairyman and the fieldman in tracing the source of any off-flavors in milk and assist in reducing or eliminating the cause. At the end of this article, you will find a chart explaining some of the milk flavor defects, possible causes, and preventions. Cut this page out and place it near your milk tank for reference.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Incidence of digital papillomatosis ("hairy warts") in a dairy herd. Response to surgery and autogenous vaccination
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Gaines, J.; Galland, J.; Leedle, J.; Basaraba, R.; Anderson, David E.
    Digital papillomatosis (hairy warts) was diagnosed in a dairy herd with a high level of lameness (20%). Warts ranged from mild to moderate to severe, with severity increasing with length of lactations. All milking cows (100%) had at least mild lesions. Cows with severe lesions were more likely to be lame. Severity of lesions had no influence on 305-day ME milk production, days open, or somatic cell counts. Cows in milk more than 150 days and lame produced 3 kg less milk per day than cows that were not lame. Almost all warts were in the interdigital cleft near the heel of the rear feet. A few cows had lesions in the front of the interdigital cleft or on the front feet. No viral particles were observed or isolated. A new, Gram-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacteria was isolated from one lesion. The cellular fatty acid profile of this bacterium had no match to any other known bacteria in any of three computer databases examined. Cows with severe lesions were assigned randomly to one of four groups: Group 1: surgical removal and autogenous vaccination; Group 2: surgical removal only; Group 3: autogenous vaccination only, and Group 4: control. Neither surgical removal nor autogenous vaccination had a significant effect on wart severity, lameness, or milk production when cows were inspected 10 wk later. Contemporary evaluation of 249 herdmates revealed a substantial number of severely affected cows naturally improved. Of 25 severely affected herd contemporaries, only 8 were severely affected 10 wk later. Evidently, natural improvement of lesions is a common phenomenon with “hairy warts. ”
  • ItemOpen Access
    High quality alfalfa in short supply - now what?
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Dunham, James R.; dunham
    Wetter than normal growing and harvesting conditions have resulted in a short supply of high quality alfalfa. Because forage quality affects milk production in early lactation cows, dairy farmers are encouraged to consider other alternatives to feeding low quality alfalfa to high-producing dairy cows.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of spray-dried wheat gluten as a component of calf starters
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Terui, H.; Morrill, J. L.; Yashima, M.; jmorrill
    Holstein calves (n =52) were on experiment from birth to 10 wk of age. Control calves were fed starters containing soybean meal as the protein supplement. The other calves were fed starters in which part of the soybean meal was replaced by spraydried wheat gluten. Bull calves fed starters containing wheat gluten consumed more starter during the third and fourth week and gained more weight during the third week than control calves, but overall differences in weight gain or feed intake were not significant, nor was there a significant carryover effect when all calves were fed the same diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of roasting soybeans and corn on dairy calf performance
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Abdelgadir, I.E.O.; Morrill, J. L.; Feyerherm, A. M.; Higgins, James J.; jmorrill
    To evaluate the effect of roasting soybeans and corn on performance of young dairy calves, newborn Holstein calves (n= 132) were blocked by sex and birth date and randomly assigned to one of six isonitrogenous calf starters. The starters were formulated using soybean meal or soybeans roasted at 280 or 295 °F. Each of these protein sources was used with either raw corn or corn roasted at 280°F. Diets were offered ad libitum from .5 to 8 wk of age. Calves were fed milk at 4% of birth weight twice daily and weaned when they consumed 1.5 lb of starter per day for 3 consecutive days. Soybeans roasted at 295 °F resulted in improved overall calf performance. Roasted corn enhanced performance of calves fed soybean meal but did not alter performance of those fed soybeans roasted at 280 °F and depressed performance of calves fed soybeans roasted at 295 °F. These effects were more pronounced during the postweaning period (6 to 8 wk). These results demonstrate the importance of nutrient interactions in young dairy calves, especially when processed grains are fed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Feeding the high producing cow
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Schingoethe, D. J.
    Dairy cows must consume a lot of feed to achieve the levels of production expected today; however, the nutrient needs of dairy cows vary immensely between the dry period and peak lactation. Requirements for the former often can be met with forages alone, whereas the latter may require a considerable amount of high-energy feeds such as grains and supplemental fat and ruminally undegradable proteins of good quality that are digestible in the gastrointestinal tract. The challenge for a dairy feeding program is to meet the cow’s nutrient needs while minimizing body weight loss, not causing digestive upsets, and maintaining health.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of processing of soybeans on release of free fatty acids and subsequent effects upon fiber digestibilities
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Reddy, P. V.; Morrill, J. L.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; jmorrill; tnagaraj
    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the rates of lipolysis and biohydrogenation of fat from raw or processed soybeans and to examine subsequent effects upon fiber digestibilities. In experiment 1, substrates containing soy oil; raw soybeans; extruded soybeans; and soybeans roasted at 270,295, or 325 °F were incubated with ruminal contents for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 hr, and release of free fatty acids was measured. The fatty acids released from substrates containing soy oil, extruded soybeans, and raw or roasted soybeans reached maximums at 4, 6, and 12 hr incubations, respectively. Fatty acids in roasted soybeans were subjected to less biohydrogenation than those in raw or extruded soybeans, suggesting that fatty acids of roasted soybeans are protected partially from ruminal bacteria. At all incubation times, the substrates containing soy oil or extruded soybeans had lower and those containing roasted soybeans had higher fiber digestibilities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Components of a progressive reproductive management program
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    These are somewhat exciting times for dairy producers because of the new arsenal of hormones available for controlling estrous cycles and improving fertility. Using Bovilene® seems to assist cows in releasing a retained placenta. Most studies have demonstrated that using GnRH as a followup treatment (day 10 to 18 postpartum) for dairy cows with periparturient problems such as retained placenta improves their subsequent reproductive performance. Prophylactic treatment of early postpartum cows with GnRH (days 10 to 18) or prostaglandin F2alpha (days 20 to 40) improved their reproductive performance in most studies as well. Injections of GnRH at the time of insemination during late estrus in repeatservice cows effectively improves pregnancy rates. As with all new technologies and hormonal therapies, it is critical that attention be paid to consistent heat detection and good A.I. technique. Use of hormones will not replace, only supplement, good management procedures and common sense.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Looking ahead with a look behind
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Call, Edward P.; epcall
    The current economic situation dictates that dairy producers use all available tools and resources to maximize efficiency. Yearly milk yield is the most reliable predictor of profitability. Because the genetic base dictates each cow’s potential for converting feed into milk, using 80+ percentile proved sires is strongly recommended along with a 100% commitment to artificial insemination of cows and heifers. Current technology allows dairy producers to make significant gains in resolving poor reproductive performance. A user friendly recordkeeping system to routinely measure individual cows’ productivity along with overall herd performance is essential for maximizing return on capital investment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Body condition scoring: A management tool
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Shirley, John E.; jshirley
    Body condition scoring provides a tool to help the dairy herd manager evaluate his/her nutrition and management program. It takes time, has an associated cost, and will result in a positive economic return if one makes management changes suggested by the results. Body condition scoring done simultaneously with other herd events reduces the time required and provides the herd manager with coordinated information.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of yearly milk per cow on profitability of dairy herds
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Call, Edward P.; Dunham, James R.; epcall; dunham
    An analysis of Kansas Holstein herds in 1992 indicated that the yearly milk production per cow had a significant effect on returns to labor and management. The lowest quartile herds (13,445 lb per cow average) had a negative return to management. Herds averaging 20,614 lb per cow yielded $479 return to management. Records become increasingly important in managing the dairy operation, especially those that are readily analyzed and predict the degree of economic change when management is modified.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Kansas farm management association dairy cow herd enterprise management analysis
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) DeLano, F. D.; Langemeier, Michael R.; fdelano
    Actual dairy cow herd enterprise records from Kansas Farm Management Association farms over the past 4 years have shown an increase in returns over variable costs from $17,900 to $23,300 per farm for a 100-cow dairy herd in favor of herds with higher milk-producing cows. Cost per hundred weight of milk produced per cow decreased for the higher-producing herds compared with lower-producing herds, even though total cost per cow increased. In 1992, for every extra $1.00 spent on feed and other variable costs, the higher producing herds earned $1.71. This was a 71% return per dollar invested.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Aflatoxins: Contamination of animal feeds and food products
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-08-02) Phebus, Randall K.; phebus
    Mycotoxins are toxic chemicals produced by certain species of molds during their growth on numerous substrates. Molds can invade the food and feed supply at various points throughout production, storage, processing, and distribution. Of most concern are the aflatoxins, which are highly toxic and classified as probable human carcinogens. Aflatoxins are often associated with crops that have undergone stress or feeds and foods that have been stored improperly. Tremendous economic implications are associated with regulation, testing, and loss of agricultural products from aflatoxin contamination. Dairy cattle excrete a portion of consumed aflatoxins into milk, thus, leading to a strict action level of 0.5 ppb in fluid milk. Several types of processed food products have been demonstrated to be occasionally contaminated with these toxins.