Dairy Day, 1985

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Reproductive characteristics of Kansas Holstein herds grouped by rolling herd average
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Call, Edward P.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    An analysis of 635 Kansas Holstein herds with 41,426 cows indicated that the negative genetic antagonism between production and reproduction can be overcome with good management practices. As rolling herd average increased, only services per conception increased by 0.2 units. All other reproductive traits favored higher yearly production. Days to first service and cows not yet bred are the main factors responsible for less than ideal reproductive performance in Kansas Holstein herds.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of serum from Vitamin E-supplemented calves on Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus replication
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Reddy, P.G.; Morrill, J.L.; Minocha, H.C.; Frey, R.A.
    Blood serum from Holstein calves supplemented with vitamin E at levels of 2800 mg orally or 1400 mg by injection at weekly intervals inhibited replication of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus in tissue cultures. Supplementing typical calf diets with vitamin E may increase protection against pathogens, at a time when they are more vulnerable to problems such as respiratory diseases.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Rumensin helps to reduce the incidence and severity of legume bloat in cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; Katz, M.P.; Fina, L.R.
    Monensin at 300 mg and 450 mg per 1000 lbs body weight reduced the severity of alfalfa pasture bloat by 41.2 and 73.1 %, respectively. Lasalocid at the same levels reduced the bloat score by 25.5 and 12.4%. The difference between the two antibiotics appears to be in their ability to inhibit rumen protozoa. Monensin reduced protozoal population in the rumen, whereas lasalocid had no effect. A smaller protozoal population decreases compounds that contribute to frothiness and also increases substances such as plant chloroplasts, which have antifrothing properties.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Relationship of herd average somatic cell count and spontaneous recovery from subclinical mastitis
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Dunham, James R.
    The rate of spontaneous recovery from subclinical mastitis was evaluated in 56 Kansas. DHI herds participating in the Somatic Cell Count (SCC) program. Herds were classified as low (>300,000) or high (>600,000) based on herd sec average. Comparisons between low and high SCC-herds were made for each cow's ability to recover from a subclinical case of mastitis (>600,000 SCC). Low-SCC herds had a rate of spontaneous recovery that was more than three times greater than that of high-SCC herds. Average SCC of cows with subclinical mastitis was similar in low and high herds J as well as the average sec of cows following spontaneous recovery. Results illustrate the importance of monitoring monthly sec reports. Proper attention to good procedures of milking management includes: attention to milking techniques, proper function of milking equipment, and attention to sanitation and housing conditions. As a result, herds with low SCC tests will have higher production and fewer subclinical cases of mastitis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Silage additive update: 1985
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Bolsen, K.K.; Hoover, J.D.
    Silage additives are receiving fairly widespread acceptance in the U.S. as management tools that are important for silage-making. Many products, which are added to the crop at the time of harvest or ensiling, are available commercially in Kansas. Some manufacturers/distributors make no claims for their products, primarily because management is such an important factor in making a good quality silage. Others claim their product will improve silage quality. When a claim is made, it is wise to check for evidence that the product has a favorable effect on the silage crop in question. Farm-scale silo trials at Kansas State University have shown that a few silage additives repeatedly reduced "in silo" losses. But results will probably not be favorable with all additives under every farm condition. Therefore, results obtained with a commercial product in our trials may not apply to other products on the market, however similar in ingredient formulation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of moisture level and bale size on alfalfa hay quality
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Laytimi, A.; Grimes, C.; Bolsen, K.K.
    Third cutting alfalfa was baled in large I-ton rectangular bales and in small conventional bales at three moisture levels, low (10%), medium (16%), and high (22%). During 120 days of storage under a roof, the high-moisture, large bales heated the most, reaching 128 ̊ F by 2 days post baling in a first peak and 133 ̊F in a second peak by the 11 th day. Moderate heating occurred in the high-moisture, small bales (l08° F) and medium-moisture, large bales(103 ̊F). Only the high-moisture, small and large bales had significant loss of dry matter during storage. Also, heating decreased the water soluble carbohydrate and increased the concentration of cell wall contents by the 120th day of storage. A three-period collection and digestion trial with lambs showed higher voluntary intakes of small-bale hays than of large-bale hays and higher intakes of high-moisture hays than of low-moisture hays. Also, the dry matter and crude protein digestibilities were lowest for the high-moisture, large bale hay. These data indicate that baling alfalfa hay in large bales at 22% moisture results in extensive heating, which negatively affects storage loss, nutrient content, and digestibility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium bentonite on digestion and rumen fermentation characteristics of forage sorghum silage-based diets fed to growing steers
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Jacques, K.A.; Axe, D.E.; Harris, T.R.; Harmon, D.L.; Bolsen, K.K.; Johnson, D.E.
    One percent sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo3) increased intake of a 50% silage - 50% grain diet, but had no effect on intake of a full-feed sorghum silage diet. The addition of concentrate (rolled milo) slightly lowered rumen pH and decreased acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch digestion. NaHC03 had no effect on digestibility, but 2% bentonite lowered digestibility of NDF and ADF. Neither compound affected rumen fermentation characteristics.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Potential of interseeded soybean and grain sorghum as a forage for dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Shirley, John E.; Koger, J.
    Soybeans interseeded with grain sorghum (soy-sorghum) was compared to corn silage as a silage crop for ruminant animals over a 3-year period. Results indicate that DM yields are comparable if soy-sorghum is seeded early (June 6) but less than corn silage when seeded late (June 28). Liquid manure may be substituted for commercial fertilizer without a significant decrease in soy-sorghum DM yield per acre.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Potential of interplanted soybean and grain sorghum as a forage for dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Shirley, John E.; Evans, J.
    Interplanted soybean (l00 to 120 lbs/acre) and grain sorghum (15 to 20 lbs/acre) were harvested at 64,88,102, 123, and 130 days postplanting to determine the ratio and chemical composition of vegetative and seed parts for each plant at advancing stages of maturity. Initial vegetative dry matter yield was 6,300 lbs/acre and increased to 15,000 lbs/acre with 63% vegetative at 123 days postplanting. Vegetative portions (stems, leaves, stalks) of the soybean and grain sorghum plants constituted 100% of the dry matter at day 64, then decreased to 52% at day 130, whereas the contribution of the soy pod (plus bean) and milo head to total dry matter increased from 0% at day 64 to 13% and 35%, respectively, at day 130. Generally, TDN and crude protein decreased over time in the vegetative plant parts and increased in the seed parts, whereas neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased in the vegetative plant parts and decreased in the seed parts. Chemical composition at day 123 for the vegetative parts was 56% estimated TDN, 46% ADF, and 9% crude protein. NDF was 74% for grain sorghum and 57% for soy, with the difference contributed by hemicellulose. For the grain parts, TDN was 75%; NDF was 40% for grain sorghum and 28% for soy with the difference contributed by hemicellulose; ADF was 18%; and protein was 9% for grain sorghum and 29% for soy.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of buffer in prestarter on calf performance
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Jordan, K.J.; Morrill, J.L.; Reddy, P.G.; Higgins, James J.
    Previous work at the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station contributed to the development of an early weaning program (see 1984 Dairy Day, Report of Progress 460). This program involves the use of a prestarter, which is a specially prepared feed intended to encourage early dry feed consumption and rumen development. Because all of the carbohydrate in the prestarter is lactose and because the rumen of the very young calf is not adapted to utilization of starch, rapid fermentation might cause excessive acidity in the developing rumen, a condition that might be avoided by adding a buffer to the prestarter. This experiment was conducted to test that hypothesis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of calf-starter protein solubility on calf performance
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Morrill, J.L.; Reddy, P.G.; Behnke, Keith C.; Higgins, James J.
    Three starters containing differently processed protein supplements were fed to Holstein heifer calves, using an early weaning program. One starter contained soybean meal. The other starters contained soybean grits processed through an extrusion cooker to reduce the protein solubility to an intermediate (PDI> 50%) or low (PDI < 15 %) level. Calf performance was similar on all three starters.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of culling on production and profit
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Call, Edward P.
    Profit or loss in the dairy enterprise is dependent upon yearly production per cow and degree of capitalization. Higher producing cows convert feed into milk more efficiently. Cows of similar body size have similar maintenance requirements, regardless of level of yearly production. The successful dairy enterprise must establish yearly production goals needed to satisfy cash flow requirements and then implement management procedures to obtain maximal yearly milk per cow on the number of cows required to meet the herd's goal.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Genetic selection and breeding practices of Kansas Holstein herds in relation to yearly level of production
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Call, Edward P.
    An analysis of 41,426 cows in 635 Kansas Holstein herds indicated that considerable improvement can be made in genetic gain by more stringent sire selection and greater use of proved bulls. The generation interval in dairy cattle is about 5 yr so a dairy producer has only a limited number of decisions by which to make genetic improvement. Maximum genetic gain is possible by breeding 80 percent of the herd to bulls in the 80+ percentile. The remainder of the herd should be bred to several young sires in a progeny test program to aid in selecting the meritorious sires of the next generation. All heifers should be bred to superior bulls using calving ease as an additional selection criterion.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of AM-PM and DHI records
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Dunham, James R.
    A comparison was made of the AM-PM production testing program with the traditional DHI program during 13 test periods of 1984 in the KSU Dairy Teaching and Research Center herd. Although there were slight variations in daily milk weights and percentages of fat and protein in milk, rolling herd averages were nearly identical. Individual 305-2X-M.E. milk and fat records also were compared for 107 cows using both testing programs. Differences between testing programs were minimal) as most records varied by less than 1%. Therefore, it was concluded that the AM-PM program is a very accurate production test.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Controlling calving intervals with prostaglandin F2αand fixed-time inseminations
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Lucy, M.C.; Call, Edward P.; jss
    Prolonged or delayed interval to first breeding is a major cause of long calving intervals. Our objective was to test two methods of artificial insemination by appointment after controlling the onset of estrus for all first breedings after calving. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF) was used to time the onset of estrus for cows in two experimental groups. Control cows (inseminated at first heat after 42 days postpartum) had longer intervals to first breeding than the two experimental groups given PCF at 40 to 46 and 51 to 57 days postpartum. Conception rates were lower in the treated cows than in control cows. However, no differences were observed for calving intervals, which ranged in average days from 379 to 384 for treated cows and averaged 376 days for control cows. We were able to reduce successfully the interval to first breeding so all cows were first bred by approximately 60 days postpartum in the experimental groups, but we were unable to shorten overall calving intervals.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Early postpartum hormonal therapy improves fertility of dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; BenMrad, M.; jss
    A study of 234 Holstein cows was conducted to determine if hormonal treatments of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or Cystorelin®) and(or) prostaglandin F2a (PGF or Lutalyse®) given early after calving would improve subsequent fertility of dairy cows. Treatment of cows having abnormal conditions associated with calving (puerperal problems) reduced interval from calving to conception by 43 to 48 days when GnRH was given once between days 10 and 14 postpartum or when PGF was administered once between 20 and 24 days after calving compared with cows given only saline (controls). The reduction in days open was 27 to 29 days overall for all cows (normal and abnormal) treated with either hormone compared with controls. Cows (normal and abnormal) given either hormone required 26 to 41 % fewer inseminations per conception than controls. Reasons for improved fertility are discussed. We conclude that early postpartum treatments with GnRH or PGF improved fertility of dairy cows, especially those that experienced puerperal problems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of temperature and humidity on the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2012-10-04) Shirley, John E.; Lagombra, G.G.
    The reproductive performance of 179 Holstein cows during the period from December 1978 through March 1984 was evaluated with respect to environmental temperature and humidity at the time of insemination. This study was conducted at the Western Kentucky University Farm, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Average monthly temperatures are similar to eastern Kansas, but average humidity is approximately 10 per cent higher. Average seasonal temperature and humidity values during the study period were 37.5°F, 81.2%; 60.2°F, 84.4%; 74.9°F, 89.4%; and 53.6°F, 85.3% for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. Conception rates observed were 54%, 46%, 15%, and 39% for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively. A complete randomized design was used to determine significant differences among seasonal conception rates and among months within seasons. Conception rates were significantly different (P<.01) among seasons but not significantly different (P>.05) among months within seasons.