Kinesiology Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Irwin, Brandon; Kurz, Daniel; Chalin, P.; Thompson, Nicholas; bcirwin; Irwin, Brandon
    Background: Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective: The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner's degree of presence in the online media. Methods: Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based-high presence, group dynamics-based-low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based-low presence and group dynamics-based-high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based-high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1.Results: Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based-low presence (overall mean 5.81, SD 1.04) condition compared to the standard (overall mean 5.04, SD 0.81) conditions (P=.006), but did not differ between group dynamics-based-low presence and group dynamics-based-high presence (overall mean 5.42, SD 1.07) conditions (P=.25). Physical activity was higher in the high presence condition (mean 64.48, SD 20.19, P=.01) than all other conditions (mean 53.3, SD 17.35).Conclusions: A brief, online group dynamics-based intervention may be an effective method of improving group cohesion in virtual PA groups. However, it may be insufficient on its own to improve PA. ©Brandon Irwin, Daniel Kurz, Patrice Chalin, Nicholas Thompson.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Altered Blood Flow Response to Small Muscle Mass Exercise in Cancer Survivors Treated With Adjuvant Therapy
    Didier, K. D.; Ederer, A. K.; Reiter, L. K.; Brown, M.; Hardy, R.; Caldwell, J.; Black, C.; Bemben, M. G.; Ade, Carl J.; cade; Ade, Carl
    Background-Adjuvant cancer treatments have been shown to decrease cardiac function. In addition to changes in cardiovascular risk, there are several additional functional consequences including decreases in exercise capacity and increased incidence of cancer-related fatigue. However, the effects of adjuvant cancer treatment on peripheral vascular function during exercise in cancer survivors have not been well documented. We investigated the vascular responses to exercise in cancer survivors previously treated with adjuvant cancer therapies. Methods and Results-Peripheral vascular responses were investigated in 11 cancer survivors previously treated with adjuvant cancer therapies (age 58 +/- 6 years, 34 +/- 30 months from diagnosis) and 9 healthy controls group matched for age, sex, and maximal voluntary contraction. A dynamic handgrip exercise test at 20% maximal voluntary contraction was performed with simultaneous measurements of forearm blood flow and mean arterial pressure. Forearm vascular conductance was calculated from forearm blood flow and mean arterial pressure. Left ventricular ejection time index (LVETi) was derived from the arterial pressure wave form. Forearm blood flow was attenuated in cancer therapies compared to control at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (189.8 +/- 53.8 vs 247.9 +/- 80.3 mL.min (1), respectively). Forearm vascular conductance was not different between groups at rest or during exercise. Mean arterial pressure response to exercise was attenuated in cancer therapies compared to controls (107.8 +/- 10.8 vs 119.2 +/- 16.2 mm Hg). LEVTi was lower in cancer therapies compared to controls. Conclusions-These data suggest an attenuated exercise blood flow response in cancer survivors approximate to 34 months following adjuvant cancer therapy that may be attributed to an attenuated increase in mean arterial pressure.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on vascular function and skeletal muscle microvascular deoxygenation
    Caldwell, J. T.; Wardlow, G. C.; Branch, P. A.; Ramos, M.; Black, C. D.; Ade, Carl J.; cade; Ade, Carl J.
    This paper investigated the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on macro-and microvascular function. We tested the hypotheses that resting local and systemic endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and microvascular reactivity would decrease, (V) over dotO(2max) would be altered, and that during ramp exercise, peripheral O-2 extraction, evaluated via near-infrared-derived spectroscopy (NIRS) derived deoxygenated hemoglobin + myoglobin ([HHb]), would be distorted following EIMD. In 13 participants, measurements were performed prior to (Pre) and 48 h after a bout of knee extensor eccentric exercise designed to elicit localized muscle damage (Post). Flow-mediated dilation and postocclusive reactive hyperemic responses measured in the superficial femoral artery served as a measurement of local vascular function relative to the damaged tissue, while the brachial artery served as an index of nonlocal, systemic, vascular function. During ramp-incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer, [HHb] and tissue saturation (TSI%) in the m. vastus lateralis were measured. Superficial femoral artery FMD significantly decreased following EIMD (pre 6.75 +/- 3.89%; post 4.01 +/- 2.90%; P < 0.05), while brachial artery FMD showed no change. The [HHb] and TSI% amplitudes were not different following EIMD ([HHb]: pre, 16.9 +/- 4.7; post 17.7 +/- 4.9; TSI%: pre, 71.0 +/- 19.7; post 71.0 +/- 19.7; all P > 0.05). At each progressive increase in workload (i.e., 0-100% peak), the [HHb] and TOI% responses were similar pre-and 48 h post-EIMD (P > 0.05). Additionally, (V) over dotO(2max) was similar at pre-(3.0 +/- 0.67 L min(-1)) to 48 h post (2.96 +/- 0.60 L min(-1))-EIMD (P > 0.05). Results suggest that moderate eccentric muscle damage leads to impaired local, but not systemic, macrovascular dysfunction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Kinetics of ventilation-induced changes in diaphragmatic metabolism by bilateral phrenic pacing in a piglet model
    Breuer, T.; Hatam, N.; Grabiger, B.; Marx, G.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Weis, J.; Kopp, R.; Gayan-Ramirez, G.; Zoremba, N.; Bruells, C. S.; bjbehnke; Behnke, Bradley
    Perioperative necessity of deep sedation is inevitably associated with diaphragmatic inactivation. This study investigated 1) the feasibility of a new phrenic nerve stimulation method allowing early diaphragmatic activation even in deep sedation and, 2) metabolic changes within the diaphragm during mechanical ventilation compared to artificial activity. 12 piglets were separated into 2 groups. One group was mechanically ventilated for 12 hrs (CMV) and in the second group both phrenic nerves were stimulated via pacer wires inserted near the phrenic nerves to mimic spontaneous breathing (STIM). Lactate, pyruvate and glucose levels were measured continuously using microdialysis. Oxygen delivery and blood gases were measured during both conditions. Diaphragmatic stimulation generated sufficient tidal volumes in all STIM animals. Diaphragm lactate release increased in CMV transiently whereas in STIM lactate dropped during this same time point (2.6 vs. 0.9 mmol L-1 after 5:20 hrs; p < 0.001). CMV increased diaphragmatic pyruvate (40 vs. 146 mu mol L-1 after 5:20 hrs between CMV and STIM; p < 0.0001), but not the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Diaphragmatic stimulation via regular electrodes is feasible to generate sufficient ventilation, even in deep sedation. Mechanical ventilation alters the metabolic state of the diaphragm, which might be one pathophysiologic origin of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Occurrence of hypoxia was unlikely.
  • ItemOpen Access
    In vivo Ca2+ dynamics induced by Ca2+ injection in individual rat skeletal muscle fibers
    Wakizaka, M.; Eshima, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Shirakawa, H.; Poole, David C.; Kano, Y.; dcpoole; Poole, David C.
    In contrast to cardiomyocytes, store overload-induced calcium ion (Ca2+) release (SOICR) is not considered to constitute a primary Ca2+ releasing system from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in skeletal muscle myocytes. In the latter, voltage-induced Ca2+ release (VICR) is regarded as the dominant mechanism facilitating contractions. Any role of the SOICR in the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) and its dynamics in skeletal muscle in vivo remains poorly understood. By means of in vivo single fiber Ca2+ microinjections combined with bioimaging techniques, we tested the hypothesis that the [Ca2+](i) dynamics following Ca2+ injection would be amplified and fiber contraction facilitated by SOICR. The circulation-intact spinotrapezius muscle of adult male Wistar rats (n = 34) was exteriorized and loaded with Fura-2 AM to monitor [Ca2+](i) dynamics. Groups of rats underwent the following treatments: (1) 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mmol/L Ca2+ injections, (2) 2.0 mmol/L Ca2+ with inhibition of ryanodine receptors (RyR) by dantrolene sodium (DAN), and (3) 2.0 mmol/L Ca2+ with inhibition of SR Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A quantity of 0.02 mmol/L Ca2+ injection yielded no detectable response, whereas peak evoked [Ca2+](i) increased 9.9 +/- 1.8% above baseline for 0.2 mmol/L and 23.8 c 4.3% (P < 0.05) for 2.0 mmol/L Ca2+ injections. The peak [Ca2+](i) in response to 2.0 mmol/L Ca2+ injection was largely abolished by DAN and CPA (-85.8%, -71.0%, respectively, both P < 0.05 vs. unblocked) supporting dependence of the [Ca2+](i) dynamics on Ca2+ released by SOICR rather than injected Ca2+ itself. Thus, this investigation demonstrates the presence of a robust SR-evoked SOICR operant in skeletal muscle in vivo.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Greater (V)over dotO(2peak) is correlated with greater skeletal muscle deoxygenation amplitude and hemoglobin concentration within individual muscles during ramp-incremental cycle exercise
    Okushima, D.; Poole, David C.; Barstow, Thomas J.; Rossiter, H. B.; Kondo, N.; Bowen, T. S.; Amano, T.; Koga, S.; dcpoole; tbarsto; Poole, David; Barstow, Thomas J.
    It is axiomatic that greater aerobic fitness ((V)over dotO(2peak)) derives from enhanced perfusive and diffusive O-2 conductances across active muscles. However, it remains unknown how these conductances might be reflected by regional differences in fractional O-2 extraction (i.e., deoxy [Hb+Mb] and tissue O-2 saturation [StO2]) and diffusive O-2 potential (i.e., total[Hb+Mb]) among muscles spatially heterogeneous in blood flow, fiber type, and recruitment (vastus lateralis, VL; rectus femoris, RF). Using quantitative time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy during ramp cycling in 24 young participants ((V)over dotO(2peak) range: similar to 37.4-66.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)), we tested the hypotheses that (1) deoxy [Hb+Mb] and total[Hb+Mb] at (V)over dotO(2peak) would be positively correlated with (V)over dotO(2peak) in both VL and RF muscles; (2) the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) during submaximal exercise would not differ among subjects differing in (V)over dotO(2peak). Peak deoxy [Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with (V)over dotO(2peak) for both VL (r = 0.44 and -0.51) and RF (r = 0.49 and -0.49), whereas for total[Hb+Mb] this was true only for RF (r = 0.45). Baseline deoxy[Hb+Mb] and StO2 correlated with (V)over dotO(2peak) only for RF (r = -0.50 and 0.54). In addition, the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes were not affected by aerobic fitness. In conclusion, while the pattern of deoxygenation (the deoxy[Hb+Mb] slopes) did not differ between fitness groups the capacity to deoxygenate [Hb+Mb] (index of maximal fractional O-2 extraction) correlated significantly with (V)over dotO(2peak) in both RF and VL muscles. However, only in the RF did total [Hb+Mb] (index of diffusive O-2 potential) relate to fitness.
  • ItemOpen Access
    W ' expenditure and reconstitution during severe intensity constant power exercise: mechanistic insight into the determinants of W '
    Broxterman, R. M.; Skiba, P. F.; Craig, J. C.; Wilcox, S. L.; Ade, Carl J.; Barstow, Thomas J.; cade; tbarsto; Ade, Carl J.; Barstow, Thomas J.
    The sustainable duration of severe intensity exercise is well-predicted by critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W'). The development of the W-BAL' model allows for the pattern of W' expenditure and reconstitution to be characterized and this model has been applied to intermittent exercise protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of relaxation phase duration and exercise intensity on W' reconstitution during dynamic constant power severe intensity exercise. Six men (24.6 +/- 0.9 years, height: 173.5 +/- 1.9 cm, body mass: 78.9 +/- 5.6 kg) performed severe intensity dynamic handgrip exercise to task failure using 50% and 20% duty cycles. The W-BAL' model was fit to each exercise test and the time constant for W' reconstitution (tau(W)') was determined. The sW' was significantly longer for the 50% duty cycle (1640 +/- 262 sec) than the 20% duty cycle (863 +/- 84 sec, P = 0.02). Additionally, the relationship between sW' and CP was well described as an exponential decay (r(2) = 0.90, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the W-BAL' model is able to characterize the expenditure and reconstitution of W' across the contraction-relaxation cycles comprising severe intensity constant power handgrip exercise. Moreover, the reconstitution of W' during constant power severe intensity exercise is influenced by the relative exercise intensity, the duration of relaxation between contractions, and CP.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Physical Activity-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002-2013
    Meyer, M. R. U.; Perry, C. K.; Sumrall, J. C.; Patterson, M. S.; Walsh, S. M.; Clendennen, S. C.; Hooker, S. P.; Evenson, K. R.; Goins, K. V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Tompkins, N. O.; Eyler, A. A.; Jones, S.; Tabak, R.; kmhphd
    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity-related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were "enhance infrastructure supporting walking" (n = 11) and " increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity" (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity-related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities. Further research using robust study designs and measurement is needed to better ascertain implementation success and effectiveness of COCOMO and non-COCOMO strategies in rural communities.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise
    Smith, J. R.; Broxterman, R. M.; Ade, C. J.; Evans, K. K.; Kurti, S. P.; Hammer, S. M.; Barstow, Thomas J.; Harms, Craig A.; tbarsto; caharms
    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility is NAC supplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine if NAC supplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized that NAC would lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) or NAC (70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Following NAC supplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 ?mol/L vs. PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 ?mol/L; P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 ?mol/L vs. PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 ?mol/L; P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) between NAC (473.0 ± 62.1 sec) and PLA (438.7 ± 58.1 sec). Resting BABF was not different (P = 0.79) with NAC (99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) and PLA (108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min). BABF was not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min; PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 and P = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acute NAC supplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men. © 2016 Published by the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Neighborhood Environment Perceptions and the Likelihood of Smoking and Alcohol Use
    Jitnarin, N.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Haddock, C. K.; Hughey, Joseph; Berkel, L.; Poston, W. S. C.; kmhphd
  • ItemOpen Access
    Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults
    Wong, C. N.; Chaddock-Heyman, L.; Voss, M. W.; Burzynska, A. Z.; Basak, C.; Erickson, K. I.; Prakash, R. S.; Szabo-Reed, A. N.; Phillips, S. M.; Wojcicki, T.; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, E.; Kramer, A. F.; emailey
  • ItemOpen Access
    Does moderate intensity exercise attenuate the postprandial lipemic and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal?
    (2015-05-05) Kurti, Stephanie P.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Levitt, Morton; Cull, Brooke J.; Teeman, Colby S.; Emerson, Sam R.; Harms, Craig A.; sararose; caharms
    We investigated whether an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise in the postprandial period attenuates the triglyceride and airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal (HFM) compared to remaining inactive in the postprandial period. Seventeen (11 M/6 F) physically active (≥150 min/week of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise (EX; 60% VO[subscript 2peak]) or sedentary (CON) condition after a HFM (10 kcal/kg, 63% fat). Blood analytes and airway inflammation via exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were measured at baseline, and 2 and 4 hours after HFM. Airway inflammation was assessed with induced sputum and cell differentials at baseline and 4 hours after HFM. Triglycerides doubled in the postprandial period (~113 ± 18%, P < 0.05 ), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Percentage of neutrophils was increased 4 hours after HFM (~17%), but the increase did not differ between EX and CON. Exhaled nitric oxide changed nonlinearly from baseline to 2 and 4 hours after HFM (P < 0.05, ƞ² = 0.36) . Our findings suggest that, in active individuals, an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise does not attenuate the triglyceride or airway inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effects of dietary fish oil on exercising skeletal muscle vascular and metabolic control in chronic heart failure rats
    (2014-12-03) Holdsworth, Clark T.; Copp, Steven W.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Hageman, Karen S.; Stebbins, Charles L.; Poole, David C.; Musch, Timothy I.; suehageman; dcpoole; musch
    The ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is a class of inward rectifier K+ channels that can link cellular metabolic status to vasomotor tone across the metabolic transients seen with exercise. This investigation tested the hypothesis that if KATP channels are crucial to exercise hyperaemia then blockade via glibenclamide (GLI) would lower hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) and vascular conductance (VC) during treadmill exercise. In 14 adult male Sprague Dawley rats mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood [lactate], and hindlimb muscle BF (radiolabelled microspheres) were determined at rest (n = 6) or during exercise (n = 8; 20 m min⁻¹, 5% incline) under control (CON) and GLI conditions (5 mg kg⁻¹, i.a). At rest and during exercise, MAP was higher (Rest, CON: 130 ± 6, GLI: 152 ± 8; Exercise, CON: 140 ± 4, GLI: 147 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05) and heart rate (HR) was lower (Rest, CON: 440 ± 16, GLI: 410 ± 18; Exercise, CON: 560 ± 4, GLI: 540 ± 10 beats min⁻¹, P < 0.05) with GLI. Hindlimb muscle BF (CON: 144 ± 10, GLI: 120 ± 9 ml min⁻¹ (100 g)⁻¹, P < 0.05) and VC were lower with GLI during exercise but not at rest. Specifically, GLI decreased BF in 12, and VC in 16, of the 28 individual hindlimb muscles and muscle parts sampled during exercise with a greater fractional reduction present in muscles comprised predominantly of type I and type IIa fibres (P < 0.05). Additionally, blood [lactate] (CON: 2.0 ± 0.3; GLI: 4.1 ± 0.9 mmol L⁻¹, P < 0.05) was higher during exercise with GLI. That KATP channel blockade reduces hindlimb muscle BF during exercise in rats supports the obligatory contribution of KATP channels in large muscle mass exercise-induced hyperaemia.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Discussion: "The efficacy of the self-paced VO_2max test to measure maximal oxygen uptake in treadmill running"
    (2014-12-03) Poole, David C.; dcpoole
    We wish to raise some concerns about the above study published on-line in Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. Most important is the issue of biased reporting as the authors have failed to acknowledge the findings of a critical paper by Chidnok et al 2013 (first published on-line in the European Journal of Applied Physiology in Sept 2012) which provided a rigorous and comprehensive assessment of a self-paced (RPE-guided) test versus two conventional ramp incremental protocols.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy
    (2014-11-04) Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; emailey
    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N=141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011-January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on Social Cognitive Theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers’ perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.
  • ItemOpen Access
    High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study
    (2014-09-29) Heinrich, Katie M.; Patel, Pratik M.; O’Neal, Joshua L.; Heinrich, Bryan S.; kmhphd; bryanh73
    Background: Understanding exercise participation for overweight and obese adults is critical for preventing comorbid conditions. Group-based high-intensity functional training (HIFT) provides time-efficient aerobic and resistance exercise at self-selected intensity levels which can increase adherence; behavioral responses to HIFT are unknown. This study examined effects of HIFT as compared to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training (ART) on exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions. Methods: A stratified, randomized two-group pre-test posttest intervention was conducted for eight weeks in 2012 with analysis in 2013. Participants (n = 23) were stratified by median age (< or ≥ 28) and body mass index (BMI; < or ≥ 30.5). Participants were physically inactive with an average BMI of 31.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2, body fat percentage of 42.0 ± 7.4%, weight of 89.5 ± 14.2 kg, and ages 26.8 ± 5.9 years. Most participants were white, college educated, female, and married/engaged. Both groups completed 3 training sessions per week. The ART group completed 50 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise each session and full-body resistance training on two sessions per week. The HIFT group completed 60-minute sessions of CrossFit™ with actual workouts ranging from 5–30 minutes. Participants completed baseline and posttest questionnaires indicating reasons for exercise initiation (baseline), exercise enjoyment, and exercise intentions (posttest). Adherence was defined as completing 90% of exercise sessions. Daily workout times were recorded. Results: Participants provided mostly intrinsic reasons for exercise initiation. Eighteen participants adhered (ART = 9, 81.8%; HIFT = 9, 75%). HIFT dropouts (p = .012) and ART participants (p = .009) reported lower baseline exercise enjoyment than HIFT participants, although ART participants improved enjoyment at posttest (p = .005). More HIFT participants planned to continue the same exercise than ART participants (p = .002). No significant changes in BMI or body composition were found. Workouts were shorter for HIFT than ART (p < .001). Conclusions: HIFT participants spent significantly less time exercising per week, yet were able to maintain exercise enjoyment and were more likely to intend to continue. High-intensity exercise options should be included in public health interventions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Fundraising, celebrations and classroom rewards are substantial sources of unhealthy foods and beverages on public school campuses
    (2014-09-29) Caparosa, Susan L.; Shordon, Maggie; Santos, Asherlev T.; Pomichowski, Magdalena E.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Coleman, Karen J.; dadx
    Objective: The emphasis in school nutrition policy has been on vending and competitive items. Our study was designed to characterize and quantify the amount and source of other foods and beverages on school campuses. Design: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted using a specially designed objective nutrition observation system. Setting: One low-income school district in southern California with six elementary and two middle schools. Subjects: Data were not collected from individual children. A total of 4033 students, 42 % of whom were Hispanic/Latino, 26 % African American and 21 % non-Hispanic white, were observed across school settings. Results: Data were collected continuously from 9 January 2008 to 16 June 2010. Healthy foods had, per serving, total energy ≤732 kJ (≤175 kcal), total fat content ≤35 %, total saturated fat ≤10 %, sugar less ≤15 g, sodium <200 mg and trans-fat ≤0·5 g. Healthy beverages were only 100 % juice or water, and unflavoured non-fat, 1 %, 2 % milk and soya or rice milk. The system had high inter-rater reliability (r = 0·78 to 0·99), percentage agreement (83 % to 100 %) and test–retest reliability (r = 0·81 to 0·98). Significantly more unhealthy foods and beverages than healthy items were observed on all campuses (P < 0·001). An average of 1·26 (sd 0·46) items per student per week was found with an average of 0·86 (sd 0·34) unhealthy items per child per week. Conclusions: There were substantial amounts of unhealthy foods and beverages brought onto campuses for classroom rewards, celebrations and fundraising that should be targeted for intervention.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers
    (2014-08-11) Mailey, Emily L.; Huberty, Jennifer; Dinkel, Danae; McAuley, Edward; emailey
    Background: The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Methods: Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Results: Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children’s activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygenation dynamics in healthy rats
    (2014-07-29) Ferguson, Scott K.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.; swc9999; musch; dcpoole
    High dose nitrate (NO3−) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR, 1 mmol/kg/day) lowers mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and improves skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery/utilization matching thereby raising microvascular O2 pressure (PO2mv). We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of NO3− supplementation, consistent with a diet containing NO3− rich vegetables (BRLD, 0.3 mmol/kg/day), would be sufficient to cause these effects. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were administered a low dose of NO3− (0.3 mmol/kg/day; n = 12), a high dose (1 mmol/kg/day; BRHD, n = 6) or tap water (control, n = 10) for 5 days. MAP, heart rate (HR), blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and vascular conductance (VC) were measured during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade, equivalent to ∼60% of maximal O2 uptake). Subsequently, PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180 s of electrically-induced twitch contractions (1 Hz, ∼6 V) of the surgically-exposed spinotrapezius muscle. BRLD and BRHD lowered resting (control: 139 ± 4, BRLD: 124 ± 5, BRHD: 128 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.05, BRLD vs. control) and exercising (control: 138 ± 3, BRLD: 126 ± 4, BRHD: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) MAP to a similar extent. For BRLD this effect occurred in the absence of altered exercising hindlimb muscle(s) blood flow or spinotrapezius PO2mv (rest and across the transient response at the onset of contractions, all P > 0.05), each of which increased significantly for the BRHD condition (all P < 0.05). Whereas BRHD slowed the PO2mv kinetics significantly (i.e., >mean response time, MRT; control: 16.6 ± 2.1, BRHD: 23.3 ± 4.7 s) following the onset of contractions compared to control, in the BRLD group this effect did not reach statistical significance (BRLD: 20.9 ± 1.9 s, P = 0.14). These data demonstrate that while low dose NO3− supplementation lowers MAP during exercise it does so in the absence of augmented muscle blood flow, VC and PO2mv; all of which are elevated at a higher dose. Thus, in healthy animals, a high dose of NO3− supplementation seems necessary to elicit significant changes in exercising skeletal muscle O2 delivery/utilization.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Skeletal muscle capillary function: contemporary observations and novel hypotheses
    (2014-06-12) Poole, David C.; Copp, Steven W.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Musch, Timothy I.; dcpoole; swc9999; musch
    The capillary bed constitutes a vast surface that facilitates exchange of O2, substrates and metabolites between blood and organs. In contracting skeletal muscle, capillary blood flow and O2 diffusing capacity, as well as O2 flux, may increase two orders of magnitude above resting values. Chronic diseases, such as heart failure and diabetes, and also sepsis impair these processes, leading to compromised energetic, metabolic and, ultimately, contractile function. Among researchers seeking to understand blood–myocyte exchange in health and the basis for dysfunction in disease, there is a fundamental disconnect between microcirculation specialists and many physiologists and physiologist clinicians. While the former observe capillaries and capillary function directly (muscle intravital microscopy), the latter generally use indirect methodologies (e.g. post-mortem tissue analysis, 1-methyl xanthine, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, permeability–surface area product) and interpret their findings based upon August Krogh's observations made nearly a century ago. ‘Kroghian’ theory holds that only a small fraction of capillaries support red blood cell (RBC) flux in resting muscle, leaving the vast majority to be ‘recruited’ (i.e. to initiate RBC flux) during contractions, which would constitute the basis for increasing surface area for capillary exchange and reducing capillary–mitochondrial diffusion distances. Experimental techniques each have their strengths and weaknesses, and often the correct or complete answer to a problem emerges from integration across multiple technologies. Today, Krogh's entrenched ‘capillary recruitment’ hypothesis is challenged by direct observations of capillaries in contracting muscle, which is something that he and his colleagues could not do. Moreover, in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, application of a range of contemporary physiological technologies, including intravital microscopy of contracting muscle, magnetic resonance, near-infrared spectroscopy and phosphorescence quenching, combined with elegant in situ and in vivo models, suggest that the role of the capillary bed, at least in contracting muscle, is subserved without the necessity for de novo capillary recruitment of previously non-flowing capillaries. When viewed within the context of the capillary recruitment hypothesis, this evidence casts serious doubt on the interpretation of those data that are based upon Kroghian theory and indirect methodologies. Thus, today a wealth of evidence calls for a radical revision of blood–muscle exchange theory to one in which most capillaries support RBC flux at rest and, during contractions, capillary surface area is ‘recruited’ along the length of previously flowing capillaries. This occurs, in part, by elevating capillary haematocrit and extending the length of the capillary available for blood–myocyte exchange (i.e. longitudinal recruitment). Our understanding of blood–myocyte O2 and substrate/metabolite exchange in health and the mechanistic basis for dysfunction in disease demands no less.