Dairy Day, 1997

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Various estrus-synchronization programs for heifers
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Various programs of estrus synchronization have been tested during the last 6 years to determine the least costly and most efficacious for dairy heifer replacements. Four systems were tested: 1) a modified Ovsynch treatment (GnRH 7 days before PGF2 alpha followed by GnRH either at 24, 30, 33, 40, or 48 hr, with one fixed-time insemination 16 to 20 hr later); 2) a similar protocol that used GnRH 7 days before PGF [subscript]2alpha followed by insemination at estrus (GnRH + PGF [subscript]2alpha); 3) inseminations after one or two injections of PGF [subscript]2alpha given 14 days apart (PGF [subscript]2alpha; heifers not detected in estrus after the second of two PGF [subscript]2alpha injections were given one fixed-time insemination at 72 hr); and 4) two injections of PGF[subscript]2alpha given 14 days apart followed by GnRH at 33 hr, with one fixed-time insemination 16 to 18 hr later (2 x PGF[subscript]2alpha + GnRH). The PGF[subscript]2alpha treatment in which heifers were inseminated after detected estrus following one or two injections of PGF[subscript]2alpha was the least costly for heifers and produced the best measures of fertility.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Explaining differences in efficiency among dairy operations
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Berends, P. T.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Featherstone, Allen M.
    To remain competitive, dairy operatoins need to continue to improve production efficiency and manage costs. Kansas Farm Management Association data from 1991 to 1995 were used to measure technical, economic, and overall efficiencies for 50 dairy operations in Kansas. On average, the farms showed .87 technical, .71 economic, and .67 overall efficiency. The latter was related negatively to labor, capital, feed, and fuel and utility expenses per cow. Veterinarian expenses were related positively to overall efficiency. Overall efficiency was the most sensitive to changes in feed expenses per cow, emphasizing the importance of controlling this cost. Results also indicated that a larger proportion of overall inefficiency was due to cost control problems than to an inefficient herd size
  • ItemOpen Access
    ATP bioluminescence can evaluate cleaning and sanitizing effectiveness in the milking parlor
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Meyer, M. J.; Schmidt, Karen A.; kschmidt
    Four areas of the milking parlor were evaluated for effective cleaning and sanitation using total aerobic counts (standard plate count) and ATP bioluminescence (ATPB) techniques. Whereas the plate counts only monitor bacterial numbers, the ATPB results (reported as relative light units, RLU) also indicate residual soil or food residue on the surface. Results showed little correlation between the RLU values and the aerobic plate count data; however, the ATP bioluminescence system is a fast (<2 min) and simple method that evaluates the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation procedures employed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Conception and pregnancy rates in dairy cows after various programmed breeding systems
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, K. E.; Kobayashi, Y.; jss
    Two experiments were conducted to measure conception and pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows after various treatments followed by artificial insemination (AI) after detected estrus or at one fixed time. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in one herd were assigned randomly to four treatments every 3 wk (27, 3-wk cluster groups): 1)Ovsynch33, 2) GnRH+PGF[subscript]2alpha, 3) 2xPGF[subscript]2alpha, and 4) 2xPGF[subscript]2alpha+GnRH. In Experiment 2, Holstein cows in one herd were assigned randomly to two treatments every 3 wk (14, 3-wk cluster groups): 1) Ovsynch48 and 2) GnRH+PGF[subscript]2alpha. In both experiments, frozen-thawed semen from multiple sires was used, one technician performed >95% of all inseminations, and pregnancy was diagnosed by palpation per rectum between 38 and 52 d after first insemination. Although actual conception rates resulting from inseminations after detected estrus were consistently greater, pregnancy rates of cows were superior after fixed-time inseminations because of poor rates of detected estrus in treatments that relied solely on observation of sexual behavior.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Development and use of recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccines to sterilize cattle: a review
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Greer, J.; Rozell, Timothy G.; trozell
    A possible alternative to conventional castration methods is the use of vaccines that can be injected in order to sterilize animals. One promising approach involves the use of a vaccine that causes cattle to produce an immune response against one of their own reproductive hormones, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Immunization against GnRH results in a decrease in the amount of GnRH circulating within the animal's blood. Therefore, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are not stimulated to be released, and, subsequently their levels required for reproductive function. Experimentation has shown that immunization against GnRH can effectively block reproductive function in an age-independent manner but has little effect on carcass and growth parameters. However, about 10% of cattle tested do not respond when immunized against GnRH, regardless of dosing regimen. Further research is needed to improve the efficiency of potential GnRH immunocastration vaccines.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy heifers using norgestomet, GnRH, and PGF[subscript]2alpha
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-07-22) Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, K. E.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Hawkins, D. E.; jss
    Two experiments were performed using the same treatments. All heifers received two injections of PGF[subscript]2alpha 14 days apart. Controls then were inseminated after detected estrus. Heifers assigned to the two treatments also received 6 mg of norgestomet for 8 days beginning 7 days before the second of two PGF[subscript]2alpha injections. The heifers in the last treatment also received GnRH 48 hr after the second PGF[subscript]2alpha injection to induce ovulation in any heifer not observed in estrus before a fixed-time insemination at 72 hr after PGF2 alpha. In Experiment 1, any control heifer or herifer in the two treatments not detected in estrus by 72 hr after PGF[subscript]2alpha received a fixed-time insemination at 72 hr. Heifers receiving GnRH tended to have fewer standing events and a shorter duration of estrus. Fixed-time inseminations reduced conception compared to those after detected estrus. In Experiment 2, when inseminations were performed only after detected estrus, all measures of fertility were unaffected by treatments. These results indicated that addition of norgestomet and(or) GnRH did not improve measures of estrus synchronization or fertility of dairy heifers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Expeller soybean meal as a source of rumen undegradable protein for lactating dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Shirley, John E.; Piehl, D.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Scheffel, Michael V.; jshirley; etitgeme; scheffel
    The loss of meat and bone meal as a source of high quality protein for lactating cows creates an increased need for nonanimal sources. Fifty six Holstein cows were used to evaluate expeller soybean meal as a source of rumen undegradable intake (by-pass) protein for high producing cows. Expeller soybean meal tended to improve 3.5% contain fat-corrected milk yield and increased milk fat percentage relative to diets containing either solvent soybean meal or a meat and bone meal:blood meal mixture. In contrast, the protein percentage in milk was depressed significantly when cows were fed expeller soybean meal compared to animal protein. A limiting amino acid (possibly methionine) is implicated.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effects of rbST (POSILAC®) on heat stressed, lactating, dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Smith, John F., 1962-; Shirley, John E.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.
    Two hundred cows located on a commercial dairy in Mesquite, NM were used to evaluate response to rbST (Posilac®) during heat stress in the summer of 1996. Cows were paired by days in milk (average = 153 d at initiation of experiment), parity, and milk yield (average = 92 lb at start of experiment). Prior to initiation of the experiment, all cows received rbST, then rbST treatment was discontinued for one cow from each pair. Milk production was monitored for 4 months. No interactions were detected between lactation number and treatment. Cows maintained on rbST gained .09 of a score (1 to 5scale) less (P<.05) body condition but produced more (P<.05) milk in June, July, August, and September. The average milk productions for rbST-maintained vs rbST-discontinued cows were 80.7 vs 73.5 lb/d in June, 80.1 vs 74.6 lb/d in July, 72.6 vs 67.1 lb/d in August, and 65.1 vs 59.2 lb/d in September. Although rbST-discontinued cows had greater declines in production discontinued cows had greater declines in production persistency was similar between groups during the final 3 months. Under conditions of heat stress, cows maintained on rbST produced 6.2 lb/d more milk than cows for which treatment with rbST was discontinued.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Managing the nutrition program for cow comfort
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Dunham, James R.
    Comfortable cows are contented cows. However, cows may be comfortable in their environment but also experience some discomfort because of the nutrition program. A good nutritional management program will improve desircow comfort by providing: 1) the proper balance of nutrients for efficient production; 2) buffers for high energy rations to prevent acidosis and consore feet; 3) rations in which grain cannot be consumed too rapidly; 4) rations with proper amounts of nonfiber carbohydrate; 5) highest quality forages during hot weather; 6) additional moisture in total mixed rations during hot weather; 7) a readily available water source; and 8) a bunk management system that encourages cows to eat.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Flushing manure systems for dairy facilities
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Harner, Joseph P.; Murphy, James P.; jharner; jmurphy
    Flushing systems that collect and transport manure are utilized in dairy operations. The sanitation attainable and reduced labor requirements can make flushing a desirable option. Designed flush systems utilize a flush device to effirelease the correct volume of water at the appropriate discharge rate and length of time. This achieves the designed flow velocity, contact Tatime, and depth of water in the gutter to obtain miniadequate cleaning.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Planning a dairy expansion
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Smith, John F., 1962-; jfsmith
    Dairy farm size is increasing in all regions of the United States. In two of the largest dairy states, California and Wisconsin, mean herd sizes have increased 950% and 250%, respectively, since 1950. Dairy herds of 500 cows are common in all areas of the United States, and herds over 1,500 cows are common in the West producand Southeast. Many dairy operations are considering expansion of existing facilities or construction of new facilities to increase efficiencyor profitability. Before adding cows or facilities, dairy producers may want to answer the following questions: 1) How can I improve the efficiency of the present operation? 2) Can production per cow be increased? 3) Can the current herd be milked 3× per day? 4) Can I send the conheifers to a contract raiser and expand the cow herd? 5) What are my financial goals? 6) Where do I want to be in 5 and 10 years? 7) What are investthe expectations of other family members? 8)Do I have adequate acreage to expand the herd and manage the waste? 9) Do I want to manage employees? 10) Do I want to deal with regulatory agencies?
  • ItemOpen Access
    Biosecurity in the dairy
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-12) Stokka, Gerald L.; Falkner, Thomas R.; Bierman, Patrick
    Three strategies exist to control unwanted disease in a livestock operation: 1) prevent the douintroduction of infected cattle, 2) raise the overall level of resistance and specific resistance to infectious disease, and 3) minimize herd exposure to infectious disease. In addition, if unwanted disease exists in the herd, then a plan to eliminate the disease should be implemented. Maintenance of closed herds, testing procedures, vaccination schedules, sanitation, and good husbandry practices are integral parts of biosecurity procedures. The procedures in place should produce a benefit in terms of both economics and public perception that the quality and safety of our food supply is of the utmost importance to livestock producers. Livestock units exist for the purpose of purproducing a nutritious food product, which is comaccomplished through the use of forages and cereal grains. This system benefits the producer enterby adding value to renewable resources. Society addibenefits through the availability of a wholesome, safe, food supply in addition to the creation of new wealth within our economic system. The time has come for the food production industry, especially the dairy and beef sectors, to recognize the benefits of biosecurity procedures. Those of us involved in the food production particubusiness must always keep in mind the importance of maintaining healthy animals and a healthy food supply.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Freestall design and management for cow comfort
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2011-05-06) Smith, John F., 1962-; Jones, G. A.; Harner, Joseph P.; jfsmith; jharner
    The design and management of freestall 4) air or vision. facilities are critical in maintaining cow comfort and high milk production. Dairy produc- Lunge Space ers should be conscious of the factors affecting cow comfort in freestall facilities. These The first reason a freestall may fail is lack factors include: ventilation, water availability, of lunge space. A cow needs forward or side feed availability, stall design, and stall bed- lunge space to maneuver in and out of the stall ding. Dairy producers should strive to have easily. There should be no obstructions in lactating cows standing to be milked; standing front of the stall above the brisket board if to eat; or lying down, chewing her cud, and cows are expected to lunge forward. If stall producing milk. Managers who take this length is limiting, consider wide dividing loops approach will improve both cow comfort and that allow cows to lunge to the side. The milk production.