Cattlemen's Day, 1993

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Management of stable flies in cattle feedlots with releases of parasitic wasps
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:45:54Z) Greene, G.L.; Cilek, J.E.
    During 1992, adult stable fly populations were sampled in 25 Kansas feedlots. A native stable fly parasitic wasp, Spalangia nigroaenea, was released in 19 of these feedlots. Stable fly populations were reduced up to 48% and parasite emergence was increased 21% when compared with feedlots where S. nigroaenea was not released. The percentage of total parasites that were S. nigroaenea nearly doubled in the release feedlots, compared to the nonrelease feedlots. This parasitic wasp has shown considerable promise for stable fly control in cattle feedlots. Overall, sampling and parasite costs averaged 32 cents per animal for the season.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of mass medication on the health and gain of calves in grass paddocks or feedlot pens
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:45:23Z) Brazle, F.K.
    Four hundred and ninety mixed-breed, long-hauled, bull calves averaging 275 lb were used in a winter study to determine whether mass medicating calves in grass paddocks or feedlot pens would reduce health problems and improve performance. All calves were started in feedlot pens for 3 days, then half of the calves were turned out into grass paddocks. Mass medication with injectable oxytetracycline did not improve health or gain of the calves. Calves housed in grass paddocks during the recurring period had less sickness (P<.01), fewer (P<.05) sick days per animal purchased, and lower (P<.05) drug treatment costs than their counterparts housed in feedlot pens.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sequential implant strategies with Synovex-S® and trenbolone acetate-containing implants in calf-fed holstein steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T18:01:19Z) Simms, D.D.; Kuhl, Gerry L.
    In a commercial feedyard trial, 242 Holstein steer calves averaging 378 lb were used to compare effects of six alternative implant programs, consisting of sequential use of Synovex-S® or a combination of estradiol and trenbolone acetate (Revalor-S® or Finaplix- S® plus Synovex-S®), on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The calves were implanted three times at 78- to 90-day intervals while on feed an average of 252 days. The combination implant increased (P<.05) gain by .13 to .21 lb per day in all three implant periods compared to Synovex alone. Total feedlot gain was increased in direct relation to the number of times steers received the combination implant. However, marbling score and the percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice tended to be reduced with repeated use of Revalor or Finaplix.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of Synovex-S® and two levels of Revalor-S® in heavy-weight Holstein steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T18:00:49Z) Kuhl, Gerry L.; Simms, D.D.; Blasi, Dale A.; Kastner, Curtis L.; dblasi; ckastner
    In two field trials, 434 Holstein steers averaging 849 lbs were assigned randomly to three single implant treatments: 1) Synovex- S®, 2) Revalor®-S 120 (120 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA) + 24 mg estradiol), and 3) Revalor®-S 140 (140 mg TBA + 28 mg estradiol). Revalor-implanted steers gained .05 to .10 lb per day faster, but this improvement was not statistically significant (P>.05). Both Revalor-implanted groups produced trimmer carcasses with less (P<.05) backfat than Synovex steers. All other carcass characteristics and beef sensory properties, including taste panel evaluations of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, were not influenced by implant used.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of Zinpro 100® in a mineral mixture on gain and incidence of footrot in steers grazing native grass pastures
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T17:54:29Z) Brazle, F.K.
    In a 3-year study, crossbred steers averaging 585 lb were allotted to groups given either a control or zinc methionine-supplemented mineral mixture while grazing burned native pastures in early summer. The steers were monitored for weight gain and incidence of footrot. The addition of 100 lb Zinpro 100® (50% zinc methionine) per ton of free-choice mineral mixture improved (P<.06) steer daily gain .08 lb. and reduced the incidence of footrot 55% (5.38 vs. 2.45%; P<.06). The gain benefit could not be attributed entirely to reduced footrot, but appeared to also have a nutritional basis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Inflammatory response of feedlot cattle to clostridial vaccination: a comparison of 7-way bacterin-toxoid and C&D toxoid
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T17:54:17Z) Stokka, Gerald L.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Edwards, A.J.; Spire, M.F.; Smith, J.E.
    Twenty-four finishing steers (758 lb) were subcutaneously vaccinated and revaccinated 31 days later with 1) sterile saline, 2) a clostridial perfringens C&D toxoid, or 3) a 7-way clostridial bacterin-toxoid to evaluate the effects of vaccine type on inflammatory response in feedlot cattle. Injection site reactions were most severe (P<.05) and persistent for 7-way bacterin-toxoid and were accompanied by elevated (P<.05) blood haptoglobin levels indicative of acute inflammation. Revaccination with 7-way bacterin-toxoid reduced (P<.05) feed consumption for a 4-day period postvaccination. Although some reactions were severe, they appeared transient because blood parameters and volume of injection site reactions returned to baseline levels 25 to 60 days after injection. Performance over the entire feeding period was not significantly altered by treatment. We strongly recommend that clostridial products be used subcutaneously only, to minimize potential damage to carcass tissue from intramuscular injection.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Antimicrobial resistance among important bovine pathogens isolated at the KSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory over two and a half years
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T17:53:39Z) Rogers, D.P.; Vorhies, M.W.; Chengappa, M. M.; chengapa
    A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among six important bacterial pathogens of bovine origin. The study extended from June 1990 through December 1992 and included a review of the microbiology records of bovine submissions to the KSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility results for Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Actinomyces pyogenes, Hemophilus somnus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. are summarized. Pathogens were recovered primarily from cases of pneumonia and/or diarrhea. Each isolate was tested for susceptibility to 14 different antimicrobial agents. A high prevalence of resistance (>70%) was noticed for respiratory pathogens to sulfachloropyridazine. In addition, Pasteurella spp. were very resistant (>71%) to sulfadimethoxine. Most of the H. somnus isolates showed little resistance (<35%) to 12 of the 14 drugs tested. A. pyogenes isolates were generally susceptible to most antimicrobials except sulfa drugs. As expected, a high prevalence of resistance (>70%) was noticed for enteric pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli) to most of the antimicrobials tested.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implant comparisons in feedlot steers and heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T17:53:11Z) Eck, T.P.; Corah, L.R.
    Feedlot performance of steers implanted with Compudose®, Implus-S®, or Synovex-S® was very similar. No statistical differences were detected among treatments. However, implanted steers gained an average of 4% faster than nonimplanted controls. Carcass quality was virtually unaffected by treatment. Implanting feedlot heifers with Synovex- H®, Implus-H®, or Implus-H® plus Finaplix- H® increased daily gain compared to non-implanted heifers. Implanting improved gain and feed efficiency by 13 and 7.1%, respectively, compared to controls. Differences in carcass characteristics probably were due to the increased weight gain associated with implants. Percentage of carcasses grading Choice was not impacted by treatment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Results of a production analysis survey of cow herds in Kansas
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:12:02Z) Simms, D.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Utter, S.; Fike, G.; Bandyk, C.; mlange
    A survey of production levels and management practices of 205 cow herds representing over 26,000 cows in Kansas was conducted in 1991. These operations were located throughout Kansas except for the Northwest corner. Emphasis was placed on determining levels of production and reproductive parameters. Breeders emphasized calf crop. For example, the average calf crop was 91.6%, with 4.3% open females and 4.4% calf death loss. Cumulative calving percentages by 21-day calving periods were 32, 55, and 68%. Average weaning weights were 550 lb. for steers and 515 lb for heifers. Additionally, information was collected on breeding, nutrition, health, and general management practices.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors that influence number of bids on finished cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:11:52Z) Schroeder, Ted C.; Mintert, J.; Jones, R.; tcs; jmintert
    Previous research indicates that the number of bids received on pens of fed cattle has a positive influence on price. This study was undertaken to determine what factors influence the number of bids received on pens of cattle. The number of bids for fed cattle was investigated in 13 southwestern Kansas feedyards during May through November, 1990. Results indicated that cattle of desired weight, with higher estimated carcass yield and quality grade, in larger pen sizes, and sold in the middle of the week received the most bids. In addition, feedyard asking price relative to packer price offers also influenced the number of bids received.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors affecting cost of gain of feedlot steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:11:38Z) Albright, M.; Schroeder, Ted C.; Langemeier, Michael R.; tcs; mlange
    This study examined the relative effects of corn price and cattle performance factors on steer finishing cost of gain. Seasonal analysis of cost of gain and the factors affecting it was also conducted. Using over 10 years of closeout data from two western Kansas feedyards, corn prices, feed conversion, and daily gain explained 93 to 94% of the variation in steer finishing cost of gain. About 60% of the variability was explained by corn price alone. Cost of gain and feed conversion rates were seasonally below average for steers placed in February through August. Daily gain was seasonally high for steers placed in March through August. Because cost of gain is heavily influenced by the volatility and seasonal patterns of corn price and cattle performance, cattle feeders should consider this information when making placement decisions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors affecting cattle finishing profitability
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:11:26Z) Mintert, J.R.; Schroeder, Ted C.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Albright, M.L.; jmintert; tcs; mlange
    The relative contributions of fluctuating cattle performance; interest rates; and feeder cattle, fed cattle, and feed grain prices to profit variability of cattle feeding were examined in this study. Closeout data from 6696 pens of steers placed on feed between January 1980 and May 1991 at two western Kansas custom feedyards were used to estimate the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits. Combined, fed and feeder cattle prices explained 70 to 80% of profit variability, depending on placement weight. Overall, cattle prices and feeding costs explained at least 85% of the variation in profitability. Animal performance explained 5 to 10% of profit variability.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Gastrointestinal thiaminase vs. ration changes
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:11:14Z) Soita, H.W.; Brent, B.E.
    High levels of the thiamin-destroying enzyme, thiaminase I, were found in the feces of 3 of 50 apparently healthy dairy cows. All high fecal thiaminase I levels returned to normal within 3 weeks, indicating that thiaminase I occurs in "spikes" rather than continuing at elevated levels. All cows sampled had some thiaminase I, but the upper end of the "normal" range in feces was about 3.5 μmol/min/l. Thiaminase I levels were higher in the first than in subsequent lactations. When spikes in thiaminase I activity occurred, they were concentrated within about 20 days of calving and of the associated change to a high concentrate diet. Lactating cows fed a high concentrate post-calving diet had more thiaminase I than prepartum cows fed a lower energy diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Protein supplementation of ammoniated wheat straw: effect on performance of beef cows
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:11:02Z) Fike, G.D.; Simms, D.D.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Cochran, R.C.; Vanzant, E.S.; Kuhl, Gerry L.
    Mature, crossbred beef cows (n = 87 in 1990-91, n = 84 in 1991-1992) were used to determine the effects of protein supplementation to cows fed ammoniated wheat straw during late gestation. Treatments included: 1) Control (C) - no supplement, 2) Low Protein (LP) - 4.5 lb of a 10% crude protein (CP) supplement, 3) Medium Protein (MP) - 4.5 lb of a 20% CP supplement, and 4) High Protein (HP) - 4.5 lb of a 30% CP supplement. Supplementation increased weight gain over controls (P<.01). HP cows gained more (P=.05) weight than LP-supplemented cows and tended (P=.11) to gain more weight than MP-supplemented cows. Supplementation also increased body condition score (BCS, 1-9 scale) over control cows (P<.01), but no difference was noted among supplemented groups. From the end of the feeding period until weaning, cows previously supplemented lost more weight (P<.01) than controls and exhibited little change in BCS, whereas controls increased BCS by .5 during the same period. Calving dates, calf birth weights, calf weaning weights, calf average daily gain, percent of cows cycling prior to breeding, and percent of cows pregnant did not differ between treatments. Consequently, although additional protein increased weight gain prior to parturition, this response did not impact economically important traits.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Protein supplementation of ammoniated wheat straw: effect on intake and digestion in beef steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:10:48Z) Fike, G.D.; Simms, D.D.; Cochran, R.C.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Vanzant, E.S.; Kuhl, Gerry L.
    Sixteen ruminally fistulated steers (avg wt. = 998 lb) were used in a 30-day conventional digestion trial to examine the effects of protein supplementation on intake and digestion of ammoniated wheat straw. Steers were assigned to one of four protein supplementation programs: 1) Control (C) - no supplement, 2) Low Protein (LP) - 4.5 lb of a 10% crude protein (CP) supplement, 3) Medium Protein (MP) - 4.5 lb of a 20% CP supplement, or 4) High Protein (HP) - 4.5 of a lb 30% CP supplement. Supplements were mixtures of milo and soybean meal. Supplementation increased (P<.05) dry matter intake, tended (P=.09) to increase intake of digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and increased (P<.05) intake of forage dry matter. Dry matter digestibility was higher (P<.05) for HP steers than C and LP steers, but no difference was detected between MP, and HP steers. Steers on HP, MP, and C treatments exhibited higher NDF digestibility than LP steers. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acid concentration, and acetate to propionate ratio were unaffected by supplementation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    How does cow-calf association inhibit the onset of estrous cycles after calving?
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T20:10:34Z) Minton, J. Ernest; Knoppel, E.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Viker, S.D.; Kiracofe, G.H.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.;; jss; eminton
    The "suckling response" maintains anestrus in beef cows for about 40 to 60 days postpartum. The suckling response remains intact in mastectomized cows, so stimulation of the inguinal area, and not milk flow or teat stimulation, must be part of the response. Cow-calf recognition is part of the suckling response because suckling by cross-fostered calves after nose-to-nose contact followed by suckling of an alien calf does not prevent cycling. We believe the suckling response involves a cow recognizing her own calf, followed by the calf stimulating her inguinal area. It may be possible to initiate estrus by simply blocking the cow's recognition of her own calf.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors affecting pregnancy rates and calving difficulty in commercial beef heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T19:17:14Z) Utter, S.D.; Houghton, P.L.; Corah, L.R.; Spire, M.F.; Higgins, James J.; Butine, M.D.; jhiggins
    Data from yearling Angus and Angus crossbred beef heifers from a commercial ranch were used to identify factors affecting pregnancy rates (n=342) and calving difficulty (n=295). Production data analyzed included prebreeding weight, average daily gain during the breeding season, and postbreeding weight; evaluations of hip height, frame score, weight:height ratio, and reproductive tract score were made at approximately 1 yr of age. Pregnancy rates were affected significantly by weight:height ratio, prebreeding weight, and reproductive tract score. However, based on correlation coefficients, the magnitude of influence of these traits on first-service conception and overall pregnancy rates was low. Calving difficulty in the same heifers (n=295) was influenced significantly by calf birth weight, heifer yearling frame score, and average daily gain of the heifer during the breeding season. Heavier calf birth weight increased calving difficulty, whereas increases in frame score and average daily gain reduced calving difficulty.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The relationships of color to performance and carcass traits in cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T19:17:08Z) Andries, K.M.; Schalles, R.R.; Franke, D.E.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    The effects of primary color (black, red, or white) on performance and carcass characteristics of 253 cross-bred calves were evaluated. The only effect of color was that white calves had lighter birth weights than red calves, which was probably the result of the maternal influence of the Brahman breed. White calves also had a lower carcass yield grade than red calves. No other effects of color on performance or carcass traits were found. It can be concluded that knowledge of breed and expected progeny differences (EPD) of the sire within the breed are more accurate methods of predicting the future performance and carcass characteristics of calves than color.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Factors influencing the price paid for bulls at central test stations in Kansas from 1988-1992
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T19:17:01Z) Simms, D.D.; Schwenke, J.R.
    Results of 13 sales of Angus (n=185) and Simmental (n=544) bulls at central bull tests in Kansas from 1988 through 1992 were analyzed to determine the relationship between performance and the price received. The Kansas bull test index (based 50% on weight per- day-of-age and 50% on test ADG) was the most significant single factor determining price in both Angus and Simmental bulls. Birth weight, final weight, and frame score were other major contributors to price in Angus bulls, whereas weaning weight ratio, birth weight, and being polled were important in Simmental bulls. Expected progeny differences made small but significant (P<.05) contributions in Angus bulls but not in Simmental bulls.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of supplemental fat and thermal stress on nitrogen and energy metabolism of finishing heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-05T19:16:54Z) Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Williams, J.E.; Jones, Timothy J.; tjones
    Twelve British and British crossed heifers fed whole shelled corn finishing diets were used in a 2 × 2 factorially arranged experiment to study the main effects of and interactions between feeding supplemental tallow (0 vs 4%) and thermal heat stress (55°F vs 90°F). Heifers were maintained in temperature- and humidity-controlled environmental rooms. Neither supplemental fat or thermal stress affected dry matter intake or total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch, NDF, or ADF. However, heat stress elevated water consumption (P<.01) and rectal temperature (P<.01). When fed at equal intakes, heifers consuming tallow-supplemented diets retained more (P<.05) nitrogen, and tallowsupplemented diets had a higher (P=.08) ME value than non-tallow diets; these effects were not observed when heifers were fed ad libitum. Adding tallow to diets of finishing cattle may help maintain performance under circumstances where feed intake is restricted.