Swine Day, 2002

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Measuring emission rates of particulate matter from fan ventilated swine barns
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:35:34Z) Predicala, B.Z.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; rmaghir
    Methods for measuring concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) from mechanically ventilated livestock buildings were evaluated in a laboratory facility and in a swine-finishing barn. Concentrations of PM were measured inside the room (room sampling) and at the exhaust duct (exhaust sampling). Concentrations at the exhaust duct were determined using high-volume traverse downstream of the exhaust fan, low-volume traverse downstream of the fan, and fixed sampling upstream and downstream of the fan. The traverse methods, which served as the reference, were conducted under isokinetic conditions; fixed sampling was done under both isokinetic and sub-isokinetic conditions. Compared to the traverse method, both room sampling and exhaust sampling under subisokinetic conditions overestimated PM concentrations. Fixed sampling under isokinetic conditions, on the other hand, did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from the high-volume traverse method. Thus, isokinetic fixed sampling can be an alternative to the more expensive and time-consuming high-volume PM traverse method to measure PM concentrations and emission rates at the exhaust.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using heart girth to determine weight in finishing pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:35:08Z) Groesbeck, C.N.; Lawrence, K.R.; Young, M.G.; Goodband, Robert D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; goodband; jderouch; mtokach; dritz; jnelssen; mayoung
    Heart girth and body weight were measured on 100 growing-finishing pigs (50 to 273 lb) at the KSU Swine Teaching and Research Center. Heart girth, in inches, was measured using a cloth measuring tape. The tape was placed directly behind the front legs and then wrapped around the heart girth and read directly behind the shoulders. Heart girth was strongly correlated (R2=0 .98) with body weight, with the following regression equation: pig weight = 10.1709 × Heart girth - 205.7492. The 95% confidence interval shows the projected weight to be ±10 lb of the actual weight of the pig. To validate our equation we weighed and measured heart girth on 40 pigs from a commercial breeding farm and a group of 165 pigs at the 2002 Swine Classic Youth Exposition. At the commercial breeding farm, the actual measured body weights fit within the 95% confidence interval from their projected weights, based on the regression equation. The average residual (difference between predicted and actual weight) of the 40 pigs was -0.70 lb with a range of ± 4 lb. The actual weights of pigs at the Swine Classic averaged 16 lb greater than their predicted body weights with a range of ±8.5 lb. The actual weights failed to fall within the 95% confidence interval for the developed regression equation. This was probably due to shrink during transportation to the show and limited feed and water. Heart girth as a means of determining body weight is a viable device for 4-Hers and producers, but it is important to use only on pigs with continuous access to feed and water.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of increasing CA:P ratio in diets containing phytase on growth performance of grow-finish pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:34:45Z) Hanni, S.M.; Barker, M.R.; Groesbeck, C.N.; Keegan, T.P.; Lawrence, K.R.; Young, M.G.; James, B.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; jnelssen; goodband; dritz; mayoung
    We used 144 growing-finishing pigs (72 barrows and 72 gilts; initially 85 lb) to determine the effects of calcium to total phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio on growth performance. Pigs were housed in an environmentally regulated finishing building with two pigs per pen and nine pens per sex per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial weight and sex, and then allotted to one of four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets fed in three phases. In each phase, diets consisted of a 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1, and 2:1 Ca:P ratio. Diets were formulated to contain 0.44%, 0.39%, and 0.34% phosphorus from 70 to 130, 130 to 190, and 190 to 250 lb, respectively. All diets contained 0.05% phytase, providing 300 FTU/kg of feed. For the overall experiment, increasing Ca:P ratio decreased ADG (quadratic P<0.03) and ADFI (linear P<0.05). However, the greatest decrease in ADG and ADFI was observed when Ca:P increased from 1.5:1 to 2:1. Feed to gain was not affected by Ca:P ratio. These results suggest that in growing-finishing diets containing 300 FTU/kg phytase, a Ca:P ratio greater then 1.5:1 will decrease ADG and ADFI.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Phosphorus requirements of grow-finish pigs raised in a commercial environment
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:34:10Z) Hastad, C.W.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; jderouch
    We conducted three experiments to identify available phosphorus (aP) requirements of pigs reared in commercial facilities. In a pilot study (Exp. 1), 600 gilts (PIC, initially 95.2 lb) were randomly allotted to a low or high dietary P regimen in a 98-d study. Pigs were phase-fed six diets from 95 to 106, 106 to 150, 150 to 183, 183 to 212, 212 to 245, and 245 to 267 lb. Corresponding aP concentrations were: 0.30, 0.28, 0.27, 0.27, 0.24, and 0.19% (low) and 0.37, 0.33, 0.30, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.26% (high). No differences were observed (P > 0.10) in ADG and overall F/G was greater (P<0.07) for pigs fed the low aP regimen. In Exp. 2, 1,260 gilts (initially 74.5 lb) were randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments in a 26-d study. Experimental diets contained 0.18, 0.22, 0.25, 0.29, or 0.32% aP, corresponding to 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, or 0.9 g aP/Mcal ME. There were 28 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. From d 0 to 14, increasing aP tended to increase (linear, P<0.03) ADG and F/G (quadratic, P<0.05) with the greatest response observed as aP increased from 0.18 to 0.22%. However, from d 0 to 26, no differences were observed for any growth traits (P>0.12). Pooled bending moment of the femur, 6th rib, and 3rd and 4th metatarsals increased with increasing aP (linear, P<0.01). Ash content of the rib and metatarsals numerically increased (P>0.10) with increasing aP. In Exp. 3, 1,236 gilts (initially 195.1 lb) were randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments in a 28-d study. Experimental diets contained 0.05, 0.10, 0.14, 0.19, 0.23% aP, equivalent to 0.152, 0.277, 0.402, 0.527, or 0.652 g aP/Mcal ME. From d 0 to 14, increasing aP increased (linear, P<0.01) ADG and F/G. However, from d 0 to 28 increasing aP had no effect (P>0.17) on growth performance. Increasing aP increased (linear, P<0.05) bone ash and bending moment of the 3rd and 4th metacarpals. In commercial facilities, 74 to 121 lb pigs require approximately 0.22% aP to maximize ADG and F/G, whereas 195 to 240 lb pigs require approximately 0.19% aP. However, bone bending moment and ash continued to increase with increasing aP. These values correspond to 0.60 and 0.527 g aP/Mcal ME and 3.24 and 4.07 g/d of aP intake. Our results suggest percentage aP requirement estimates are similar to NRC (1998); however, because of the low feed intake of pigs in commercial facilities our study shows a lower requirement estimate on a g/d basis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of increasing lysine:calorie ratio in pigs grown in a commercial finishing environment
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:34:00Z) Main, R.G.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen
    Seven experiments using 7,801 pigs (75 to 265 lb) were conducted to determine the biologic and economic effects of increasing dietary lysine in commercially reared grow-finish pigs. Each study was generally 28 d long and evaluated a different weight range of the grow-finish period for barrows (3 trials) and gilts (4 trials), respectively. All studies contained six dietary treatments of incrementally increasing lysine:calorie ratio. The primary response criteria measured were growth, carcass, and economic performance. Pigs fed high-energy diets in early finishing (< 150 lb) have only moderate biological responses to a wide range of dietary lysine. However, increasing dietary lysine levels in late finishing (>150 lb) has more quantitatively significant effects on growth and carcass performance. Due the magnitude of the biological responses observed, economic penalties for feeding below the lysine requirement were modest early and severe later in the grow-finish period. These studies indicate that income over marginal feed cost (IOMFC) is consistently optimized near the biological requirement for optimal growth and feed conversion. However, feed cost per pound of gain is consistently minimized below these biological requirements. Therefore, diet costs alone provide little value in developing cost effective feeding strategies. In addition, prediction equations to calculate the optimum lysine:calorie ratio based on body weight (BW, lb) were developed. The lysine:calorie ratio prediction equation is: lysine:calorie ratio, g total lysine/ Mcal ME = -.006045 × BW + 3.694 for barrows and lysine:calorie ratio = -.00744 × BW + 4.004 for gilts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of ractopamine (paylean) dose and feeding duration on pig performance in a commercial finishing facility
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:33:40Z) Main, R.G.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen
    A total of 1,035 gilts were used in a 28- day trial conducted in a commercial research facility to determine the influence of ractopamine (PayleanTM) dose (4.5 or 9.0 g/ton) and feeding duration (7, 14, 21, or 28 days prior to slaughter) on pig performance and carcass composition. Ractopamine supplementation at 4.5 g/ton for 14 to 28 days, and 9 g/ton for 7 to 28 days, improved (P<0.05) ADG by 26 to 35% (0.35 - 0.46 lb/d) and F/G by 16 to 20% (0.64 to 0.79) during the 28-days prior to slaughter. Due to these improvements in growth, carcass weights increased 8 to 10 pounds over controls. Fat depth and lean percentage improved (linear, P<0.01) with increased feeding duration. Ractopamine dose did not affect carcass lean parameters. However, carcass yield improved (P< 005) when ractopamine was fed at 9.0 g/ton. Feed cost per pound of gain increased (P<0.01) with increasing feeding duration for Paylean and was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed the 9.0 g/ton dose for 28 days as compared to the control. However, feeding ractopamine at 4.5 g/ton for 14 to 28 days and 9 g/ton for 7 to 28 days improved income over feed costs by $3.53 to $ 4.76 per head compared to pigs fed the control diet. Return over feed costs improved due to the increased carcass weights and improved feed efficiency with the greatest values achieved with a 14 to 21 day feeding duration. These data indicate feeding ractopamine at either 4.5 or 9.0 g/ton for 14 to 21 days prior to slaughter is a cost-effective strategy to optimize return while minimizing increases in feed cost per pound of gain.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of paylean (ractopamine⋅HCl) on finishing pig growth and variation
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:33:20Z) Barker, M.R.; Groesbeck, C.N.; Hanni, S.M.; Hastad, C.W.; Keegan, T.P.; Lawrence, K.R.; Young, M.G.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; goodband; mtokach; mayoung
    A total of 336 pigs were used in a 21-day trial to determine the effect of Paylean (9.0 g/ton Ractopamine·HCl) on finishing pig growth and variation. Pigs were allotted based on weight so that all pens had the same initial weight and degree of variation within the pen. Pigs fed Paylean had greater ADG and better feed efficiency than control-fed pigs (P<0.05). However, no differences in pen coefficient of variation were observed (P>0.70). The results suggest that adding Paylean to the diet improves finishing pig growth performance but does not affect weight variation within the pen.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementation of L-carnitine and paylean improve growth performance of pigs in a commercial finishing facility
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-11T22:33:07Z) James, B.W.; Owen, K.Q.; Woodworth, J.C.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz
    Our previous experiments evaluating the interactive effects of dietary L-carnitine and Paylean have primarily focused on improved meat quality benefits of feeding carnitine in combination with Paylean. Although there were numeric trends for improved growth performance in the previous experiments conducted at university facilities, the responses were not statistically significant. A recent study conducted in a commercial finishing facility demonstrated improved growth performance in pigs fed carnitine for the 4-week period prior to slaughter. The cause for the growth response observed in the commercial facility compared to the two previous studies conducted at a university research facility may have been related to feed intake, stress, or the larger sample size compared to the first studies. In addition, pigs in the commercial facility study were fed carnitine from 97 lb until slaughter. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment were to confirm the growth performance results of the previous trial in a commercial finishing facility and to evaluate the interactive effect of L-carnitine and Paylean on growth performance and carcass characteristics when supplemented for only 3 weeks prior to slaughter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Interactive effects among L-carnitine, paylean (ractopamine⋅HCl), and dietary energy density on commercial finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:19:10Z) James, B.W.; Owen, K.Q.; Woodworth, J.C.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz
    Growth performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated on 1,104 pigs fed combinations of L-carnitine, Paylean, and added fat in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments of L-carnitine (0 or 50 ppm) and fat (0 or 6%) were initiated at approximately 97 lb. Paylean (0 or 9 g/ton) was fed for the last 4 weeks prior to market. Supplementing dietary carnitine did not affect (P>0.25) growth performance of pigs between 97 to 203 lb. The addition of 6% dietary fat improved (P<0.01) ADG and F/G during this period. During the last 4 weeks of the experiment, when Paylean was fed, a carnitine × Paylean interaction was observed (P<0.04) for ADG and F/G. Both carnitine and Paylean improved growth performance; however, the responses were not additive. Pigs fed added fat had improved (P<0.05) feed efficiency during the Paylean supplementation period. A carnitine × Paylean interaction (P<0.03) was observed for fat thickness and percentage lean. Fat thickness decreased and lean percentage increased in pigs fed carnitine or Paylean, but the responses were not additive. Pigs fed added fat had greater (P<0.01) fat thickness and lower percentage lean than pigs not fed added fat. A carnitine × Paylean × fat interaction was observed (P<0.04) for longissimus muscle area. In general, adding carnitine, Paylean or fat to the diet increased longissimus muscle area; however, the responses were not fully additive. Carcass weight was greater (P<0.01) for pigs fed 6% added fat and tended (P<0.07) to be greater for pigs fed carnitine. Adding Paylean to the diet increased (P<0.04) ultimate longissimus pH and reduced drip loss as measured by the filter paper method. Similar to other experiments, adding carnitine to the diet tended to decrease drip loss (P<0.06) as measured by the suspension method. These results suggest that adding Lcarnitine and Paylean to the diet increases ADG and that L-carnitine, Paylean, and fat improve feed efficiency when fed to late finishing pigs reared in a commercial facility. These data also support our previous research that demonstrated improvements in carcass characteristics of pigs fed L-carnitine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of L-carnitine and paylean (ractopamine⋅HCl) supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and postmortem pH decline
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:18:58Z) James, B.W.; Owen, K.Q.; Lawrence, T.E.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Unruh, John A.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz; junruh
    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were evaluated from 126 pigs fed combinations of Paylean and L-carnitine arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial. Dietary L-carnitine (0, 25, or 50 ppm) and Paylean (0 or 9 g/ton) were fed the last 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Feeding Paylean to pigs improved (P<0.01) ADG and F/G. Supplemental Lcarnitine did not affect (P>0.46) ADG, but there was a trend for improved (quadratic, P<0.07) F/G in pigs fed increasing carnitine. A carnitine × Paylean interaction (P<0.05) was observed for dressing percentage and visual firmness, percentage transmission (soluble protein), temperature measured 1.5 h postmortem, and percentage drip loss. Dressing percentage was higher for pigs fed 25 ppm carnitine with no Paylean and lower for pigs fed 25 ppm carnitine with Paylean. Visual firmness scores decreased in pigs fed increasing carnitine and no Paylean but increased when adding carnitine to diets containing Paylean. Soluble protein increased (more soluble protein indicates higher quality muscle) and drip loss decreased when pigs were fed increasing L-carnitine with Paylean. A trend (P<0.07) was observed for pigs fed increasing carnitine to have lower 10th rib and average backfat. Feeding Paylean to pigs increased (P<0.01) percentage lean, L*, and hue angle, and decreased (P<0.02) visual color scores and a*/b* values. Pigs fed Paylean had higher temperature and lower pH measured 3 h postmortem (P<0.01) and tended (P<0.06) to have lower pH measured 6 h postmortem. These results suggest that Paylean improves growth performance when fed to finishing pigs. Carnitine decreased drip loss and improved meat quality when fed to pigs in combination with Paylean.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Interactive effects between paylean (ractopamine⋅HCl) and dietary L-carnitine on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:18:37Z) James, B.W.; Owen, K.Q.; Lawrence, T.E.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Unruh, John A.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz; junruh
    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality were evaluated from 126 pigs fed combinations of Paylean and L-carnitine arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial. Dietary L-carnitine (0, 25, or 50 ppm) was fed from 74 lb until slaughter, and Paylean (0, 4.5, or 9 g/ton) was fed the last 4 weeks prior to slaughter. These results suggest that Paylean, but not L-carnitine, increases ADG and improves F/G. However, L-carnitine enhances meat quality by improving visual color, L* (darker color), b* (less yellow), a*/b*, and Hue angle (more red and less orange) when fed with Paylean. L- carnitine also decreases drip loss and saturation index (vividness or intensity) and increases 24-h pH.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of different protein sources on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:16:09Z) Lawrence, K.R.; Hastad, C.W.; Hanni, S.M.; Barker, M.R.; James, B.W.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; goodband; mtokach; jnelssen; dritz; jderouch
    A total of 170 weanling pigs (initially 16.4 lb) were used to evaluate the effects of alternative protein sources on growth performance of pigs fed from d 5 to 26 after weaning. All pigs were fed a common diet from weaning to d 5. The five dietary treatments were cornsoybean meal-based and included a control diet containing 10% dried whey, or the control diet with 5% select menhaden fish meal, 2.5% spray-dried blood cells, 3.73% enzymatically hydrolyzed wheat gluten (Source 1), or 3.51% flash-dried wheat gluten (Source 2). No differences were observed in overall ADG and ADFI; however, pigs fed the diets containing 2.5% blood cells or 5% select menhaden fish meal numerically had the best overall ADG compared to pigs fed the control diet, with pigs fed either wheat gluten sources having intermediate growth. Feed efficiency was improved for pigs fed 5% select menhaden fish meal compared with those fed the control diet, and pigs fed the other diets were intermediate. There were no differences (P<0.05) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G between wheat gluten sources.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of soybean meal source and level on growth performance of weanling pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:15:57Z) Lawrence, K.R.; Hastad, C.W.; Hanni, S.M.; Young, M.G.; Webster, M.J.; Barker, M.R.; James, B.W.; Groesbeck, C.N.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; goodband; mtokach; jnelssen; dritz; jderouch; mayoung
    A total of 525 weanling pigs (initially 13.0 lb) were used in two experiments to evaluate the effects of soybean meal source and level on growth performance of early weaned pigs. In both experiments, dietary treatments included a control diet containing no soybean meal, or diets containing 20% or 40% of either solvent extracted soybean meal (SBM) or extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESoy). In Exp. 1, diets were formulated with NRC (1998) nutrient values for the solvent extracted soybean meal and previously determined values (1998 KSU Swine Day Report of Progress) for the extruded-expelled soybean meal. In Exp. 1, from d 0 to 7, increasing solvent extracted soybean meal or extrudedexpelled soybean meal decreased (linear, P<0.05) ADG. Feed efficiency was reduced with an increase of either soybean meal source (SBM quadratic, P<0.05; EESoy linear, P<0.05). However, the mean ADG and F/G of pigs fed solvent extracted soybean meal were better than the mean of pigs fed extruded- expelled soybean meal. No differences were found in growth performance from d 7 to 14 and 14 to 21. However, from d 0 to 14, F/G became poorer (linear, P<0.06) as either soybean meal source increased, and the mean F/G of pigs fed solvent extracted soybean meal was better than those fed extrudedexpelled soybean meal. For the overall growth period, d 0 to 21, F/G became poorer (linear, P<0.04) as solvent extracted soybean meal increased. After the trial was completed, the soybean meal sources were chemically analyzed and the extruded-expelled soybean meal was found to be lower in crude protein (43.6% vs 46.5%) than what was used in diet formulation. We speculated that the differences in growth performance between the two soybean meal sources could have been a result of the low protein (lysine) concentrations. Therefore, in Exp. 2 diets were formulated with actual analyzed nutrient soybean meal values. In Exp. 2, from d 0 to 7, increasing either soybean meal source resulted in decreased (linear, P<0.01) ADG and ADFI, and reduced (quadratic, P<0.04) F/G. The mean ADG, ADFI, and F/G of pigs fed solvent extracted soybean meal were better than the mean of those fed extruded-expelled soybean meal. From d 7 to 14, ADG and F/G improved (linear, P<0.05) with increasing solvent extracted soybean meal. Increasing extruded-expelled soybean meal had no affect on ADG or F/G but decreased (linear, P<0.03) ADFI. From d 0 to 14, increasing solvent extracted soybean meal decreased (linear, P<0.02) ADFI. Increasing extruded-expelled soybean meal decreased ADG, ADFI, and decreased F/G (linear, P<0.01). The mean ADG, ADFI, and F/G of pigs fed solvent extracted soybean meal was better than the mean of pigs fed extrudedexpelled soybean meal. For the overall trial, increasing extruded-expelled soybean meal decreased ADG and ADFI (linear, P<0.01) and the mean ADG and ADFI, were less than those fed solvent extracted soybean meal. Because of previous research demonstrating equal or better growth performance of pigs fed extruded-expelled soybean meal, the results of these trials led us to suspect that poor quality extruded-expelled soybean meal was used in this trial. At the conclusion of the study, soybean meal sources from both trials were analyzed for trypsin inhibitor. Results of the trypsin inhibitor assay suggest that the extruded-expelled soybean meal from both experiments was underprocessed, resulting in poor growth performance. In conclusion, trypsin inhibitor values are extremely important in verifying quality of extruded-expelled soybean meal.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of wheat gluten and spray-dried animal plasma on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:15:43Z) Lawrence, K.R.; Hastad, C.W.; Hanni, S.M.; Barker, M.R.; James, B.W.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; goodband; mtokach; jnelssen; dritz; jderouch
    A total of 440 weanling pigs (initially 14.3 lb) were used in two studies to evaluate the effects of increasing wheat gluten (WG) and spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) on growth performance of early weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, the six dietary treatments included a negative control, containing no wheat gluten or animal plasma, the control diet containing either 3, 6, 9, or 12% lightly modified spray-dried wheat gluten, and a positive control diet containing 5% spray-dried animal plasma. The diets containing 9% WG and 5% SDAP had the same amount of soybean meal to make a direct comparison of the two protein sources. From d 0 to 7, 7 to 14, and 0 to 14, increasing wheat gluten had no effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency. From d 0 to 7, pigs fed 5% SDAP had greater ADG than pigs fed the diet containing 9% WG but similar ADG to pigs fed the negative control. For the common period, d 14 to 28, a quadratic (P<0.01) response was observed for feed efficiency with F/G becoming poorer as wheat gluten was added up to 9% then improving as wheat gluten increased up to 12%. In Exp. 2, the five dietary treatments included a negative control, which contained no SDAP or WG, or the control diet with 4.5% and 9% WG, or 2.5% and 5% SDAP. The wheat gluten source used was different than in Exp. 1 and was enzymatically hydrolyzed. The diets containing 4.5% and 9% wheat gluten contained the same amount of soybean meal as the diets with 2.5% and 5% SDAP, respectively. From d 0 to 7 and 0 to 14, increasing SDAP increased (P<0.04) ADG. Increasing WG had no effect. There were no differences found in ADG from d 7 to 14 and no differences found in feed intake from d 0 to 7. No differences (P<0.05) were found in feed efficiency. During the common period, d 14 to 35, no differences were found in ADG and ADFI. Pigs previously fed the diets containing 2.5% and 5% SDAP had (P<0.05) the best feed efficiency with the pigs previously fed the control having the worst. The pigs fed the diets containing 4.5% WG and 9% WG were intermediate in efficiency. These results suggest that increasing WG in diets fed immediately after weaning produced no improvement in growth performance relative to SDAP.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the effects of wheat gluten source and animal plasma blends on the growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:15:22Z) Lawrence, K.R.; Hanni, S.M.; Groesbeck, C.N.; Hastad, C.W.; Young, M.G.; James, B.W.; Keegan, T.P.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Dritz, Steven S.; goodband; mtokach; jnelssen; dritz; jderouch; mayoung
    A total of 472 weanling pigs (initially 13.5 lb) were used in two experiments to evaluate the effects of wheat gluten source (WG) and combinations with spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) on growth performance of nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, the five dietary treatments included a control diet containing 6% SDAP, wheat gluten that was enzymatically hydrolyzed (Source 1), and a non-hydrolyzed wheat gluten (Source 2). The wheat gluten sources replaced L-lysine HCl and replaced 50% or 100% of the spray-dried animal plasma. From d 0 to 7, 7 to 14, and 0 to 21, increasing wheat gluten decreased (linear; P<0.05) ADG. There were no differences between wheat gluten sources. Average daily feed intake decreased similar to ADG, with the exception that ADFI of pigs fed wheat gluten Source 2 had only a slight decreasing trend (P<0.11) from d 0 to 7. Pigs fed the diet containing 6% SDAP had the greatest ADG and ADFI from d 0 to 21. When the SDAP was replaced with either wheat gluten source, ADG and ADFI linearly decreased (P<0.01) but F/G improved (P<0.04). When pigs were fed the common diet from d 21 to 35, there were no differences (P<0.05) in ADG, ADFI or F/G. In Exp. 2, the six dietary treatments included a negative control with no SDAP or WG (0:0 ratio), 9% WG (100:0 ratio), 6.75% WG and 1.25% SDAP (75:25 ratio) combination, 4.5% WG and 2.5% SDAP (50:50 ratio) combination, 2.25% WG and 3.75% SDAP (25:75 ratio) combination, and a positive control with 5% SDAP (0:100 ratio). The wheat gluten (Source 1) was enzymatically hydrolyzed, but from a different lot than Exp. 1. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed 6% SDAP had numerically greater ADG and ADFI compared to pigs fed the negative control diet. However, replacing SDAP with increasing amounts of WG tended to decrease (P<0.10) ADG and ADFI. These results confirm the improved ADG and ADFI of pigs fed SDAP immediately after weaning. In these experiments, replacing SDAP with WG resulted in decreased ADG.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effects of weaning age on post-weaning belly nosing behavior and umbilical lesions
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:15:06Z) Main, R.G.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; dritz; goodband; mtokach; jnelssen
    Pigs (n=2272) were weaned at 12, 15, 18, or 21 days of age to determine the effect of weaning age on post-weaning belly nosing behavior and associated umbilical lesions. A reduction (quadratic, P<0.01) in belly nosing behavior and umbilical lesions were observed as weaning age increased. The largest decrease in belly nosing behavior was observed as wean age increased from 12 to 15 days, with smaller incremental reductions in the 18 and 21 day wean pigs. This study indicates that weaning pigs at less than 15 days of age significantly increases belly nosing behavior and associated umbilical lesions after weaning.
  • ItemUnknown
    Effect of phytase dosage and source on growth performance of nursery pigs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:14:54Z) James, B.W.; Lynch, G.L.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz
    A 28-d growth assay was conducted to determine the effect of phytase dosage and source on growth performance of nursery pigs. The nine experimental treatments were control diets (0.13, 0.18, and 0.23% available phosphorus) and phytase (100, 225, or 350 FTU or FYT/kg) from either Natuphos or Ronozyme P added to the 0.13% available P diet. The results of this experiment indicate that increasing available P or phytase level, through 0.23% available P and 350 FTU or FYT/kg, respectively, improves ADG and feed efficiency. Regression analysis of the ADG response indicated that, when adding less than 350 phytase units/kg, each 100 phytase units/kg will release 0.022 and 0.017% available P for Natuphos and Ronozyme P, respectively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of B-vitamin supplementation on nursery pig growth performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:14:42Z) James, B.W.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Dritz, Steven S.; jnelssen; goodband; mtokach; dritz
    A 35-d growth assay was conducted to determine the effect of added dietary B-vitamins on growth performance of nursery pigs (12.9 lb initial BW). The basal diet (Phase I, 1.5% lysine; Phase II, 1.3% lysine) was formulated to contain no added Bvitamins. The other treatment diets were formed by adding a B-vitamin premix (biotin, folacin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, B6, and B12) to the basal diet with the vitamins added at 1, 2, or 4 times NRC (1998) recommendations. In phase I (d 0 to 14) and for the overall trial, pigs fed increasing Bvitamins had increased (linear, P<0.04) ADFI and improved (quadratic, P<0.04) feed efficiency. Feed efficiency was best for pigs fed the diet with B-vitamins added at the NRC requirement. There was no effect of B-vitamin level (P>0.09) on growth performance in phase II (d 14 to 35). These results suggest that B-vitamin supplementation is necessary to maximize growth performance of earlyweaned pigs; however, typical margins of safety for B-vitamins can be lowered without affecting growth performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The optimal true ileal digestible threonine requirement for nursery pigs between 24 to 49 lb
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:14:14Z) James, B.W.; Usry, J.L.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; dritz; jnelssen
    A 22-d growth assay was conducted to determine the appropriate true ileal digestible threonine requirement to maximize growth performance of pigs between 24 and 49 lb. The 10 experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets (1.1% and 1.2% true ileal digestible lysine; 16.1% and 17.4% CP) with increasing levels of threonine (50, 55, 60, 65, 70% threonine:lysine). Pigs fed 1.2% true ileal digestible lysine had improved ADG and F/G compared to pigs fed 1.1% lysine, this suggest that the requirement was greater than 1.1% true ileal digestible lysine. There was a threonine × lysine interaction for feed efficiency. Pigs fed 1.1% true ileal digestible lysine had a greater response to increasing levels of threonine than pigs fed the diet containing 1.2% lysine. Increasing levels of threonine had no effect on ADG. Feed efficiency improved with increasing levels of true ileal digestible threonine:lysine and was maximized at 70% and 65% threonine:lysine for pigs fed 1.1% and 1.2% true ileal digestible lysine, respectively. However, the greatest improvements in feed efficiency were observed as the ratio increased to approximately 60%.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The optimal true ileal digestible lysine requirement for nursery pigs between 27 to 44 lb
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-02-08T18:13:43Z) James, B.W.; Hastad, C.W.; Lawrence, K.R.; Usry, J.L.; Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Dritz, Steven S.; mtokach; goodband; jnelssen; dritz
    A 20-d growth assay was conducted to determine the appropriate true ileal digestible lysine requirement to maximize growth performance of pigs between 27 to 44 lb. The basal diet (1.0% true ileal digestible lysine; 20.1% CP) was corn-soybean meal-based and was formulated to contain 3% added fat. Sand was substituted with L-lysine⋅HCl to form the other treatment diets (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4% true ileal digestible lysine). The positive control contained more soybean meal than the basal diet (44.2 vs. 32.2% of the diet) and no L-lysine⋅HCl to provide 1.3% true ileal digestible lysine. Growth performance improved (quadratic, P<0.04) with increasing true ileal digestible lysine and was maximized at 1.1% true ileal digestible lysine. Feed efficiency was better (quadratic, P<0.01) for pigs fed increasing true ileal digestible lysine and was best for pigs fed 1.3% true ileal digestible lysine. These results indicate that the true ileal digestible lysine requirement for the 27 to 44 lb pig is at least 1.1% for ADG and 1.3% for feed efficiency.