Cattlemen's Day, 1998

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Revalor-G®, R®algro, and Synovex-H® on the performance of stocker heifers grazing irrigated rye pasture
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:06:32Z) Kuhl, Gerry L.; Blasi, Dale A.; dblasi
    A 151-day field study was conducted to compare three anabolic implants for promoting weight gain in stocker heifers grazing center pivot-irrigated pastures of winter rye. Three hundred previously nonimplanted heifers averaging 421 lb were allotted to one of four treatments: 1) no implant-control (NC), 2) Ralgro® (RAL), 3) Revalor-G® (REV-G) and 4) Synovex-H® (SYN-H). Heifers were weighed at monthly intervals to evaluate the growth response curve of each implant type over time relative to controls. Only during the first 32-day period after implantation did heifers implanted with REV-G gain significantly faster (P<.05) than NC. All implant groups responded similarly (P>.05) during the next three monthly weigh periods. During the last period (day 124- 151), SYN-H heifers gained faster (P<.05) than all other treatments. Over the entire 151-day study, daily gains (lb/day) averaged as follows: NC, 1.50; RAL, 1.58; REV-G, 1.64; and SYN-H, 1.79. All implant types except RAL significantly improved gain (P<.05) compared to NC. Although no significant difference (P>.24) occurred between RAL and REV-G, SYN-H-implanted heifers. gained faster (P<.05) than the other implant groups over the 151-day grazing season.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of feeding Rumensin® in a mineral mixture on steers grazing native grass pastures
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:06:10Z) Brazle, F.K.; Laudert, S.B.
    Four hundred sixty-nine English and Continental cross yearling steers grazed on native grass pastures over a 2-year period. Rumensin® was added (1,620 g/ton) to the mineral mixture in half of the pastures. Some of the pastures were used from April 23 to July 15 and the remainder from April 23 to August 15. The pooled data for the grazing periods indicated that Rumensin supplemented steers gained 7.7% faster(P<.05) and consumed 32% less mineral (P<.05) compared to the control steers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of implants in grazing heifers and carryover effects on finishing gains and carcass traits
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:05:58Z) Brazle, F.K.
    Crossbred yearling heifers were allotted randomly to three grazing implant treatments: 1) control (CONT), 2) Component® E-H (CEH), and 3) Ralgro® (RAL). After grazing native grass for 74 days, the heifers were transported to a western Kansas feedlot. All heifers were implanted with Synovex-H® upon arrival at the feedlot and were reimplanted70 days later with Finaplix-H®. The CEH heifers gained faster while on grass (P<.10) and in the feedlot than the RAL heifers. The CEH heifers had heavier carcasses than RAL heifers. Control heifers had the largest ribeyes. Other carcass traits, including USDA quality grade, were not influenced by pasture treatment. In this study, administration of CEH to heifers grazing native grass optimized overall performance whencombined with the feedlot implants (Synovex-H and Finaplix-H).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Early detection of problem implants using infrared thermography
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:05:36Z) Spire, M.F.; Galland, J.C.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Thermal imaging of feedlot cattle ears is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that aids in identifying properly placed or abscessed growth-promoting implants. Thirty-two calves were used to determine if abscessed and normal, functional implants could be identified and differentiated using infrared thermography. Infrared images were taken at implantation on days 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after implantation. Abscessed implants were easily identified. Use of thermal imaging can verify implant administration and, thus, has the potential to immediately impact feedlot quality assurance programs.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Differences in efficiency among Kansas beef cow producers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:05:10Z) Eidson, S.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Jones, R.; mlange
    Beef cow producers must manage costs of production and improve production efficiency to compete with hog and poultry and other beef cattle producers. A sample of 46 beef cow enterprises from the Kansas Farm Management database was used to measure technical, economic, and overall efficiencies. On average the farms were 92% technically efficient, 80% economically efficient and 73% overall efficient. Our results suggest that 5% increases in economic and scale efficiencies would increase profit per cow by $20 and $24, respectively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Projecting fed cattle price discovery over the next decade
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T21:05:01Z) Mintert, J.; Ward, C.E.; Peel, D.S.; Schroeder, Ted C.; tcs; jmintert
    Interviews were conducted with cattle feeders, beef packers, and others involved in the beef industry to project how fed cattle prices will be discovered in the next decade. Respondents generally indicated that economics will determine beef’s market share in 2010, how important public grades and grading will be, and whether consumer brands for fresh beef will become common. Economics also will determine how much influence alliances will have, whether most cattle will be marketed by some value-based pricing system, and what changes will occur in market information and futures markets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Grid pricing of fed cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:30:33Z) Schroeder, Ted C.; tcs
    Pricing fed cattle on a value-based quality and yield grade grid provides the best opportunity for cattle producers to receive premiums associated with high quality cattle. However, grid discounts for cattle not desired by the particular packer are often quite substantial. Thus, cattle producers targeting cattle for specific grids need to have considerable knowledge regarding the quality attributes of their cattle. This study compared pricing of 202 pens of fed cattle on a live basis, a carcass (dressed) basis, and using four different packer grids. Results indicate that no single pricing method is optimal for all cattle. Producers need to know the quality of cattle they have, be willing and able to sort those cattle, and compare the various selling options and grids before deciding upon the pricing method that generates the highest revenue.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Price discovery issues for fed cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:30:06Z) Mintert, J.; Ward, C.E.; Peel, D.S.; Schroeder, Ted C.; tcs; jmintert
    Interviews were conducted with cattle feeders, beef packers, and others involved in the beef industry to discern their concerns about fed-cattle price discovery. Three issues predominated. First was the need to better identify beef quality, ideally by objective means. Quality often, but not always, referred to tenderness and the “eating experience” of consumers. Second was the need for greater pricing accuracy, signaling a desire for less average pricing and more value-based pricing. The need for improved market information was the third issue identified.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dry aging: an old process revisited
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:29:54Z) Campbell, R.E.; Hunt, Melvin C.
    Dry aging of beef cuts, once considered the "gold standard" for premium palatability, is practiced by only a few processors. We were asked by a major southern meat purveyor to study variables of dry-aging processing. Detailed sensory analyses of flavor, juiciness, and tenderness clearly indicated that beef loins dry aged for 14 and 21 days were superior for all three traits to a product vacuum aged for 14 days and to a product dry aged for 7 days. In addition, dry- aged steaks could be vacuum packaged and stored for up to 16 days without losses in palatability. Dry aging definitely intensified desirable flavor traits and reduced flavor notes typical of vacuum aging. Counts showed that dry aging controlled bacteria. Dry aging, properly done, produces beef steaks with desired eating characteristics for the high-end, value-added markets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of melengesterol acetate (MGA®) and Implus-H® implants on rate of gain, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics of culled beef cows fed a high concentrate ration
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:29:42Z) Spire, M.F.; Galland, J.C.; Unruh, John A.; Drouillard, James S.; junruh; jdrouill
    No statistical differences were detected in feedlot performance or carcass traits between control culled beef cows and those that were treated with melengesterol acetate (MGA®) and/or Implus-H® when fed in a feedyard for 56 days before slaughter. All groups performed well, indicating that this practice may be used to improve the market value of culled cows. Cow health during the feeding period is a major concern.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Molasses-fat blend as an energy source and conditioning agent in feedlot diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:29:19Z) Flake, A.S.; Kuhl, Gerry L.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Seventy-two yearling crossbred steers were used in an individual feeding trial to evaluate the effects of adding a molasses-fat blend (Synergy® 19/14; Cargill Molasses Liquid Products) to diets at 6 or 12% (dry basis) on growth performance, carcass traits, and feed intake behavior. Dry-rolled corn was processed to a mean geometric particle size of either 2,000 or 3,800 microns. Adding the liquid supplement at 6% to the coarse-rolled finishing ration improved gain (P<.1) and feed efficiency (P<.1). Incorporation of Synergy 19/14 into feedlot rations may help reduce fluctuations in feed intake.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Microbial shelf life of chub-packaged ground beef from four large U.S. processing plants
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:29:04Z) Peters, P.E.; Gamage, S.D.; Luchansky, J.B.; Phebus, Randall K.; phebus
    Ten pound chubs of coarsely ground beef of two different lean:fat specifications (73:27 and 81:19) were stored at three temperatures (34, 38 or 45 ̊F) to monitor the effects of storage temperature on microbial condition of the product. Ground beef from four U.S. plants was tested (2 trials each), and microbial analyses were conducted on storage days 0, 6, 10, 14, and 18 using seven different media to estimate counts of total aerobic and anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial counts for a given culture medium were similar among plants and meat types. At day 10, total mi crobial counts from chubs stored at 38 or 45 ̊F were approximately 8 log10 CFU/g, whereas total counts from chubs stored at 34 ̊F were approximately 4.5 log 10 CFU/g (4 log=10,000, CFU is colony forming units). Regardless of storage temperature and meat type, LAB predominated. Growth of gram-negative enteric bacteria was delayed in chubs stored at 34 ̊F throughout the 18 day study, whereas counts increased in chubs stored at 38 or 45 ̊ F.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Betaine as a dietary supplement for finishing cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:28:51Z) Loest, C.A.; Hunter, R.D.; Wessels, R.H.; Drouillard, James S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; jdrouill; etitgeme
    One hundred seventy five steers (902 lb initial body weight) were used in a finishing study to determine the effect of betaine, provided either as feed-grade betaine (Betafin-S6, Finnsugar Bioproducts) or as concentrated separator by-product (CSB; desugared beet molasses), on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Steers were fed a finishing diet based on steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn. Treatments included 10.5 or 21 g/steer daily supplemental feed-grade betaine or 250 g (15.5 betaine) or 500 g (31 g betaine) of CSB per steer daily. Dry matter intakes increased (linear, P<0.1) for steers supplemented with feed- grade betaine. Average daily gains and feed efficiencies were not affected by treatments. Dressing percent and twelfth rib back fat increased (P<0.1) for steers that received feed-grade betaine. Rib-eye area decreased (P<0.1) when steers were supplemented with either feed-grade betaine or CSB. Yield grades were significantly higher (linear, P<0.1) for cattle receiving supplemental CSB or feed-grade betaine (quadratic, P<.05). Hot carcass weights, KPH, marbling scores, and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice were not affected by supplemental betaine. In this study, betaine supplementation did not markedly alter growth performance, but carcass fatness tended to increase for both supplements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of added fat, degradable intake protein, and ruminally-protected choline in diets of finishing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:28:28Z) Flake, A.S.; Kuhl, Gerry L.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    A total of 216 yearling steers was used in two finishing experiments to evaluate interactions between levels of dietary fat, protein and ruminally protected choline. In Trial 1, steers received diets that combined levels of 0% or 5% added fat (choice white grease), 10.8% or 12.5% crude protein, and 0 or 5 grams per head daily of ruminally protected choline. Steers were fed in pens of five head each for 89 days. Adding fat decreased intake (P<.01), average daily gain (P<.1), and carcass weight (P<.07) and increased carcass yield grade (P<.06) but did not alter feed efficiency (P>.9). Increasing the protein level from 10.8 to 12.5% had no significant effects on live animal performance, but the high protein level resulted in a greater (P<.05) percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice. Choline supplementation tended to increase average daily gain (P=.13) as well as the percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice (P=.23). Choline also increased dressing percentage (P<.07); this effect was most pronounced when fat was not included in the diet, indicating an interaction between fat and choline (P<.1). In Trial 2, steers were fed a common finishing diet, which was top- dressed with ruminally protected choline at 2 to 9 grams per head daily or no added choline. Choline supplementation yielded linear improvements in rate of gain (P<.01), dry matter intake (P<.05), and carcass weight (P<.01). All measures of carcass fatness increased as the amount of choline increased. Adding ruminally protected choline to diets of finishing steers popusignificantly improved growth performance and carcass traits.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of ruminally protected choline and dietary fat on performance of finishing heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:28:00Z) Bindel, D.J.; Wessels, R.H.; Loest, C.A.; Drouillard, James S.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; jdrouill; etitgeme
    A 120-day finishing study utilizing 318 heifers (753 lb initial body weight) examined the effects of ruminally protected choline in diets with no tallow or 2 or 4% of supplemental tallow. Heifers were fed a finishing diet based on a mix of steam-flaked and dry- rolled corn; encapsulated choline (20, 40, or 60 g/head/day, supplying 5, 10 or 15 g choline/head/day) was top-dressed to the diet or not added. Dry matter intake decreased linearly with inclusion of fat (P<.05) but was not affected significantly by addition of choline. Daily gains also decreased linearly (P<.05) with fat addition. Choline supplementation increased gain (linear, P<.1; qua dratic, P<.05), with the greatest increase occurring for the first 20 g increment encapsulated choline/day. Likewise, feed efficiency improved (P<.1) with supplemental choline. Again, the greatest response occurred for the first 20 g/day. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat and yield grade both increased linearly (P<.1) with fat supplementation. The percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice decreased (linear, P<.05; quadratic, P<.1) when choline was added at 60 g/day. Hot carcass weight, marbling, dressing percent, and 12th rib fat thickness were not affected significantly by either fat or choline. Ruminally protected choline can improve average daily gain and feed efficiency of finishing cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in large-diameter, lebanon-style bologna
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:27:48Z) Karr, K.J.; Kastner, Curtis L.; Marsden, James L.; Phebus, Randall K.; ckastner; jmarsden; phebus
    Lebanon bologna raw batter was mixed with a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to achieve average inoculum levels of 7.79, 7.77, and 7.92 log CFU/g as deter mined on MSA, 202, and PRSA media, respectively. Treatment 1 consisted of a fermentation cycle of 8 hrs at an internal temperature (I.T.) of 80EF then 24 hrs at 100EF I.T., followed by 24 hrs at 110EF I.T. Treatments 2, 3, and 4 included additional heating at 115EF I.T. for 1, 2, and 5 hrs, respectively. All heat treatments resulted in product that was negative (<1.9 log CFU/g detection limit) on all culture media and negative after enrichment on mEC selective medium. This study validates that a five-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 can be achieved using the described protocol, thus meeting USDA/FSIS requirements.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Feeding systems and implant strategies for calf-fed Holstein steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:27:30Z) Milton, C.T.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Two hundred sixty-four Holstein steer calves (308 lb) were used in a 2×3 factorially designed experiment to compare the effect of two feeding systems and three implant strategies on performance and carcass characteristics. Steers were allowed ad libitum access to a conventional, high-grain diet for the entire feeding period or were program-fed a high-grain diet to gain 2.2 lb/d for 109 days and 2.6 lb/d for 92 days and then allowed ad libitum access to feed for the remainder of the feeding period. Steers were fed to a common weight endpoint (1260 lb). Implant strategies were: 1) Synovex® -S on days 1, 109, and 201 (S-S-S); 2) Synovex® -C on day 1, Synovex-S ® on day 109, and Revalor -S on day 201 (C-S-R); and 3) Synovex-C on day 1 and Revalor-S on days 109 and 201 (C-R-R). Over the entire feeding period, steers finished on the ad libitum system consumed 7% (P<.01) more feed daily and gained 7.2% (P<.01) faster than those in the programmed feeding system. Steers in the programmed feeding system required an additional 24 days to achieve similar finished weights and had smaller (P<.05) ribeye areas and less (P<.01) backfat than steers feeding ad libitum throughout. Feed efficiency and total feed consumed were similar between feeding systems. Compared to S-S-S, feed efficiency was improved 4.3% by C-S-R and 6.7% (P<.05) by C-R-R. The C-R-R implant strategy reduced marbling (P<.01) and percentage of USDA Choice carcasses (P=.01) compared with S-S-S or C-S-R. A two-phase, programmed feeding system can result in improved feed efficiency and a compensatory gain response during the latter phase of the feeding period. However, the gain restriction over the first 200 days in this study probably was too severe to allow program-fed steers to finish at a similar weight with a similar number of days on feed those feeding ad libitum. Implanting calf-fed Holstein steers with a low dose of estrogen and then increasing implant potency step-wise optimized performance and carcass quality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Soybean hulls in roughage-free diets for limit-fed growing cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:27:02Z) Löest, C.A.; Bindel, D.J.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Drouillard, James S.; Blasi, Dale A.; etitgeme; jdrouill; dblasi
    Three hundred heifers (573 lb initial body weight) were used in a growing study to compare growth performance of cattle fed roughage-free diets comprised mainly of soybean hulls with that of cattle receiving roughage- and corn-based diets and to determine if cattle fed soybean hull-based diets would respond to supplemental methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA; a source of methionine), ruminally protected betaine, or concentrated separator by-product (CSB; a source of betaine). Treatments included 1) a roughage-based diet fed at 2.75% of body weight (ROUGH), 2) a corn-based diet fed at 1.5% of body weight (CORN1.5), 3) a corn- based diet fed at 2.25% of body weight (CORN2.25), 4) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 1.5% of body weight (SH1.5), 5) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 2.25% of body weight (SH2.25), 6) SH1.5 top-dressed with 11.4 g/head daily MHA, 7) SH2.25 top-dressed with 11.4 g/head daily MHA, 8) SH2.25 top-dressed with 7 g/head daily rumenprotected betaine, and 9) SH2.25 top- dressed with 250 g/head daily CSB. Supplemental MHA, betaine, and CSB did not change feed intakes, gains, or feed efficiencies for cattle fed soybean hulls. Heifers fed soyhulls at 2.25% of body weight gained 27% slower (P<.01) than heifers fed the corn-based diet at similar intakes and were 25% less efficient (P<.01). Similar results were observed for cattle fed soybean hulls and corn at 1.5% of body weight. Cattle fed soybean hulls at 2.25% of body weight had gains similar to those of cattle receiving the roughage-based diet at 2.75% of body weight, but feed efficiencies tended to be better (P=0.11) for the cattle receiving soybean hulls because less feed was consumed. The roughage-fed cattle gained 23% less (P<.01) than cattle fed corn at 2.25% of body weight and were 34% less efficient.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic diversity of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 collected at four Kansas beef cattle feedyards over 13 months
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T20:26:46Z) Hyatt, D.R.; Galland, J.C.; Crupper, S.; Hawkins, L.; Anderson, N.V.; Stokka, Gerald L.
    Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Eschericia coli O157:H7 are important foodborne pathogens, but longitudinal studies of their prevalence in beef cattle feedyards have not been done. Our long- term study involved 24,556 samples taken from beef cattle feedyards found overall prevalence’s of 4.87% for Salmonella, 20.1% for Campylobacter in hospital pen fecal samples, and 0.20% for E. coli O157:H7. Yard and pen differences (P<0.05) were detected. All 53 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were resistant to Talmicosin and Erythromycin, two antimicrobials used in food animal medicine. Their genetic diversity was high and did not indicate the presence of resident strains at the yards studied. Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli O157:H7 were probably brought into the yards by shipments of new cattle. Many of these organismswere susceptible to antibiotics commonly used to treat beef cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wheat middlings in roughage-based or limit-fed, high-concentrate diets for growing calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-02T18:39:31Z) Kuhl, Gerry L.; Wessels, R.H.; Blasi, Dale A.; Drouillard, James S.; dblasi; jdrouill
    A 101-day growing study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of beef heifers fed wheat middlings in traditional full- fed, sorghum silage-based rations and in limit-fed, high-concentrate rations. Diets were formulated without wheat middlings or with wheat middlings replacing 33, 67, or 100% of rolled corn plus soybean meal. Daily gains decreased linearly (P<.01) with increasing levels of wheat middlings in the roughage-based diets because of lower feed intake (P<.10), but feed efficiency was not affected (P>.30). For the limit-fed diets, heifer daily gains decreased linearly (P<.01) as the proportion of wheat middlings in the diet increased, resulting in a linear reduction (P<.01) in feed efficiency. Wheat middlings can be utilized effectively as the predominant energy/protein source for growing cattle, though their nutritional and economic value, relative to corn and soybean meal, may be different for roughage-based and limit-fed diets.