Cattlemen's Day, 1992

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of source and level of energy or protein supplementation on nitrate toxicity in cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:50:40Z) Smith, M.W.; Blanding, M.R.; Corah, L.R.; Blasi, Dale A.; dblasi
    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether level or source of energy and protein supplementation would reduce the incidence or severity of clinical toxicity in cattle fed forages high in nitrate (NO3). Heavily fertilized sudan hay with 40,000 to 50,000 ppm NO3 was fed in both experiments. The percentage of total blood hemoglobin converted to methemoglobin by nitrate was used to compare treatment effectiveness. Energy supplementation at levels tested in Exp. 1 had no effect on methemoglobin concentration. In Exp. 2, all protein sources (wheat midds, urea, soybean meal) reduced the maximum methemoglobin levels and increased the rate of reconversion to normal hemoglobin.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Interrelationship between copper and bovine health
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:50:12Z) Larson, Robert L.; Arthington, J.D.; Corah, L.R.
    Trace mineral nutrition is important to production efficiency and animal health. Trace mineral imbalances may be the roots of many diagnosed or undiagnosed problems in a herd. The low cost of a complete mineral analysis when compared to production losses encourages its use in the evaluation of any bovine herd in which trace mineral imbalances are suspected. A systematic gathering of information on mineral intake, antagonist intake, and serum and tissue values is necessary in order to make a diagnosis and a rational treatment decision. It is important to understand the complex interactions between minerals so that supplementation with one element does not make a complicated situation worse. Because of the many interactions between nutrients and the cost of mineral supplements, recommending use of higher levels of trace minerals in a ration or supplement without a complete diagnosis is economically and nutritionally unjustified.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Biomate® inoculant and dextrose on the fermentation of alfalfa silages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:49:54Z) Lin, C.; Bolsen, K.K.; Bradford, J.E.; Brent, B.E.; Feyerherm, A.M.; Aimutis, W.R.
    This study documented once again that ensiling alfalfa is difficult and unpredictable. Adding 2% dextrose or Biomate® inoculant alone or in combination had little influence on the ensiling process but did improve fermentation efficiency somewhat. The pre-ensiling characteristics (i.e., dry matter (DM) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) values, buffering capacity, and epiphytic microflora) at the different cuttings and stages of maturity undoubtedly influenced the effectiveness of the two additives. Apparently, alfalfa often has too little WSC and too much buffering capacity to produce adequately preserved silage, especially when ensiled at a low DM content (less than 30 to 34%).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Epiphytic lactic acid bacteria succession during the pre-ensiling and ensiling periods of alfalfa and corn
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:49:42Z) Lin, Chunjian; Brent, B.E.; Bolsen, K.K.; Fung, Daniel Y. C.; dfung
    Twenty three species and 306 strains of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were found for two cuttings of alfalfa, each harvested at three stages of maturity, and three whole-plant corn hybrids. Epiphytic LAB counts were low and variable on the standing crops, particularly on alfalfa. Wilting increased LAB numbers slightly for alfalfa, but the chopping process increased counts dramatically for both crops. Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus faecium, and E. faecalis were predominant on both standing crops. The changes in LAB caused by wilting or chopping were mainly proportional changes in the four dominant species. Once the crops were ensiled, total LAB counts increased rapidly, reached a maximum within 1 day, and then declined after 7 days of fermentation. Enterococcus species decreased sharply or disappeared during the early fermentation. The species most prominent through day 7 were L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus. After 7 days, more species, i.e., L. homohiochii, L. brevis, and L. gasseri, joined the succession and became prevalent, depending on the crop. Only two of the six alfalfa silages were adequately preserved, whereas all three corn hybrids fermented normally. No relationship was found between epiphytic LAB numbers or species and adequacy of fermentation. Neither were pH changes during the fermentation explained by the epiphytic LAB count or population succession. Rather, the well-fermented alfalfa silages were those ensiled at a high dry matter (DM) content (>36%) and low buffering capacity (<450 meq/kg of DM). Only a few of the LAB strains were consistently present, thus indicating that populations changed during fermentation to fit an ecological niche.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of 20 corn hybrids for silage agronomic characteristics
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:49:30Z) Sonon, R.N.; Dalke, B.S.; Suazo, R.; Pfaff, L.; Bolsen, K.K.
    Twenty corn hybrids were grown under irrigation and harvested at 90 % of the kernel milk line. Hybrid had a significant effect on plant height, whole-plant dry matter (DM) and DM yield, grain yield, stover yield, and plant part proportions. The highest whole-plant DM (45.9%) was for Cargill 7997, whereas the lowest was for Cargill 4327 (30.1%). Cargill 8427 and Pioneer 3245 had the highest wholeplant DM and grain yields, whereas Cargill 4327 was lowest. Grain yield and the percentage of grain in the whole-plant DM increased as the plant height increased.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of interseeded grain sorghum and soybeans as a silage crop
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:49:16Z) Harbers, L.H.; Bolsen, K.K.; Hartadi, H.
    Dry matter yield of grain sorghum alone averaged more than 1.0 ton per acre higher than that of intercropped grain sorghum-soybeans in both 1988 and 1989. All silage yields were lower in 1989 because of drought. Grain sorghum silage had less NDF and ADF, but intercropped silages had over 4 percentage units more crude protein. Digestibility coefficients for crude protein, NDF, and ADF tended to favor intercropped silages, but yearling steer performance favored grain sorghum silage. Studies over 4 years (1986 to 1989) suggest that intercropping might be more beneficial for dairy cattle producers than beef producers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of inoculant-treated corn silages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:49:06Z) Bolsen, K.K.; Tiemann, D.G.; Sonon, R.N.; Hart, R.A.; Dalke, B.; Dickerson, J.T.; Lin, C.
    Whole-plant corn silages treated with either Pioneer 1174® or Biotal® inoculants were preserved more efficiently than control silages. They had slightly higher dry matter (DM) recoveries; more lactic acid; higher lactic to acetic acid ratios; and less acetic acid, ethanol, and ammonia-nitrogen. Laboratory silo results showed that both inoculated silages produced lactic acid faster than control silages during the first 7 days and had more desirable fermentation profiles at the end of 90 days. Applying 5 or 10 times the recommended rate of Biotal inoculant had only a small and nonsignificant effect on rate and efficiency of fermentation. Yearling steers fed the two inoculated corn silages gained numerically but not significantly faster and more efficiently than steers fed control silages, so inoculated silages produced about 6.1 lb more steer gain per ton of crop ensiled than controls.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of inoculant and NPN silage additives: a summary of 26 trials and 65 farm-scale silages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:48:54Z) Bolsen, K.K.; Sonon, R.N.; Dalke, B.; Pope, Ronald V.; Riley, Jack G.; Laytimi, A.; rvpope
    Results from 26 trials comparing fermentation, dry matter (DM) recovery, and effects on cattle performance of inoculated or nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)-treated silages vs. controls were summarized using paired t-test analysis. Inoculants consistently improved fermentation efficiency, DM recovery, feed conversion, and gain per ton of crop ensiled in both corn and forage sorghum silages. The use of NPN, particularly urea or anhydrous ammonia, adversely affected fermentation efficiency, DM recovery, avg daily gain, and gain per ton of crop ensiled, particularly for the higher moisture forage sorghums.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Comparison of feedlot and carcass characteristics of Angus, Hereford, Brahman, Charolais, and Gelbvieh crossbred steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:48:42Z) Hickok, D.T.; Schalles, R.R.; Franke, D.E.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Feedlot performance of 207 steers with various percentages of Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Brahman, and Gelbvieh breeding were compared at a constant 1) days fed, 2) adjusted carcass backfat, and 3) slaughter weight. As the percentage of Angus, Hereford, or Brahman increased, growth rate decreased, whereas increasing the percentage of Charolais increased growth rate. Increasing the percentage of Gelbvieh increased weaning weight but had little effect on post-weaning gains. Increasing percentage of Charolais increased feed conversion efficiency, whereas the other breeds were similar, except that at a constant slaughter weight, greater percentage of Hereford improved feed conversion efficiency. Increasing the percentage of Charolais increased carcass weight and ribeye area and decreased yield grade, but marbling was not different from that of Angus. An increase in percentage of Hereford caused a decrease in carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling, and quality grade. Increasing percentage of Angus decreased carcass weight and ribeye area but increased marbling and quality grade. Increasing percentage of Brahman caused the greatest reduction of marbling and quality grade of any breed. Increasing the percentage Gelbvieh breeding resulted in increased ribeye area and decreased marbling at constant days fed and slaughter weight.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Heritabilities and genetic correlations of ultrasound-measured ribeye area with other performance traits in Brangus cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:48:31Z) Johnson, M.Z.; Schalles, R.R.; Olson, W.; Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for ultrasound-measured ribeye area and fat thickness, as well as growth traits and scrotal circumference, were determined using performance records of 1613 Brangus calves born from 1987 to 1990. Moderate heritabilities of .39 for weaning and .40 for yearling ultrasound- measured ribeye area indicate that selection to change these traits should be effective. The positive, and generally large, genetic correlations between ultrasound-measured ribeye areas and growth traits indicate that genetic change of these traits can be made in tandem. The low heritability (.14) of fat thickness, the small amount of fat, and the lack of variation would make it very difficult to change the genetic ability of animals to deposit fat.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance and carcass characteristics of cull beef cows implanted with growth promotants and fed a high concentrate ration
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:48:18Z) Cranwell, C.D.; Simms, D.D.; Brethour, J.R.; Unruh, John A.; junruh
    Open, cull beef cows fed a high concentrate ration for 28 or 56 days and implanted with Finaplix-H®, Synovex-H®, or both had improved gain and feed efficiency compared to controls (nonimplanted cows). Changes in ultrasound-measured backfat (12th rib) of implanted cows and controls were similar in both feeding periods. Marbling, fat color, and tenderness, as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force, were not improved by feeding cows for 56 days compared to 28 days. However, lean color, dressing percent, and ribeye area were improved by feeding for 56 days. Numerical yield grade was lower (P<.05) in 28-day fed cows. Implanting with Synovex-H or Finaplix-H resulted in leaner carcasses with lower yield grades compared to controls. Ribeye area was increased by using Synovex-H compared to controls and Finaplix- H. These data indicate that the benefits in gain, feed efficiency, and carcass traits from implanting cull cows can be obtained by using either Synovex-H or Finaplix-H alone.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of feed additives on shipping shrinkage of yearling heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:48:03Z) Brazle, F.K.
    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of feed additives on the transit shrink of yearling cattle. In Trial I, 146 mixed-breed heifers were offered a mineral mixture containing either Terramycin® or Bovatec®, or without additive while grazing native grass pastures. Shrinkage after 300 miles in transit was lower (P<.09) for Bovatec-fed heifers than the other groups. In Trial II, 60 mixed-breed heifers were offered free choice prairie hay, plus soybean hulls without additive or containing either Aureomycin ®, Rumensin, or Bovatec®. Both ionophores tended to reduce live weight shrink following a 10-hour withholding of feed and water, but treatment differences were not significant (P>.05). The small shrinkage differences observed in these two trials would not justify changes in the weighing practices of feeder cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of long-acting penicillin and Levamisole® on gain and health of stressed calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:47:52Z) Brazle, F.K.
    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of long-acting penicillin and/or levamisole injected at arrival or levamisole injected on day 1 and/or day 7 on the health and gain of newly received, highly stressed, light weight calves. Levamisole injected at arrival reduced (P<.05) sickness of newly arrived calves during the first 5 days. However, it did not reduce overall sickness during the receiving period. Long-acting penicillin injected at arrival did not reduce sickness, but did improve (P<.05) gain of calves during the growing period. The combination of levamisole and long-acting penicillin or the combination of levamisole on day 1 and day 7 did not reduce morbidity in these highly stressed calves.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Causes of diarrhea, pneumonia, and abortion in 1991 cattle submissions to the KSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:47:38Z) Frank, R.K.; Vorhies, M.W.; Chengappa, M. M.; chengapa
    Causes of diarrhea, pneumonia, and abortion in Kansas cattle submissions to the Kansas State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory during 1991 were summarized. Antimicrobial susceptibility results for Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Hemophilus somnus, and Salmonella spp., the common causes of pneumonia and/or diarrhea in cattle with increasing antibiotic resistance patterns, were also summarized. The most commonly diagnosed causes of diarrhea in young calves (under 1 month of age) were coronavirus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The three most common causes of diarrhea in 1 to 18 month-old cattle were BVD virus, coccidia, and Salmonella. Most respiratory submissions were 7- to 18-month-old cattle. P. haemolytica and P. multocida were the most commonly identified pathogens from these cattle. In 20% of the cases, more than one pathogen was identified. The most commonly diagnosed cause of abortion was bacterial infection (20%), but a cause was not identified in nearly 70% of abortion submissions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of limited creep feeding on pre- and post-weaning performance of spring born calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:46:59Z) Brazle, F.K.; Kuhl, Gerry L.; Binns, C.E.; Zoellner, K.O.; Corah, L.R.; Schalles, R.R.
    Spring-born suckling beef calves were offered salt-limited creep feeds containing either high protein, high energy, or energy plus Bovatec® from August 15 to October 15 in a 3- year study. Creep feeding improved (P<.01) daily gain over controls, but no differences were attributable to creep composition. Daily creep feed consumption was somewhat less for the protein fed group, resulting in improved feed conversion compared to the energy-based supplement, with the energy plus Bovatec creep feed intermediate in efficiency. Creep feeding improved 53-day postweaning gains (P<.01). Overall, limited creep feeding boosted both pre- and postweaning performance, with no difference in gain among the three types of creep rations studied.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Short-run impact of captive supplies on fed cattle prices
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:46:36Z) Mintert, J.; Jones, R.; Brazle, F.; Schroeder, Ted C.; jmintert; tcs
    Factors affecting western Kansas fed cattle prices during May through November 1990 were investigated. In particular, the impact of changes in captive cattle supplies on cash prices was examined. The term captive cattle supplies refers to cattle procured by a packer well in advance of slaughter. Captive supplies take one of three forms: 1) packer-owned cattle, 2) cattle procured on forward contracts, and 3) cattle procured under formula price (or marketing) agreements. Captive supplies were defined as cattle procured under forward contracts or formula price agreements, because data on packer-owned cattle were unavailable. Over the May through November 1990 period as a whole, the presence of captive cattle supplies was associated with an average reduction in western Kansas cash market transaction prices of about $0.15/cwt.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of frequency of energy supplementation on utilization of early-summer, tallgrass prairie forage
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:46:07Z) Beaty, J.L.; Cochran, R.C.; Lintzenich, B.A.; Vanzant, E.S.
    Fifteen ruminally cannulated beef steers were used in a pasture supplementation experiment to determine the effects of frequency of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of tallgrass prairie forage during early to mid-summer. Steers grazed a common pasture and were assigned to the following treatments: no supplement (control); 4 lb rolled sorghum grain/head/day; 9.3 lb grain/head/3 times weekly. Steers in the two supplemented groups consumed the same amount of sorghum grain/head/week. In general, supplementation was not harmful (P =.17) to forage intake. However, providing supplement 3 times weekly tended (P =.11) to depress forage intake compared with daily supplementation. Although supplementation tended (P =.07) to cause selection of less fiber in the diet, total forage digestion tended (P<.07) to be depressed by supplementation. However, total diet organic matter digestibility was not significantly altered by treatment, probably because of the impact of the highly digestible supplement. Based on trends in intake and grazed forage selection, achieving optimal benefit from supplementation of cattle grazing relatively high-quality forage appears more likely when its provided daily rather than 3 times weekly.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of level of supplemental alfalfa hay on the performance of beef cows grazing winter bluestem range
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-15T16:45:36Z) Vanzant, E.S.; Cochran, R.C.
    One hundred thirteen pregnant Hereford × Angus cows were used to study the effect of increasing levels of supplemental alfalfa hay on performance when grazing winter bluestem range. Although no differences were observed in reproductive performance, increasing the amount supplemental alfalfa from approximately .5% up to 1.0% of body weight resulted in increased weight gain and reduced condition loss in cows and increased weaning weight in calves. However, time spent grazing was significantly decreased in those groups receiving larger amounts of supplemental alfalfa.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Beef empire carcass merit days index system
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T18:01:31Z) Powell, T.H.; Laudert, S.D.; Lee, R.W.; Seibert, G.; Unruh, John A.; Dikeman, Michael E.; junruh; mdikeman
    Kansas State University, in cooperation with the Beef Empire Days committee, developed a new beef carcass index system for 1991, incorporating yield and quality traits as indicators of carcass merit. Development of the system considered current industry and consumer demands in a critical evaluation of final carcass ranking. The index starts from 100 points and applies positive and negative adjustments for hot carcass weight; ribeye area; adjusted 12th rib fat thickness; percent kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; and quality grade. The index was first used in 1991.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Variation in the quality of forage grazed by pregnant/lactating beef cows at key periods in the year
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-10-14T18:01:07Z) Vanzant, E.S.; Cochran, R.C.; Stanley, T.A.
    Seven ruminal and esophageally fistulated crossbred beef cows were used to monitor changes in chemical composition of tallgrass-prairie forage selected during November of 1989 and January, March, June, and August of 1990. Quality of forage selected by beef cows was lowest during the period just before calving (cows calved in early February) but had begun to improve by the March sampling (postpartum period) and reached its peak during June sampling period (breeding season). Observed variability in the fiber and protein components of grazed forage highlights the dynamic nature of forage quality and emphasizes the importance of using such information when assessing the nutritional adequacy of range diets.