Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Tennis: a promising approach to family-centered physical activity and health promotion
    (2021-09-03) Dombrowski, Nicholas; Hanson , Jennifer Ann
    Despite global goals to reverse the prevalence of obesity and inactivity, little to no progress has been made. This article presents the details of a tennis-based, family-centered program that can serve as a model for future wellness interventions. The program succeeded in providing a source of physical activity for the children and adults involved. Participant feedback confirmed that the program was well received and that an expanded program would be feasible. Tennis appears to be a viable platform for health promotion, and tennis professionals looking to build partnerships for the purpose of growing the game should keep in mind potential public health stakeholders.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Nutritional Adequacy and Diet Quality of Vegetarian Menu Substitutions in Urban Kansas Childcare Centers
    (2022-08-24) Jindrich, Caitlin; Joyce, Jillian; Daniels, Elizabeth; Procter, Sandra B.; Sauer, Kevin
    While plant-based eating has become increasingly popular, little is known of how this trend has impacted childcare center meals. The purpose of this study was to measure the nutrient content and diet quality of vegetarian alternative lunches and compare these measures to those of standard childcare lunches and nutrient benchmarks representing one-third of the Dietary Reference Intake for 3-year-olds and 4–5-year-olds. Menu data were obtained from seven urban Kansas childcare centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program and regularly providing a vegetarian alternative lunch. The centers provided detailed menu information for 27 days’ worth of meals. The most common vegetarian substitution was cheese, which was used to fulfill all or part of the meat/meat alternative requirement in over three-quarters of the vegetarian alternative meals (n = 22). Compared to the standard meals, the vegetarian alternative meals were higher in calories, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and sodium and lower in protein, choline, and diet quality (p = 0.05). Both lunch options met the benchmarks for vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, and protein. Iron content for both (95% CI: standard 1.61–2.17 mg; vegetarian 1.37–2.7 mg) was below the benchmark. Although additional research is needed to better understand how vegetarianism has impacted childcare meals in the U.S., important differences in the nutrient contents were observed between the standard and vegetarian alternative meals. In addition, the results suggest vegetarian alternative meals that rely heavily on cheese may be of lower diet quality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Vegetarian Menu Substitution Practices and Nutrition Professionals' Involvement in the Foodservice Operations of Urban Kansas Childcare Centers
    (2022-03-01) Jindrich, Caitlin; Sauer, Kevin; Daniels, Elizabeth; Procter, Sandra B.; Hanson, Jennifer Ann
    Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to 155 urban Kansas childcare centers participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Initial survey distribution occurred on March 7, 2020, and responses were collected through August 2020. Results: Representatives from (N=85) childcare centers answered the survey, resulting in a response rate of 54.8%. When asked how frequently a vegetarian alternative was offered in lieu of the standard meal, 32.9% (n=28) answered “1-2 times/week”, 3.5% (n=3) answered “three times/week”, 15.3% (n=13) answered “four-five times/week”, and 41.2% (n=35) indicated they “never provide a vegetarian alternative”. Multiple centers reported routinely serving a vegetarian meal as the main meal center wide. One in four respondents (n=21) was unsure if vegetarian meals could qualify for CACFP reimbursement. When asked to indicate the credentials of the individuals involved in their centers’ menu process and/or foodservice operations, the most frequently cited credentials were the CACFP Child Nutrition Professional (CCNP), the CACFP Management Professional (CMP), and the School Nutrition Specialist (SNS) credentials which accounted for (n=11), (n=7), and (n=5) responses respectively. Over a third of the centers (36.4%, n=31) reported that their menus were written by the owner or an operations team member, and only 5.9% (n=5) reported menus being written by a dietitian/nutritionist. Application To Child Nutrition Professionals: The majority of the centers provided a vegetarian alternative at least once a week. However, the lack of confidence surrounding CACFP reimbursement for vegetarian meals highlights an important knowledge gap. In addition, many of the centers’ menus were written by the owner or an operations team member suggesting an underutilization of the expertise nutrition professionals have to offer.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of Covid-19 on Foodservice Operations Within Urban Kansas Childcare Centers
    (2022-09-01) Jindrich, Caitlin; Daniels, Elizabeth; Hanson, Jennifer Ann
    Methods: Three COVID-19-related questions were added to an online survey of Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participating childcare centers located throughout Kansas. Responses were collected from July through August, 2020. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of open-ended responses were used to identify common concerns. Results: Seventy-nine of the 138 childcare centers invited to complete the COVID-19-related questions responded (57.2% participation rate). The majority (n = 56, 70.1%) reported decreased enrollment, whereas a small number (n = 9, 11.4%) reported an increase. Approximately two-thirds of the centers (n = 49, 62.0%) reported foodservice operation modifications owing to COVID-19-related challenges. Three overarching themes were discovered within the centers’ responses: a) procurement challenges including decreased availability and increased cost of foods, b) changes in meal service including shifting to disposable tableware and ceasing family-style meal service, and c) menu and production changes in response to enrollment changes and product availability issues. Application to Child Nutrition Professionals: Future consideration for CACFP participants include shifting to more shelf-stable foods when faced with food availability issues and utilizing more cost-effective food purchasing options, which might be attained through group purchasing organizations. Well-developed emergency plans such as emergency menus should include plans for procurement challenges. Resources and training to increase understanding and knowledge of CACFP meal pattern guidelines may make menu changes based on availability easier or less challenging. Best practice guidelines, such as family-style meals, may have to take health and safety measures into consideration. As centers continue to experience COVID-19-related issues and plan for a “return to normal”, child nutrition professionals can fulfill an important role in helping centers adapt their foodservice operations to meet the challenge.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Energy-Adjusted Dietary Intakes Are Associated with Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating but Not Food Insecurity or Sports Nutrition Knowledge in a Pilot Study of ROTC Cadets
    (2021-09) Daniels, Elizabeth; Hanson, Jennifer Ann
    Military service is inherently demanding and, due to the nature of these demands, the term “tactical athlete” has been coined to capture the physical requirements of the profession. Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) cadets are a unique subset of the military service community, and the complexity of their training and educational pursuits increases their susceptibility to unhealthy eating patterns. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the relationship between the perceived barriers to healthy eating, food insecurity, sports nutrition knowledge, and dietary patterns among Army ROTC cadets. The usual dietary intake was gathered from (N = 37) cadets using the General Nutrition Assessment Food Frequency Questionnaire. The perceived barriers to healthy eating were measured using a set of scales consisting of social barriers (6 items, α = 0.86), access barriers (2 items, α = 0.95), and personal barriers (2 items, α = 0.67), with higher-scale scores indicating greater perceived barriers. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between the energy-adjusted dietary intakes and the scores on the barriers scales. Energy-adjusted intakes of calcium (ρ = −0.47, p ≤ 0.01), fiber (ρ = −0.35, p = 0.03), vitamin A (ρ = −0.46, p ≤ 0.01), vitamin C (ρ = −0.43, p ≤ 0.01), fruit (ρ = −0.34, p = 0.04), and vegetables (ρ = −0.50, p ≤ 0.01) were negatively correlated with the perceived personal barrier scores. The energy-adjusted intakes of fiber (ρ = −0.36, p = 0.03), vitamin C (ρ = −0.37, p = 0.03), and vitamin E (ρ = −0.45, p ≤.01) were negatively correlated with perceived social barriers, while energy-adjusted vitamin C intake was negatively correlated with perceived access barriers (ρ = −0.40, p = 0.01). Although additional research is needed to better understand the dietary patterns of ROTC cadets, among the participants in this study, greater perceived personal, social, and access barriers were associated with less nutrient-dense eating patterns. Interventions aimed at addressing such barriers may prove beneficial for the improvement of diet quality among ROTC cadets.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Potential nutrition contributions to exercise-associated muscle cramping in four recreational half-marathoners: A case series
    (2021-02-08) Hanson, Jennifer Ann; Dole, Andrew
    Objectives: Nutrition-related practices and outcomes vary dramatically between athletes, and traditional beliefs regarding the role of electrolytes and hydration in exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) may be hindering meaningful prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of carbohydrate (CHO), energy, and exertion level, in conjunction with electrolyte and hydration status to assess the role of these possible predictors of EAMC. Methods: A case study series approach was used to capture pre-race and on-course food and beverage intake, pre and post-race body weight, relative perceived exertion (RPE), and history of EAMC for four recreational runners prior to and during a half-marathon race. Results: CHO intake, energy intake, and hydration status varied among the runners with one occurrence of EAMC. Reported pre-race CHO intake for all but one runner fell below 5 g/kg/day. Weight loss during the race was between 1.23-3.03%. Two of the four runners reported a prior history of EAMC, one of which experienced EAMC during the race. The two runners with a prior history of EAMC, also reported the lowest 3-day energy and CHO intakes. The one runner who encountered an EAMC did not experience the greatest net race sodium loss. However, this runner did have the greatest race weight loss, the greatest race sweat loss, the longest duration of activity, the lowest RPE, and suboptimal energy and CHO intakes. Conclusions: The observed case of EAMC does not appear to be entirely inconsistent with the traditional dehydration/ electrolyte loss theory. However, the in-depth characterization of each runner illustrates the complex interaction of potential predictors and also generates questions regarding the potential contribution of suboptimal energy and CHO intakes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The impact of replacing breakfast grains with meat/meat alternatives: an evaluation of child nutrition policy
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-02-04) Hanson, Jennifer Ann; Cantrell, Olivia; Paez, Paola; Brenes, Priscilla; Laursen, Denise E.
    Objective: To evaluate the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) rule that allows a meat/meat alternative to replace the breakfast grain requirement three times per week. Design: A 5-week menu including breakfast, lunch and snack was developed with meat/meat alternative replacing the breakfast grain requirement three times per week. Menu nutrients based on the minimum requirements were compared with reference values representing the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for fat and a range of reference values representing two-thirds the Dietary Reference Intake for 3-year-olds and 4–5-year-olds. The meal pattern minimum requirements were compared with two-thirds of those recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Setting: Evaluation took place between April and June 2019. Participants: Human subjects were not utilized. Results: The CACFP minimum grain requirement is well below the DGA reference value (0·5–1·5 v. 3·33 ounce-equivalents). Energy (2208·52 kJ) was below the reference values (3126·83–4362·53 kJ). Protein (34·43 g) was above the reference values (9·87–10·81 g). Carbohydrate (76·65 g), fibre (7·46 g) and vitamin E (1·69 mg) were below their reference values of 86·67 g, 10·46–14·60 g and 4–4·76 mg, respectively. Fat (22·57 %) was below the reference range (25–40 %). Conclusions: The CACFP rule which allows a meat/meat alternative to replace the breakfast grain requirement three times per week may result in meal patterns low in energy, carbohydrate, fat, fibre and vitamin E, while providing an excessive amount of protein.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Students’ In-School Meal Experiences: A Study Of K - 5th Graders’ Level Of Satisfaction
    (School Nutrition Association, 2020) Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Elmore, Janelle; Hanson, Jennifer Ann
    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE To explore the relationships between grade level and students’ in-school meal experiences including school food service outcome measures and satisfaction with food from home. METHODS Outcomes were measured using an online survey conducted within one urban school district. Food selection was self-reported while a 7-point emoji facial scale was used to measure students’ satisfaction with their dining experience, school foods, and food brought from home. A convenience sample of 1942 elementary students was solicited among kindergarten to 5th grade students in nine schools. Cluster analysis on mean responses was used to classify grades into like groups. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in mean values for each item by grade group. RESULTS Results show that grade level had a significant impact on mean satisfaction ratings. Two distinct grade groups were identified: kindergarten through 2nd grades and 3rd through 5th grades. As grade level increased from kindergarten to 5th grade, students selected a wider variety of entrees but their ratings indicated decreased satisfaction. One striking exception was noted, satisfaction with food brought from home became more positive with increasing grade level. APPLICATION TO CHILD NUTRITION PROFESSIONALS Findings from this study highlight the importance of obtaining feedback as evenly as possible across grades in an effort to ensure collected data reflects the opinions of the whole population. If even sampling is not achieved, nutrition programs striving to gather information from their student body can apply grade-level weighting factors to compensate for over- or under-sampling. Findings from this study also suggest that there are opportunities to improve satisfaction and possibly increase program participation with solicitation of feedback. Understanding grade level differences in food item selection and satisfaction can provide valuable insights for food service professionals planning menus and making procurement decisions for their operations. Furthermore, results suggest a better understanding of the phenomena surrounding students’ satisfaction with food brought from home is needed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A Model for Improving Diet Quality within Child Nutrition Programs: The U.S. Army’s Child and Youth Services Healthy Menu Initiative
    (2020-04-16) Hanson, Jennifer Ann; Joyce, Jillian; Laursen, Denise; Paez, Paola; jhanson2
    The U.S. Army’s Child, Youth, and School Services (CYS), which has the capacity to serve more than 70,000 meals/snacks per day, is a geographically dispersed system with facilities worldwide. This case report is a description and evaluation of the implementation of a major food program initiative within the CYS system. In collaboration with Kansas State University, the Healthy Menu Initiative was established to standardize the system’s menus, reflect the guidance contained within the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and take into account the Child and Adult Care Food Program regulations that went into effect on 1 October 2017. Food storage space, food service equipment, product availability, food safety considerations, and staff shortages have all proven to be challenges in the development and implementation of the menus. Participant acceptance has been an issue in some instances, and special diet requirements add to the workload of the staff. To overcome these challenges, input was solicited from CYS management, care providers, food service staff, and participant families, as well as participants themselves. Taste testing and classroom cooking activities have been developed to increase acceptance, and over 500 CYS food program staff have attended in-depth training sessions to support the initiative. Overall, the initiative has been well received, and there has been an improvement in the diet quality of the foods served within the program. This improvement is noteworthy, as optimal growth and development during childhood and adolescence are reliant on sound nutrition.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Willingness to eat an insect based product and impact on brand equity: A global perspective
    (2019) Castro, Mauricio; Chambers, Edgar, IV
    Rapid population growth is creating the need to find new and sustainable food sources. Insect-based products could satisfy this high priority necessity while incorporating important nutrients in the human diet such as protein, vitamins, and minerals. This research provides a global overview of the willingness to try a new product that contains insect powder and determine the impact of adding insect-based products to a brands portfolio. An international survey was conducted in 13 different countries (n = 630 consumers per country, total 7,800 consumer) with consumers who represented diverse demographic backgrounds. Eight of the 13 countries could be classified as “disgust” countries where most respondents said they would not be willing to try a familiar product containing insect powder. Nine countries fell into the “impact” category where participants would be more likely to stop buying other products from this company knowing that they have used insect powder in another product from the same brand. The reasons why participants would not consider eating foods containing insect powder were religion, the perception that insects carry diseases and cause allergic reactions. Only the disease-carrying perception was significant in most of the countries. Practical applications The results from this study showed that most consumers from most countries studied are not willing to try insect-based products at this time. However, there was a segment of the population in each country that was willing to try such products. There is a great opportunity for companies to create new products for countries where the disgust factor was not a barrier and to test those new concepts and products. This could help provide information to educate consumers about all the benefits of insect protein and implement. It is key to remember that new brands probably are necessary for such products because of the potential damage to brand equity of introducing products containing insect powder.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wildcat wellness coaching feasibility trial: protocol for home-based health behavior mentoring in girls
    (2016-06-01) Cull, Brooke J.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Teeman, Colby S.; Knutson, Cassandra K.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.
    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem, with one third of America’s children classified as either overweight or obese. Obesity prevention and health promotion programs using components such as wellness coaching and home-based interventions have shown promise, but there is a lack of published research evaluating the impact of a combined home-based and wellness coaching intervention for obesity prevention and health promotion in young girls. The main objective of this study is to test the feasibility of such an intervention on metrics related to recruitment, intervention delivery, and health-related outcome assessments. The secondary outcome is to evaluate the possibility of change in health-related psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical outcomes in our sample of participants.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Long-Term Dose-Response Condensed Tannin Supplementation Does Not Affect Iron Status or Bioavailability
    (2017-09-11) Delimont, Nicole M.; Fiorentino, Nicole M.; Kimmel, Katheryne A.; Haub, Mark D.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Lindshield, Brian L.
    Background: Repeated phytic acid consumption leads to iron absorption adaptation but, to the best of our knowledge, the impact of repeated tannin consumption has not yet been established. Salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may improve iron absorption by precipitating tannins. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of long-term, dose-response condensed tannin supplementation on iron bioavailability and status and to assess the effect of salivary proteins on iron bioavailability during prolonged condensed tannin consumption. A secondary objective was to assess astringency as a potential marker for adaptation to tannins and iron bioavailability. Methods: Eleven nonanemic women were enrolled in a double-blind 3-dose crossover trial. Three (1.5, 0.25, or 0.03 g) condensed tannin supplements were consumed 3 times/d for 4 wk in random order, with 2-wk washouts in between. Meal challenges were employed before and after supplementation to assess iron bioavailability, iron status, salivary PRP changes, and astringency. Results: Tannin supplementation in any dose did not change iron bioavailability at any dose (P . 0.82) from weeks 0 to 4. Hemoglobin (P = 0.126) and serum ferritin (P = 0.83) were unchanged by tannin dose from weeks 0 to 4. There were significant correlations among tannin supplementation and iron bioavailability, basic proline-rich proteins (bPRPs) (r = 0.366, P = 0.003), and cystatin production (r = 0.27, P = 0.03). Astringency ratings did not change significantly within or between tannin doses (P . 0.126), but there were negative relations among bPRP (r , 20.32, P , 0.21), cystatin production (r , 20.2, P , 0.28), and astringency ratings. Conclusions: Condensed tannin consumption did not affect iron bioavailability or status regardless of the supplementation period in premenopausal nonanemic women. Correlation analyses suggest that bPRPs and cystatins are associated with improved iron bioavailability and that lower ratings of astringency may predict improved iron absorption with repeated tannin consumption. Curr Dev Nutr 2017;1:e001081.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Does dietary intake change during an intervention to reduce sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk? A randomized comparative effectiveness trial
    (2018-04-02) Casey, Kelsey; Mailey, Emily L.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Swank, Aaron; Ablah, Elizabeth
    Background: Evidence from physical activity interventions suggests that women, in particular, may overcompensate for exercise energy expenditure by increasing caloric intake. Sedentary behavior and poor dietary quality are independent risk factors for many major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether insufficiently active women, accumulating less than 60 min per week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, alter caloric intake or dietary quality when participating in an 8-week intervention to reduce sedentary behavior and CVD risk. A secondary aim was to determine whether the two treatment groups differed from one another in dietary intake while participating in the intervention. Methods: Insufficiently active women (n = 49) working full-time sedentary jobs were randomized to one of two treatment groups to reduce sedentary behavior during the workweek: short-break (1–2 min breaks from sitting every half hour, SB), or long-break (15 min breaks from sitting twice daily, LB). Three-day food records were collected at baseline, week 4 and week 8. Dietary quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010). Risk factors for CVD were assessed at baseline and week 8. Results: For all participants, average caloric intake decreased significantly from baseline to week 8 by approximately 12% (Δ = − 216.0 kcals, p = 0.003). Average caloric intake decreased significantly over time for the SB group (Δ = − 369.6 kcals, p = 0.004), but not the LB group (Δ = − 179.5 kcals, p = 0.17). There was no significant difference between SB and LB groups with regard to calories from baseline to week 8 (F = 0.51, p = 0.48). Total AHEI-2010 scores did not decrease significantly for all participants (Δ = − 4.0, p = 0.14), SB (Δ = − 5.2, p = 0.16), or LB groups (Δ = − 4.5, p = 0.67). Conclusions: Following an 8-week intervention to reduce sedentary time, insufficiently active women decreased caloric intake over time, however there were no differences between SB and LB groups. In all participants, dietary quality was not altered over time. Future studies should explore sedentary reduction interventions compared to physical activity interventions as a means to create negative energy balance, as frequent sedentary breaks may be effective for improving health outcomes in women. Trial registration: registration number NCT02609438, retrospectively registered November 20, 2015.
  • ItemOpen Access
    What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients
    (2018-04-23) Chambers, Edgar, V; Chambers, Edgar, IV; Castro, Mauricio
    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product
    (2017-08-18) Bell, Brandon; Adhikari, Koushik; Chambers, Edgar, IV; Alavi, Sajid; King, Silvia; Haub, Mark
    Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations (n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial (n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion “Satisfied” increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Albedo Addition on Pomegranate Juice Physicochemical, Volatile and Chemical Markers
    (2015-02-03) Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Chambers, Edgar, IV; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A.
    Five commercial juices, representing the five clusters of this juice, were characterized before and after maceration with 10% pomegranate albedo (control- and albedo treated (AT)-juices, respectively). Commercial juices were macerated with albedo homogenate for 24 h, and then the albedo was removed. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturity index (MI), total phenolic content (TPC), volatile composition, and flavor profile were evaluate in control- and AT-juices. From all physico-chemical characteristics, only the TPC was significantly affected by the treatment and ranged from 846 to 3784 mg gallic acid L−1 and from 2163 to 5072 mg gallic acid L−1 in control- and AT-juices, respectively; the increment in TPC was more than 1.3-fold in all AT-juices. No clear pattern was found when studying the volatile composition; only significant increases were observed in the contents of hexanal, 2-hexenal, and 3-hexenal in all AT-samples. The flavor profile study indicated that three of the five samples increased their bitterness and/or astringency. In addition, new attributes, which were not present in the control juices, appeared after maceration with albedo in some samples: green-bean, brown-sweet, and green-viney. This information will be useful in developing and promoting new “healthy” products based on pomegranate.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends
    (2017-07-02) Higa, Federica; Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Edgar, IV
    Pomegranate Juice (PJ) and Green Tea (GT) products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2) whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3) the total phenolic content (TPC) of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100) evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Beverages: A Requirement for Life and an Opportunity to Impact the Way We Live It
    (2014-05-26) Chambers, Edgar, IV
    Imagine a product that is used everyday by everyone around the world. In fact, imagine a product that must be used multiple times a day by everyone. That product is a beverage. Without beverages we cannot live. Many health practitioners recommend that adults consume approximately 2 liters of liquid daily and most of that consumption comes from beverages. Those beverages range from water to alcoholic beverages, soft drinks to coffee, tea to juice, and milk to so-called energy drinks or functional beverages. This enormous variety and consumption of beverages provides an unlimited opportunity to study product development and manufacturing, human consumption behavior, physical health and happiness, sensory impacts, public policy and a host of other important topics.[...]
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times
    (2013-11-29) Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar, IV
    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Acceptability of Dry Dog Food Visual Characteristics by Consumer Segments Based on Overall Liking: a Case Study in Poland
    (2018-05-23) Gomez Baquero, David; Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores; Hołda, Karolina; Głogowski, Robert; Chambers, Edgar, IV
    Sensory analysis of pet foods has been emerging as an important field of study for the pet food industry over the last few decades. Few studies have been conducted on understanding the pet owners’ perception of pet foods. The objective of this study is to gain a deeper understanding on the perception of the visual characteristics of dry dog foods by dog owners in different consumer segments. A total of 120 consumers evaluated the appearance of 30 dry dog food samples with varying visual characteristics. The consumers rated the acceptance of the samples and associated each one with a list of positive and negative beliefs. Cluster Analysis, ANOVA and Correspondence Analysis were used to analyze the consumer responses. The acceptability of the appearance of dry dog foods was affected by the number of different kibbles present, color(s), shape(s), and size(s) of the kibbles in the product. Three consumer clusters were identified. Consumers rated highest single-kibble samples of medium sizes, traditional shapes, and brown colors. Participants disliked extra-small or extra-large kibble sizes, shapes with high-dimensional contrast, and kibbles of light brown color. These findings can help dry dog food manufacturers to meet consumers’ needs with increasing benefits to the pet food and commodity industries.