Dairy Day, 1994

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of milk replacers containing new protein soruces and a probiotic
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Morrill, J.L; Laster, J.F.; Morrill, J.M.; Feyerherm, A.M.
    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate bovine and porcine plasma proteins as sources of protein for calf milk replacers and to evaluate a commercial probiotic. Four replacers were compared; an all milk protein control, two replacers with 25% of protein from bovine plasma protein or porcine plasma protein, and a replacer identical to the control except that it contained a probiotic (Biomate FG, Chr. Hansen's Laboratory) instead of antibiotic. The 120 bull calves (7 ± 3 days of age) were divided into four equal groups, and calves from each group were fed 4 quarts per day of one of the replacers until weaned and all of a commercial starter they would eat. For the control, porcine plasma, bovine plasma, and probiotic replacer groups, respectively, during the 6-wk period, the weight gains were 23.8, 29.5, 27.9, and 22.2 lb. Starter consumptions were 53.7, 67.8, 58.7, and 54.6 lb, respectively. Deaths were 2, 1, 3, and 0, respectively. Increases in wither height were similar among diets. Increases in weight gains and starter consumed by calves fed the plasma proteins compared to controls approached significance (P = .10); differences between control and probiotic replacer groups were not significant.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ruminal degradation of dietary protein in steers fed lasalocid
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Wessels, R.H.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; St. Jean, G.; etitgeme
    A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of lasalocid (Bovatec®) on ruminal degradation of dietary protein in Holstein steers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (305 kg) were fed a corn-alfalfasoybean meal diet (17% CP), with or without lasalocid, in a three period, switch-back experiment. Ruminal pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids, and amino acid and peptide concentrations were unaffected by lasalocid. Lasalocid reduced (P<.05) ruminal protease activity by 15%, but did not change deaminase activity. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, fiber, and crude protein were similar between treatments. Intestinal flows of microbial and feed crude protein fractions, as well as amino acids, remained unchanged when lasalocid was fed. Thus, in this experiment, lasalocid failed to decrease feed protein degradation in the rumen and, therefore, was unable to increase the supply of crude protein or amino acids to the small intestine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of source of calories on composition and production of milk
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Gallegos, A.J.; Shirley, John E.; jshirley
    Wheat and tallow increased milk production in a complementary fashion when added to a milo-based grain mix.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of sunshades on temperature and cow comfort
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Shirley, John E.; jshirley
    Sunshades provide an effective method of reducing ultraviolet sunrays and increasing cow comfort.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Stage of lactation profile reflects nutrition and management
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Dunham, James R.
    The Stage of Lactation Profile (SOLP) is a good estimate of the shape of the lactation curve for dairy herds. The SOLPs for herds with various milk production levels are somewhat similar. The rates of decline of all SOLPs are about the same. Therefore, the differences in production levels are about the same in late stages of lactation and in early lactation, regardless of production Rolling Herd Average (RHA). In addition, higherproducing herds have their highest level of production in the second stage of lactation (51 to 100 days in milk), whereas this occurs in the first stage of lactation (<50 days in milk) in lower-producing herds. Nutrition and management programs have a large impact on the early stages of lactation that affects the total lactation milk yield.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Management analysis of dairy cow herd enterprises in the Kansas Farm Management Association
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) DeLano, F.D.; Langemeier, Michael R.
    Actual records of dairy cow herd enterprises from Kansas Farm Management Association farms over the past 4 years have shown an increase in returns over variable costs from $17,900 to $27,000 per farm for a 100-cow dairy herd in favor of herds with higher milkproducing cows. Cost per hundred weight of milk produced per cow decreased for the higher-producing herds compared with lowerproducing herds, even though total cost per cow increased. In 1993, for every extra $1.00 spent on feed and other variable costs, the higher producing herds earned $2.34. This was a 234% return per dollar invested.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Manure storage structures for small dairies
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Harner, Joseph P.; Murphy, James P.; jharner
    Kansas environmental regulations require dairy producers with more than 300 animal units (215 mature cows at 1,400 lb, or equivalent weight) to be able to store the manure scraped from freestalls, lots, alleys, and holding pens for 120 days. Many dairies are smaller than the size requiring mandatory registration. However, some are considered a potential environmental problem because of their location near streams or waterways and/or their management and application of manure and may require registration. The intent of the regulations is that manure be stored from December to March to avoid applying it onto frozen ground. Most dairies consider these prime months for manure application, but these are the least desirable from an environmental perspective. Manure applied to frozen ground is not absorbed, and, therefore, the nutrient value of the manure drains from the fields when snow melts or early spring rains are heavy. Three types of storage structures are described.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Use of GnRH and PGF for synchronized ovulation and fixed-time inseminations
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Kobayashi, Y.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Holstein cows and virgin heifers were treated with GnRH and PGF in a novel 2a ovulation synchronization protocol, which involves one fixed-time insemination. One injection of GnRH is given on a Monday morning, followed in 7 days with an injection of PGF . Approximately 32 hr later, ovula- 2a tion is induced with a second injection of GnRH, and one insemination is made 18 hr later. Control cattle were given one injection of PGF and inseminated at estrus. Preg- 2a nancy rates measured between 28 and 35 days after insemination by ultrasonography were slightly, but not significantly, higher in controls (52.9%) than in the ovulation synchronization treatment (44.3%). This treatment may be particularly well suited to cows in which estrus is rarely observed, as well as for synchronizing first or repeat services.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Diameter of ovarian follicles, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations, and pregnancy rates in cattle treated with progestins and PGF
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Smith, M.W; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Holstein cows and virgin heifers were treated with progestins and PGF before first 2a service to determine their influence on reproductive traits. Control cows were given two injections of PGF 14 days apart and 2a inseminated at estrus after the second injection. Two groups received a norgestomet ear implant (N1) or a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID; P1) 8 days after one injection of PGF , followed the next day by PGF to 2a 2a regress the corpus luteum, and the progestin source was removed 7 days later. The last two treatments were similar except the second injection of PGF was given 14 days after the 2a first and norgestomet (N6) or PRID (P6) sources were removed 1 day later. Inseminations were performed at estrus in the latter four treatments. Pregnancy rates and serum progesterone were higher and serum estradiol and follicular diameters were lower in controls, P6, and N6 treatments, where the corpus luteum was functional during progestin treatments, than in those treatments where the corpus luteum was absent (P1 and N1). Follicle turnover occurred more consistently in control, P6, and N6 treatments, whereas when follicular diameter and serum estradiol were greater (N1 treatment), turnover did not occur as often and pregnancy rates at first service were reduced markedly. Treatments with progestins must control follicular growth, or fertility will be reduced.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Raising dairy heifers: a business
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Morrill, J.L.
    On many dairy farms, improvement is needed in raising replacement heifers, especially in providing proper nutrition and management to allow for freshening at 23 to 24 mo of age at a desirable size. With larger herds, there is a trend toward more specialization, which may (but may not) result in more attention to, or responsibility for, proper care and management of the heifer. In some cases, the heifers are raised by a person at a location away from the dairy farm on which they originated, and contract raising of dairy replacements has several potential advantages and disadvantages. These are discussed in this paper, along with the results that should be expected and some of the types of programs and typical charges when heifers are raised on contract.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Rate and extent of losses from top spoilage in alfalfa silages stored in bunker silos
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Holthaus, D.L.; Young, Matthew A.; Pfaff, L.; Brent, B.E.; Boyer, John E.; Bolsen, K.K.; jboyer
    Alfalfa silages were made in pilot- and farm-scale silos, and five sealing treatments were compared. After 90 days, sealing dramatically reduced dry matter (DM) losses at the 5 and 10 inch depths in the farm silos and at the 0 to 12, 12 to 24, and 24 to 36 inch depths in the pilot silos. Extending the storage period to 180 days in pilot silos had no effect on DM losses for sealed or delay-sealed silages, but DM losses for unsealed silages continued to increase at all three depths. Placing a roof over the unsealed, farm-scale silo increased the silage DM content at all three depths, increased storage temperatures at the 10 and 20 inch depths, and reduced DM loss at the 10 inch depth compared to the unsealed silo without a roof. Rainfall was much above normal (16.8 inches during the first 90 days of storage; 11.2 inches the second 90 days) and contributed to huge increases in the moisture content of silage at the lower depths in the unsealed, no roof, pilot- and farm-scale silos. Sealing also increased the nutritive value of the silages at the 5 and 10 inch depths.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Total mixed rations for feeding dairy heifers from 3 to 6 months of age
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Terui, H.; Morrill, J.L.; Higgins, James J.; jhiggins
    Total mixed rations (TMR) with different forage (F):concentrate (C) ratios were fed to Holstein heifers (n = 135) 12 to 24 wk of age. In four trials, the heifers were divided into different age groups and fed three different F:C ratios. Based on the results, the following recommendations are made. First, if facilities are available for only two groups from 12 to 24 wk of age and heifers are at the desired body weight (BW) at 12 wk of age, they should fed a diet similar to the experimental TMR 50:50 with a F:C ratio of 50:50 from 12 to 18 wk of age. For the next 6 wk, the heifers should be kept on the same diet or changed to a higher or lower concentration of energy, depending on their condition at the time, which will be a function of the quality of ingredients (primarily, the roughage) used in the diet. Feed consumption will be about 9 lb/head/day for heifers 12 to 18 wk of age, and 12 to 13 lb/head/day for heifers 18 to 24 wk of age. Second, if facilities allow for three groups from 12 to 24 wk of age and the heifers are at the desired BWat 12 wk of age, the diet should contain approximately 33, 50, and 70% hay for heifers 12 to 16, 16 to 20, and 20 to 24 wk of age, respectively. If heifers are not at the desired BW at 12 wk of age, they should stay on the 33:67 diet until they reach desirable weight. Feed consumptions will be about 8 to 9 lb/head/day for heifers 12 to 16 wk of age, 10 to 12 lb/head/day from 16 to 20 wk of age, and 12 to 14 lb/head/day from 20 to 24 wk of age.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Strategies for small dairy farmers to be profitable and competitive in the future
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Cropp, B.
    Profitable dairying will not become any easier in the future. Farm level milk prices will continue to be volatile. The government will not provide additional price or income support to dairies. Long-run milk prices will be either flat or perhaps even trending slightly lower. Average annual milk prices will be in the range of $12.00 to $13.25 per hundredweight. Dairy producers must be able to generate adequate net income at these milk price levels. Smaller dairy operators need to find means of being cost competitive with the larger operators. Without question, smaller producers can be profitable in the decade ahead with proper changes. Not all profitable dairy operations will be those with at least 300 milk cows. There will be very profitable herds with 40, 50, 75, 100, and 150 cows. Even smaller herds will exist with substantial off-farm income or income from other farming enterprises.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of processing sorghum grain on dairy calf performance
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Abdelgadir, I.E.O.; Morrill, J.L.
    Two trials evaluated the effect of processing sorghum grain on performance of young dairy calves. In trial 1, newborn Holstein calves (49 heifers and 27 bulls) were blocked by age and sex and assigned randomly to each of three calf starters containing either raw, roasted (Jet-Pro®) at 280 degrees F, or conglomerated (Jet-Pro®) sorghum grain. The conglomeration process consisted of grinding the grain, adding water, and pelleting the mixture, then roasting it. Raw and roasted sorghum grains were ground through a .125-inch screen and included in complete pellet starters, whereas conglomerated sorghum grain pellets were mixed with the other ingredients of the starter, which were pelleted. Starters were offered ad libitum from birth to 8 wk of age. The raw sorghum grain starter was palatable and supported acceptable growth rates, but processing did not further enhance calf performance. In trial 2, roasted and conglomerated sorghum grains were ground through a .125- inch screen and included in pelleted starters fed ad libitum to Holstein calves (21 heifers and 28 bulls) from birth to 8 wk of age. Feed consumption and body weight gain were not affected by method of grain processing. However, 22% of calves on the conglomerated sorghum grain starter bloated sometime during the post-weaning period, which may have resulted in reducing feed intake. Measures to ensure maintenance of the rumen environment may be necessary, if a potential benefit of conglomerating sorghum grain for young dairy calves is to be realized.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of enzyme-modified wheat gluten as a component of milk replacers for calves
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Terui, H.; Morrill, J.L; Higgins, James J.; jhiggins
    Holstein bull calves (n=120) were assigned randomly to be fed either of five milk replacers (MR) that contained different amounts of crude protein (CP) and protein from wheat gluten (WG) for 6 weeks. Weight gains of calves fed MR containing 20% CP, with either 0, 30, or 50% of the protein coming from WG, were similar, as were gains of calves fed MR containing 18% CP with either none or 33% of the protein from WG. When WG supplied 33% of the protein, calves fed 18% CP gained as much as calves fed MR containing 20% CP. Calves fed MR containing 20% CP consumed more dry feed than those fed MR containing 18% CP, when both used only milk sources for protein. Calf feces were more solid when calves were fed MR containing 20% CP if 30% of the protein was supplied by WG, compared to when 50% was supplied by WG. Enzymemodified WG was an effective substitute for milk protein in a calf milk replacer.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of yearly milk per cow on various reproduction traits
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-12) Call, Edward P.; epcall
    An analysis of 4,334 Holstein dairies confirms the negative genetic correlation that exists between milk production and reproduction. The most obvious traits affected are services per conception and conception rate. When subjected to analysis by the KSU Dairy Herd Analyzer (DHA) program, higher-producing herds have less economic loss because their managers do a better job of controlling factors not under genetic control, such as average days dry and age at calving of first-calf heifers (L-1). Higher-producing herds also have fewer cows that are open and should be bred.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Managing high milk-producing herds IX. raising dairy heifers and steers: a business. surving GATT, NAFTA, and the 1995 farm bill
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 2011-05-06) Shirley, John E.; jshirley
    The primary focus of the dairy industry in Kansas has been the milking herd. However, dairy heifer replacements and dairy steers offer income opportunities that have been largely ignored by some Kansas dairy producers. The 1994 Dairy Day program highlights these programs as potential profit centers. An "opportunity cost" analysis comparing the economic returns from your present enterprises with the potential returns from a dairy heifer or steer enterprise might propel you into a new career or enhance the profitability of your total operation.