Center for Intercultural and Multilingual Advocacy

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Our Mission:

"To foster knowledge through teaching and learning, ethics through action and reflection, and advocacy through compassion and commitment."

Welcome to the Center for Intercultural and Multilingual Advocacy (CIMA) at Kansas State University. Our center offers a broad array of ESL undergraduate and graduate programs of study. We strive to provide academic programs that incorporate the most up-to-date technology while simultaneously providing our graduates—at all levels—to be career ready upon graduation.

We not only present the research-based and technological concepts in each of our program areas, we also provide experiential learning (i.e., practicums, internships, and field laboratories) to allow our students to effectively perform immediately once they enter their profession.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
  • ItemOpen Access
    From Remediation to Acceleration: Recruiting, Retaining, and Graduating Future Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Educators
    (2011) Herrera, Socorro G.; Morales, Amanda R.; Holmes, Melissa A.; Terry, Dawn Herrera
    This ethnographic case study explores one mid-western state university's response to the challenge of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), especially Latino/a, student recruitment and retention. BESITOS (Bilingual/Bicultural Education Students Interacting To Obtain Success) is an integrated teacher preparation program implemented at a predominantly White university that seeks to both increase Latino/a students' initial access to higher education and provide institutional support to facilitate a high rate of graduation. The researchers consider key elements of the BESITOS program model as they relate to and support the sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive dimensions of the CLD student biography. For each dimension, the program model is first placed in the context of existing literature on CLD student education. The key elements and strategies of the program model used to successfully meet recruitment and retention goals are then discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
  • ItemOpen Access
    Transforming Ecuadorian EFL Teacher Practices through Biography-Driven Instruction
    (2017-05-01) Murry, Kevin G.; Holmes, Melissa Ann; Herrera, Socorro
    The intensive English development/TESL program (TESL-GT) was created through a partnership between Ecuador and one Midwestern university. Through this program, Ecuador's Ministry of Education sought to enhance the instructional effectiveness of secondary English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. The 67 Ecuadorian teacher participants in this study engaged in a 10-week pilot program. This program was aligned to the CREDE "Standards for Effective Pedagogy and Learning," which serve as universals (transnationally researched) standards of effective teaching practices. The 67 Ecuadorian program completers were subsequently observed in their Ecuadorian classrooms using the "Inventory of Situationally and Culturally Responsive Teaching" (ISCRT) rubric. Composite ISCRT scores were calculated as well as group means on each of the five standards reflected in the 22 indicators of the tool. Findings indicated unexpectedly robust levels of enactment of effective instructional practices for English learners. The significance of these findings and implications for teacher education are elucidated.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reaching Rigor for English Learners Through Responsive Interactions of Care
    (IGI Global, 2018-01-30) Holmes, Melissa A.; Kavimandan, Shabina K.; Herrera, Socorro G.; melissa; Guler, Nilufer
    This chapter explores what happens when teacher-student and student-student interactions reflect a higher level of responsiveness to the human beings involved. It describes biography-driven instruction (BDI), a research-based method of instruction that supports all learners to reach high academic standards, while at the same time ensuring that English learners have the scaffolds and tools needed to engage fully in the curriculum. Teachers who implement BDI develop a holistic understanding of students' sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, and academic dimensions. They use students' background knowledge as a springboard to new learning. To determine the impact of BDI on the education of English learners in elementary classrooms, this chapter explores the perspectives of 16 teachers (Grades 1-6) who received professional development on BDI and then implemented the method with their own communities of learners. Interview data was collected in Spring 2016, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed. Findings in the form of themes in participant voice are discussed throughout the chapter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Teacher Assistants in the General Education Classroom
    (2019-02-06) Aljohani, Badriah
    The primary goal of special education is to help students with individualized needs to thrive and find success in the school environment. Research evidence from over the last 30 years in education has consistently demonstrated that students who are mainstreamed, or who are allowed to attend the general classroom with their peers, are more successful. However, there currently is not an infrastructure for supporting these students in the Saudi classroom. This is why increased implementation of professionals and teacher aides are critical to the realization of Saudi Arabia's goals, as they relate to education. Paraprofessionals are an important part of the team that works to help students with special needs achieve success, and they are uniquely qualified to ensure that learners' individual needs are met as they work toward the primary objectives in the general classroom. The current study will consider the best way to increase the number of teacher aides in the system.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Educational Process: Using AI to Enhance Student Performance in Content Skills
    (2019-02-06) Aljohani, Nouf
    This paper examines the effectiveness of using audio artificial intelligence in Saudi classrooms. Currently, high school students in Saudi Arabia find physics difficult and they struggle to remain motivated to learn. By facilitating students’ interaction with the activities that use Google Home Mini, it is anticipated that the degree of student achievement in physics can be increased. One participating class of students will be divided into two groups, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group will engage with AI technology through Google Home Mini, under the supervision of the teacher. The control group will receive only traditional instruction from the teacher. The study will take place over a full semester. Student performance will be evaluated by using pre- and post- curriculum-based assessments of each group. The researcher then will compare the results using statistical tests via the SPSS program. The effectiveness of Google Home Mini will be measured using the Blake equation to determine the average gain (Blake, Sutton, Masson, & Phillips, 1986). The target indicator of success for the experimental group is a score of 90% on the post-assessment. AI is important in education because of its inherent strength in helping to address students’ learning needs in the classroom. AI systems provide flexibility in presenting scientific material and in responding to students’ interests and needs. AI systems benefit students through their ability to support information gathering and processing that enables greater diversity of response. There are many competing types of intelligence, including the capacity for logic, understanding, planning, emotional knowledge, self-awareness, creativity, problem solving, and learning. However, Tegmark (2018) asserts that intelligence is defined as “the ability to accomplish complex goals” (pp. 4-5). It is anticipated that using Google Home Mini in the classroom will support learners to develop this kind of intelligence and achieve the content-area goals.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Classroom Behavior Management Chart
    (2019-02-06) Alaarmi, Ali
    This paper will discuss effective classroom behavior management in Saudi Arabia. For the purpose of this study, behavior management is defined as the tools that teachers use to keep students focused on learning, highly engaged and productive. Creative behavior management is important because without it, teachers waste their time and effort on correcting behavior and not on teaching. Good classroom management prevents disruptive behavior and helps teachers address behavior issues when they happen. 21st century classrooms are different because they rely on collaborative learning more than lecture learning. So, we should take into account as teachers, that collaborative learning requires other tools and rules to be followed by 21st century students. Studies have shown that using a visual classroom behavior management chart is an effective way to manage 21st century classrooms, because it takes into account six essential elements (Discussion, Support, Activity, Movement, Engagement, Success) in order to accomplish success in the learning. There are many strategies for using classroom behavior management charts to reduce classroom disruptions and office referrals, improve classroom climate, increase student on-task behavior and establish respectful and civil interactions. The key benefits of using classroom behavior management charts are teachers establish clear expectations with logical and fair responses to misbehavior, teachers spend less time disciplining and more time teaching, teachers learn tools to motivate students to do their best, and students are taught how to behave responsibly. This study involved training students at the beginning of the school year to educate them about behavior expectations and the positive relationship between good behavior and learning. In this project, behavior expectations will be presented to students on posters and reviewed by the teacher frequently. The anticipated success and improved learning in the classroom will be determined after one semester of implementation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Proposed Curriculum for Physical Education to Elementary School for Girls in Saudi Arabia According to the American Education System
    (2019-02-06) Awn, Abdulmohsen
    The purpose of this proposal is to investigate and design Physical Education and Health-related curriculum programs for girls in Saudi Arabic elementary schools. The project will be implemented in two phases. The first phase is the initiatives for preparation and design (training packet) for female teachers on how to teach physical education and designing curriculum for girls. The second phase is for implementing the physical education curriculum after the preparation of a specialized curriculum for the students in the academic year 2019-2020. This quantitative study will employ two groups: an intervention group using American instructional methods for teaching physical education and the controlled group which will use the teaching instruction based on Saudi Arabia physical education for boys. Ten elementary schools for girls will be randomly selected based on school location (north, south, east, and west regions) in Riyadh. The goal for implementing physical education for girls at elementary schools is to help build fitness, improve health, develop social skills, and positively affect the appearance and psychological conditions for girls.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The 4 Cs
    (2019-02-06) Alshammari, Ayed
    The research investigated the core problem of the Saudi education system that the system for 1-12 still relies on the 3 Rs, which are arithmetical, writing, and reading skills. As a result, the 3 Rs are not enough to provide students with their needs and life experiences for the 21st century. One of the most crucial drawbacks is not using technology. I believe that the major problem in Saudi system is not using the 21st century skills which are creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, and communication. These skills are important to encounter all changes and challenges these days. These skills are needed and must be embedded within the curricula in order to motivate students and let them make the most of their knowledge in a creative way. Also, they let the students use their high skills. I would apply a series of workshops in the Rafha district schools that provide teachers with these skills and how to enact them inside the classroom. Therefore, the solution that surfaced when addressing this issue is to teach these concepts and train teachers and students how to enact them through lessons.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Role of E-administration in Narrowing the Gap between Parents and Schools
    (2019-02-06) Al Noaim, Mansour
    This research focuses on the role of electronic management system, Noor, and how to activate the communication process. This research shows previous studies in KSA mentioned that there is a lack of communication between the parents and schools. This research discussed how this study help to increase the rate of communication between parents and teachers by making the system easy to use and needing less effort. The study proposed to activate electronic messages through E-administration “Noor”. This research has suggested that developing Noor system and providing professional training for teachers and parents. It is expected that these new additions to Noor program will increase the rate of communication between teachers and parents
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Impact of Raising Phonological Awareness and Phonics to Improve Reading and Spelling Skills
    (2019-02-06) Alharthy, Najla
    This research identifies the impact of raising phonological awareness and phonics to improve reading and spelling skills among elementary age students in Saudi Arabia during English as a second language instruction. This initiative will occur over three years. It will begin in the AL Baha district and eventually reach all Saudi Arabia school districts. As one of the Khbrat program scholars, at Kansas State University in United States of America, I have had the chance to observe various techniques and approaches using phonemic awareness and phonics in English language arts instruction that can be shared with educators to ensure the success of the students in this project. Moreover, teachers will gain a renewed interest in teaching reading and hopefully there will be an overall increase in positive attitudes regarding reading instruction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using Apps to Enhance Students' Learning of English Vocabulary
    (2019-02-06) Albarakati, Hassan
    Nowadays, education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is entering a new phase (Saudi Vision 2030), which focuses on quality of education, ensuring that students are being prepared to deal with future challenges such as cultural diversity, economic changes, and globalization. Because of English becoming more important under the trend of globalization and internationalization, it is considered to be one of the most important foreign languages in Saudi Arabia. Teaching and learning a foreign language through technology has become a new trend in foreign language education all over the world (Liu, 2009). Hence, technology integration in our classrooms has become an important aspect of successful teaching. I find that many students are demotivated to learn English language because they do not realize the advantage of learning it. Therefore, EFL students in Saudi Arabia often struggle with literacy and vocabulary retention, which also affects their grammar learning and reading comprehension. As a result, I presume that this project will be a good opportunity to take advantage of students' interests in technological tools, such as cell phones apps, in order to help increase students' vocabulary and trigger their desire to learn the language. However, I intend to implement this project with the seventh-grade students at Al-Ghuzayat Middle School in Al-Jamoum, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, by using two apps: Duolingo and Kahoot in a period of 12 weeks so that I can evaluate the effects of learning vocabulary through these two apps by taking a pretest, a posttest, and a survey at the end.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The Concept of Digital Citizenship in the Schools of Saudi Arabia
    (2019-02-06) Alzahrani, Ahmed
    This research seeks to know the spread of the concept of digital citizenship among school students in Saudi Arabia. Literary reviews have shown the importance of the concept of digital citizenship among members of society as a whole, and the youth in particular. The exploratory study carried out by the researcher among high school students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has also revealed the importance of digital citizenship. It was found that 81.3% of the participants in the survey did not know the concept of digital citizenship (Al-Fawaz, 2018). Therefore, the researcher has prepared many programs and activities to spread the concept of digital citizenship between students and the school community. A special training kit has been developed to train teachers and supervisors so that they can transfer the principles and elements of digital citizenship to the school community. A web site explaining the concept of digital citizenship was also designed by the researcher. In addition, special programs and activities for students will be implemented during the academic year in coordination with the centers of activity in the education departments. A proposal will be made to the Ministry of Education to include lessons on digital citizenship in the computer curriculum or secondary life skills curriculum. To measure the impact of these activities and programs on the spread of the concept of digital citizenship, a descriptive study will be conducted on secondary students and the data will be collected and analyzed statistically. It is important to know the strengths of activities and programs and to develop them. This researcher will investigate that the impact of these programs and activities will be positive on the target audience and thus increase awareness of the importance of digital citizenship.