Dairy Day, 2011

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of varying rates of tallgrass prairie hay and wet corn gluten feed on productivity of dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Rezac, D.J.; Grigsby, K.N.; Bradford, Barry J.; bbradfor
    Productivity of lactating dairy cows was assessed when fed diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.) as the primary energy substrate and prairie hay as the primary source of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) compared with a control diet. Treatment diets were: 1) a control diet with 18% alfalfa, 18% corn silage, 33% WCGF, and 15% forage NDF (CON); 2) a diet with 20% tallgrass prairie hay, 46% WCGF, and 13% forage NDF (TPH20); and 3) a diet with 14% tallgrass prairie hay, 56% WCGF, and 9% forage NDF (TPH14). Midway through period 2, the TPH14 treatment diet was discontinued because of numerous cases of diarrhea. Dry matter intake was not altered by treatment. Milk yields were 80.0, 76.3, and 78.5 lb/day for CON, TPH20 and TPH14, respectively; milk yield was greater for CON than TPH20. Milk fat percentage was least for TPH14 with means of 3.47, 3.40, and 2.82% for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively. Fat yield was greater for CON compared with TPH14, but was not different from TPH20. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was greatest for TPH20 and least for CON with TPH14 being intermediate, consistent with differences in dietary protein. Efficiencies, expressed as energy corrected milk divided by dry matter intake, were 1.45, 1.40, and 1.30 for CON, TPH20, and TPH14, respectively, and did not differ among diets. These data indicate that TPH14 did not provide adequate peNDF to support normal rumen function in midlactation dairy cows; however, TPH20 offered a feasible diet for use in dairies where high-NDF grass hay and WCGF are available.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Enhancing cysteine content in yogurt
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Bala, Soumya; Schmidt, Karen A.; kschmidt
    Cysteine is considered a conditional amino acid for certain subpopulations. For example, in elderly people, cysteine has been associated with diverse functional properties as a general antioxidant as well as a specific role linked to cataract reduction or prevention. Yogurt is an excellent source of protein, the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine in particular. Heat, however, can denature these amino acids and affect their bioavailability. A yogurt mix supplemented with whey proteins (an abundant source of cystiene) coupled with minimal pasteurization of yogurt mixes may increase the availability of cysteine in the final product. In this study, yogurt mixes were supplemented with nonfat dry milk (NDM) or whey protein isolate (WPI; 90% protein), processed at 90oC for 7 minutes or 70oC for 20 minutes, then fermented into yogurt following a conventional procedure. Supplementing yogurt mix with WPI vs. NDM increased cysteine content by 140%. In contrast, overall cysteine contents decreased by 17% in mixes treated at 70oC for 20 minutes and 35% in mixes treated at 90oC for 7 minutes. Mixes supplemented with WPI and treated at 70oC for 20 minutes produced yogurts that had greater cysteine contents and slightly greater firmness and water-holding capacity, but the yogurts exhibited less syneresis compared with those made from mixes supplemented with NDM and treated at 90oC for 7 minutes. These results indicate that yogurt may be an excellent delivery vehicle for the conditional amino acid, cysteine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of the 5- vs. 7-day CIDR program in dairy heifers before timed artificial insemination
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Mellieon, H.I. Jr.; Pulley, Stephanie Leeann; Lamb, G.C.; Larson, J.E.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    Our objectives were to determine: (1) the effectiveness of an injection of PGF2α to regress the corpus luteum before initiating an timed artificial insemination (TAI) program, (2) ovulation response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and (3) pregnancy outcomes in dairy heifers inseminated with conventional and gender-biased semen. Heifers (n = 545) from 3 locations (Florida, Kansas, and Mississippi) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) 25-mg prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) injection and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert on day −7 followed by 100 μg of GnRH administered on day −5, and a 25-mg PGF2α injection at CIDR insert removal (7D) on day 0; or (2) 100 μg of GnRH and insertion of previously used autoclaved CIDR on day −5 and a 25-mg PGF2α injection at CIDR removal (5D) on day 0. Artificial insemination occurred after detected estrus from days 0 to 3. Those heifers not detected in estrus were inseminated on day 3 (72 hours after PGF2α) and given a second 100-μg dose of GnRH (72 hours after CIDR removal). Blood collected on days −7 and −5 was assayed to determine concentrations of progesterone and presence of a CL (progesterone ≥1 ng/mL) on d −7. Blood progesterone concentrations on days 0 and 3 were used to determine if luteolysis occurred in all heifers. Pregnancy was determined on days 32 and 60 and intervening pregnancy loss was calculated. Of those heifers in the 7D treatment having progesterone ≥1 ng/mL on day −7, the proportion having progesterone <1 ng/mL 2 days later (luteolysis) was greater (P < 0.05) than that in the 5D treatment (43.0 vs. 22.9%), respectively. A treatment by location interaction was detected for pregnancies per AI. The Kansas location had no detectable treatment differences. In contrast, the 7D treatment produced more (P < 0.05) pregnancies in the first replicate of the Florida location and at the Mississippi location. We concluded that the 5D protocol was not more effective in producing acceptable luteolysis, pregnancy, and ovulation rates compared with the modified 7D protocol.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Prostaglandin F2α and GnRH administration improved progesterone status, luteal number, and proportion of ovular and anovular dairy cows with corpora lutea before a timed artificial insemination program
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Pulley, Stephanie Leeann; Mellieon, H.I. Jr.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; jss
    The objective of this research was to increase the proportion of cows with at least 1 functional corpus luteum (CL) and elevated progesterone at the onset of the timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Postpartum Holstein cows in 1 herd were stratified by lactation number at calving (September 2009 through August 2010) and assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) Presynch-10 (n = 105): two 25-mg injections of prostaglandin F2α (PG) 14 days apart (Presynch); and (2) PG-3-G (n = 105): one 25-mg injection of PG 3 days before 100 μg gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH; Pre-GnRH), with the PG injection administered at the same time as the second PG in the Presynch-10 treatment. Cows were enrolled in a TAI protocol (Ovsynch; injection of GnRH 7 days before [GnRH-1] and 56 hours after [GnRH-2] PG with AI 16 to 18 hours after GnRH-2) 10 days after the second or only PG injection. Blood samples for progesterone or estradiol analyses were collected on median days in milk (DIM): 36, 39, 50, 53 (Pre-GnRH), 60 (GnRH-1), 67 (PG), 69 (GnRH-2), and 70 (TAI). Ovarian structures were measured by ultrasonography on median DIM 53, 60, 67, 69, and 6 days post-TAI to determine follicle diameters, ovulation response to GnRH, or both. Although progesterone concentration did not differ between treatments before Pre-GnRH injection, the proportion of cows with at least 1 CL tended to be greater for PG-3-G than Presynch-10 cows, and more PG- 3-G cows ovulated after Pre-GnRH than ovulated spontaneously in Presynch-10. Furthermore, diameter of follicles that ovulated tended to be smaller in PG-3-G than Presynch-10 cows after Pre-GnRH. At GnRH-1, the proportion of cows with progesterone ≥1 ng/mL, the number of CL per cow, and the proportion of cows with at least 1 CL were greater for PG-3-G than Presynch-10. Neither follicle diameter nor percentage of cows ovulating after GnRH-1 differed between treatments. At PG injection during the week of TAI, progesterone concentration and the proportion of cows with progesterone ≥ 1 ng/mL tended to be greater for PG-3-G than Presynch-10, and PG-3-G had more CL per cow than Presynch-10. No ovarian characteristics differed between treatments after GnRH-2, including progesterone concentration, number of CL per cow, and total luteal volume 7 days after GnRH-2. Many of the previous ovarian traits were improved in both ovular and anovular cows after PG- 3-G compared with Presynch-10. Pregnancies per AI at days 32 and 60 were only numerically greater for PG-3-G vs. Presynch-10 cows, largely because of differences detected during months without heat stress. We concluded that the PG-3-G treatment increased ovulation rate and luteal function 7 days before the onset of Ovsynch, resulting in improved follicular synchrony and predisposing potentially greater pregnancies per AI in lactating dairy cows.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of sodium salicylate on productivity of postpartum dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Farney, J.K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Coetzee, J.F.; Hollis, Larry C.; Bradford, Barry J.; Mamedova, Laman K.; orcid.org/0000-0002-9150-169X; mamedova; eminton; lhollis; bbradfor
    Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to metabolic disorders in transition dairy cows. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, sodium salicylate (SS), benefits transition cows. At calving, 78 cows (primiparous, n = 39; second lactation, n = 28; ≥3 lactations, n = 11) were assigned alternately to either a control (CON) or SS treatment for 7 days and remained on study until 21 days postpartum. Treatment was administered via individual water bowls at a concentration of 2.5 g/L, delivering a mean of 183 ± 8.5 g/day SS during the 7 days of treatment. Milk yields were collected daily and milk samples were collected twice weekly. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. No treatment effects were detected for daily feed or water intake. Milk yield for third or greater lactation cows tended to increase (P < 0.10) with SS at the end of the trial (days 19 to 20). Milk protein content increased (P < 0.05) with SS in first- and second-lactation cows during week 1 and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased (P < 0.01) with SS. Milk fat content increased (P < 0.05) with SS in weeks 2 and 3 postpartum. A 10% increase (P < 0.05) in energy-corrected milk (ECM) was observed for SS cows during week 3. Metritis incidence increased (P < 0.01) with SS in third or greater lactation cows, but no other effects on disease incidence were detected. In contrast to our hypothesis that SS treatment would decrease transition disorder incidences, SS treatment seemed to promote increased milk fat content and milk energy output during early lactation with no effect on total disorder incidence.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluation of methionine availability to dairy cows when added to mechanically extracted soybean meal with soy gums
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Brake, D.W.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Bradford, Barry J.; Macgregor, C.A.; etitgeme; bbradfor
    Twenty-five Holstein cows were fed 5 different diets to evaluate amounts of metabolizable methionine provided to dairy cows from a mechanically extracted soybean meal (meSBM) with methionine added during manufacture. The control diet was designed to be deficient in metabolizable methionine supply. Two amounts of methionine were added from either a commercially available ruminally protected product (RPMet) or from a meSBM with methionine added during manufacture (meSBM-Met). Average milk yield was 98.8 lb/day, average milk fat was 2.81%, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) averaged 8.6 mg/dL. Milk protein yield was not responsive to metabolizable methionine supply, suggesting that milk protein yield was not an optimal criterion for assessing metabolizable methionine supply. Milk protein content was greater when methionine was provided as RPMet than meSBM-Met. In addition, RPMet linearly increased plasma free methionine, but meSBM-Met did not. Body condition score (BCS; 1=thin and 5 =fat) was increased linearly by meSBM-Met, but responses were quadratic to RPMet. Methionine added to meSBM during manufacture did not appear to be available to dairy cows, likely because of extensive ruminal degradation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Vargas, C.F.; Bradford, Barry J.; bbradfor
    Exogenous amylase, sucrose, or a combination was used in diets with reduced starch content. The trial was performed in 48 lactating Holstein cows, and milk yield, milk composition, and dry matter intake were measured. Treatments did not affect production traits, but with slightly decreased feed intake and slightly greater milk production in amylase-fed cows, the calculated value of amylase in this study was $0.37/cow per day.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of supplementing methionine and lysine in a lactation diet containing high concentrations of corn by-products
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Mullins, C.R.; Weber, D.; Block, E.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Bradford, Barry J.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk; bbradfor
    Ninety-six lactating Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of using commercial supplements to supply additional lysine and methionine in diets containing large proportions of corn by-products. Cows were assigned to 1 of 8 pens. Pens were offered rations formulated to differ in metabolizable lysine and methionine supply. The study was divided into 2 periods. During period 1, cows received similar diets, but the treatment diet supplied supplemental lysine and methionine. During period 2, the treatment diet was modified to reduce dietary crude protein. Feed intake and production were monitored daily, and milk components were analyzed 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Diet did not alter feed intake or milk production. During period 2, dietary crude protein and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) were decreased without sacrificing performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of Monensin on metabolic profile and feeding behavior of transition dairy cows
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Mullins, C.R.; Moore, C.E.; Green, H.B.; Perfield, K.L.; Smith, John F., 1962-; Harner, Joseph P.; Bradford, Barry J.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Brouk, Michael J.; mamedova; mbrouk; jharner; bbradfor
    Thirty-two Holstein transition cows were used to determine the effects of monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN; 400 mg/cow daily) on metabolism and feeding behavior. Cows were assigned randomly, based on calving date, to control or monensin treatments (n = 16 per treatment) 21 days before their expected calving date, and cows remained on treatments through 21 days in milk. Feeding behavior and water intake data were collected daily. Blood samples were collected at 8 different time points during the experimental period. Monensin decreased mean and peak plasma ketone concentrations, and also decreased time between meals before and after calving. No effects of monensin supplementation were observed on milk production or other metabolic traits. Furthermore, we observed no treatment effects on disease incidence, although sample size was small for detecting such effects.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Influence of dairy housing on freshwater usage on commercial dairies in western Kansas
    (Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2012-09-07) Potts, J.P.; Brouk, Michael J.; mbrouk
    Fresh water pumping records were obtained from 24 western Kansas dairy farms for a 10-year period from 2000 through 2009. Farms were divided by facility type: dry lot (DL), free stall (FS), or a combination (DL+FS). Of the facility types studied, DL averaged smaller (P < 0.05) demand for water at 52.6 gal/cow per day compared with FS at 61.3 gal/cow. Both DL and FS facilities had less water demand than the combination facilities of DL+FS at 71.1 gal/cow of water daily. In all cases, average freshwater pumping was less than the daily amount of 134.7 gal/cow commonly used in dairy facility design. The difference may result from water conservation efforts of the dairies and the efficiency gained from operating larger milking parlors.