Cattlemen's Day, 2013

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Altering dietary calcium does not influence tenderness in cattle fed Zilmax
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Miller, K.A.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Tenderness is a key contributor to the sensory attributes of beef, and production practices that decrease tenderness are generally viewed as unfavorable. Zilmax (Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) is a potent beta-adrenergic agonist that results in dramatic improvements in carcass weight when fed to cattle, normally for a period of 20 days prior to harvest. Zilmax increases muscle mass at the expense of body fat, and these changes can have favorable effects on retail yield and overall value of beef carcasses. One of the unfavorable side effects of Zilmax is a decrease in meat tenderness. Aging of beef is one means of improving tenderness. During the aging process, proteolytic enzymes degrade the myofibrillar proteins that contribute to the perceptions of tough meat. Activity of these enzymes is stimulated by the presence of calcium ions, and various strategies aimed at increasing intracellular concentrations of calcium have been investigated as a means of improving beef tenderness. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if dietary calcium could be manipulated during the period of Zilmax supplementation as a means of improving meat tenderness. To do this, we eliminated supplemental calcium from the diet in hopes of inducing the secretion of parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the mobilization of calcium deposited in skeletal tissue, and we hypothesized that by decreasing dietary calcium we could potentially increase bone mobilization, and in so doing increase the supply of calcium available to proteolytic enzymes within skeletal muscle to enhance activity of these enzymes post-mortem.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Prior adaptation improves crude glycerin utilization by cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Van Cleef, E.H.C.B.; Uwituze, S.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Miller, K.A.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Crude glycerin has increased in availability as a feedstock for cattle as a result of expansion of the biodiesel industry in the United States. This byproduct, when ingested by cattle, is fermented by ruminal bacteria to yield volatile fatty acids that are used as sources of energy by cattle. The primary component of crude glycerin is glycerol, and the fermentation of glycerol is carried out by specific populations of microorganisms. Anecdotal observations from our previous research with crude glycerin in feedlot cattle have suggested that a period of adaptation may be necessary to achieve optimal utilization of the byproduct. Our objective in this study was to evaluate this adaptive response by measuring in vitro digestion by ruminal microbes that were obtained from cattle fed diets with or without added glycerin.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Crude glycerin improves feed efficiency in finishing heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Van Cleef, E.H.C.B.; Uwituze, S.; Alvarado, C.A.; Miller, K.A.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Aperce, C.C.; Higgins, James J.; Drouillard, James S.; jhiggins; jdrouill
    Crude glycerin is the principal byproduct of biodiesel production. The raw feedstocks, animal fats and vegetable oils, yield approximately 90 lb of biodiesel and 10 lb of crude glycerin for each 100 lb of input. When ingested by cattle, glycerin has two major fates: (1) direct absorption by the rumen epithelium, and (2) fermentation by microorganisms within the rumen to generate volatile fatty acid, mainly propionate. Using glycerin in feedlot cattle diets has become common, particularly as a component of liquid feed supplements. We have evaluated the use of crude glycerin in cattle diets in previous studies and generally have observed positive effects on dry matter intake and feed efficiency when fed up to 8% of the diet on a dry matter basis. Crude glycerin can be highly variable in its composition, however, containing varying proportions of residual alcohol, soaps, and salts. Our focus in the present experiment was on the sodium content of crude glycerin. We hypothesized that the high concentration of sodium in glycerin, when combined with salt that normally is incorporated into feedlot diets, would result in abnormally high levels of sodium that could have deleterious consequences for feed consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of finishing heifers fed diets containing high levels of crude glycerin in the presence and absence of added salt.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Orally dosing steers with Lactipro (Megasphaera elsdenii) decreases the quantity of roughages fed during finishing
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Miller, K.A.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    The cost of roughages is relatively high in comparison to their contribution of nutrients to feedlot diets. Widespread drought has affected roughage supplies in the cattle-feeding regions of the United States, further increasing the cost of roughages for feedlots. Despite their relatively high cost, roughages are incorporated into finishing diets to maintain rumen function and to manage ruminal acidosis. The greatest proportion of roughage is utilized early in the feeding period when cattle are being transitioned from forage-based diets to concentrate-based diets, allowing ruminal microbes to adapt gradually to higher levels of starch and sugars. If cattle are not properly adapted to concentrate-based diets, undesirable lactic acid-producing microorganisms, such as Streptococcus bovis, can rapidly proliferate and produce large excesses of lactic acid in the rumen. This condition can precipitate feedlot acidosis, which can have serious consequences for health and performance of cattle. Lactipro (MS Biotec, Wamego, KS) is a probiotic drench containing Megasphaera elsdenii, which is a lactate-utilizing bacterium that prevents lactic acid accumulations in the rumen of grain-fed cattle. Lactipro has been used successfully to accelerate the adaptation of cattle from roughage-based diets to concentrate-based diets. The objective of this study was to determine if Lactipro could be utilized to eliminate the step-up period for feedlot cattle, and in so doing decrease the amount of roughage required during the finishing period.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Hydrated lime matrix decreases ruminal biohydrogenation of flaxseed fatty acids
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Alvarado, C.A.; Aperce, C.C.; Van Cleef, E.; Miller, K.A.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Scarpino, F.; Klamfoth, D.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans, but dietary intake of these nutrients by many Americans is inadequate due to low consumption of omega-3-rich foods such as fish, walnuts, and flaxseed. In contrast, per capita consumption of red meat is relatively high, but these products normally contain only small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Feeding cattle diets that contain omega-3 fatty acids has consistently increased the proportion of the desirable fats that accumulate in beef. Unfortunately, the proportion of dietary omega-3 fats that are deposited into beef tissues is relatively low, because microorganisms within the rumen biohydrogenate the unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids extensively to produce the saturated fats that are characteristic of beef fat. Encapsulation of fats has been proposed as a method for improving efficiency of transfer of omega-3 fats into beef. Encapsulation processes apply a protective barrier on the surface of fats or fat-containing feeds, which theoretically decreases fats’ susceptibility to microbial biohydrogenation. Protective coatings must remain intact to retain their functionality, and physical damage to the coatings that occurs with normal handling can result in poor efficacy because the core material is exposed to microorganisms in the rumen. Embedding feed particles within a homogeneous protective matrix constitutes a potentially useful alternative to protective surface barriers. The matrix is created by mixing feed particles that are to be protected with a suitable matrix material that is resistant to microbial digestion and subsequently forming the mixture into pills. In cases where physical damage occurs, exposure of the core material is confined to the broken surface, and the remainder of the matrix retains its ruminal stability. The objective of this study was to determine if embedding flaxseed within a matrix of hydrated dolomitic lime could be used as a method to decrease biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, thus improving efficiency of omega-3 fatty acids absorption into the bloodstream.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of infrequent dried distillers grain supplementation on spring-calving cow performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Bennett, B.W.; Waggoner, Justin W.; Jaeger, John R.; Sexten, Andrea K.; Olson, K. C.; jrjaeger; jwaggon; aksexten; kcolson
    Feed and supplement costs and the expenses associated with delivery of winter supplements account for a large proportion of the total operating expenditures for cow-calf producers. Cattle grazing low-quality dormant native range (<6% crude protein) typically are unable to consume sufficient protein from the forage base, which limits microbial activity and forage digestion. Supplemental protein often is required to maintain cow body weight and body condition score during the last trimester of pregnancy. Low cow body condition scores at calving are common and may negatively affect lactation, rebreeding rates, and calf weaning weight. Failure to maintain proper nutritional status during this period severely affects short-term cow performance, reduces overall herd productivity, and limits profit potential. The most effective means of supplying supplemental protein to cows consuming dormant native range is to provide a small amount of high-protein feedstuff (>30% crude protein). Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) are a by-product of the ethanol refining process. Distillers grains supply the recommended 30% crude protein level, are readily available, and often are favorably priced compared with more traditional feedstuffs. With the rising costs of inputs in today’s cow-calf sector, reducing cost is necessary to maintain viability of the national cowherd. Reducing the frequency of supplementation results in less labor and fuel use, effectively reducing input costs; however, this is viable only as long as cow performance is maintained at acceptable levels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of infrequent supplementation of dried distillers grains with solubles on cow body weight and body condition score.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficiency of early weaned beef calves is not improved by restricting feed intake during 84-day growing phase
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Bailey, E.A.; Preedy, G.W.; Pacheco, L.A.; Jaeger, John R.; Waggoner, Justin W.; Olson, K. C.; jrjaeger; jwaggon; kcolson
    Early weaning can be used by cow-calf producers to reduce stocking rates by 20% to 30% during drought. Ranchers may be reluctant to wean early because of reduced calf weights and reduced revenue compared with weaning calves at conventional ages. To avoid revenue shortfalls, calves can be retained and grown before selling; however, grain prices are currently at unprecedented levels. Feeding grain-based diets to calves less than 125 days of age has been associated with excessive fat accumulation early in the feeding period and decreased carcass weights. Conversely, several researchers have noted marked improvements in feed efficiency when grain-based finishing diets were limit-fed. High feed costs and early fat deposition may be attenuated by limit-feeding a grainbased diet to early weaned calves. Our goal was to measure performance and efficiency of lightweight, early weaned beef calves during an 84-day postweaning growing phase when feed intakes were varied to achieve targeted gains of 1, 2, or 3 lb/day.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Wet distillers grain and solubles vs. wet corn gluten feed for newly received and growing cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Schlegel, Ethan R.; Oleen, Brandon E.; Hollenbeck, William R.; Montgomery, Sean P.; Vahl, Christopher I.; Blasi, Dale A.; vahl; dblasi
    In many instances, due in part to price per unit of energy and proximity to production, Kansas beef producers have the opportunity to incorporate grain-processing byproducts such as wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) into diets for newly received and growing cattle. Although a number of previous studies have compared these two byproducts for use in finishing diets, little information is available for receiving and growing cattle diets. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance outcomes of newly arrived and growing calves fed either WDGS or WCGF relative to a standard corn-based diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of corn processing and wet corn gluten feed on newly received and growing cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Siverson, A.V.; Oleen, Brandon E.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Montgomery, Sean P.; Blasi, Dale A.; etitgeme; dblasi; smontgom
    Newly arrived feedlot cattle present numerous challenges and are often considered to be the most difficult type of fed cattle to handle. Receiving cattle typically are highly stressed and have had feed withheld for a significant amount of time. Formulating rations that are cost-effective and nutrient-dense is essential to accommodating lowered intake. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of corn processing (whole shelled or dry-rolled), wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) inclusion, and their interaction on cattle performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dosing high-risk calves at processing with Lactipro decreases the number of calves treated for bovine respiratory disease
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Miller, K.A.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    Bovine respiratory disease is the leading cause of cattle mortalities in U.S. feedlots. In addition to costs associated with death loss and medical treatments, cattle affected by respiratory disease typically have suboptimal performance. Lightweight calves coming into the feedlot are at high risk for respiratory disease due to the stress associated with weaning, transportation, feed and water deprivation, commingling, castration, and other factors. Calves often have no experience eating from feed bunks and may be unfamiliar with the types of feeds used in feedlots. At the same time, the cattle are susceptible to acidosis due to the concentrate-based diets that are fed, which also can have unfavorable effects on feed intake and performance. Moreover, symptoms of acute acidosis, which include poor appetite, increased respiration rate, lethargy, depression, loss of muscle tone, nasal and ocular discharge, and diarrhea, can be difficult to distinguish from clinical symptoms of respiratory disease. Therapies designed to address respiratory disease are generally ineffective for treating acidosis, inevitably leading to the perception that antibiotic treatments have only limited efficacy. Moreover, acidosis can increase susceptibility of cattle to respiratory disease. Acidosis is most logically dealt with through preventive measures. We hypothesized that Lactipro (MS Biotec; Wamego, KS), a source of the lactate-utilizing bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii, could decrease the incidence of feedlot acidosis in newly arrived feedlot calves. By preventing acidosis, we speculated that clinical symptoms similar to those associated with respiratory disease would be less prevalent, thus decreasing the number of animals inappropriately diagnosed and treated for respiratory disease. Our objective was to determine if dosing cattle with Lactipro at processing would decrease morbidity and mortality in lightweight calves after arrival at the feedlot.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Dosing with Lactipro decreases forage intake and manure output
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Miller, K.A.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C.L.; Aperce, C.C.; Alvarado, C.A.; Drouillard, James S.; jdrouill
    High-concentrate diets consisting of cereal grains and grain byproducts have high energy density compared with forage-based diets. To avoid digestive disorders, cattle must be adapted to concentrates, which often entails feeding a series of step-up diets that contain progressively less roughage over a 2- to 3-week period. This allows the microbial population to adapt to fermentation of the starches and sugars that are present in high-concentrate diets. If cattle are not properly adapted to concentrate-based diets, lactic acid, which is produced by opportunistic starch-fermenting bacteria like Streptococcus bovis, can accumulate, predisposing the animal to acidosis. Diets used during the adaptation phase are by nature less digestible than the final finishing diet, which results in increased manure output and suboptimal performance during the adaptation period. Lactipro, a relatively new probiotic drench containing the lactate-utilizing bacteria Megasphaera elsdenii, has been utilized effectively to accelerate the adaptation of cattle from roughages to concentrate-based diets. Our objective was to determine the impact on diet digestibility and manure output in cattle dosed with Lactipro (MS Biotech, Inc., Wamego, KS) and placed directly onto high-concentrate diets without prior adaptation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of weaning on body condition recovery and calf performance in previously nutritionally restricted cow-calf pairs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Ward, M.A.; Johnson, Sandra K.; sandyj
    Drought, defined as less than 75% of normal rainfall, occurs once every 5 to 7 years in Northwest Kansas. Record widespread drought conditions throughout the Midwest and Western United States in 2012 resulted in an early reduction in forage quality and availability. In these situations, cow-calf producers are faced with deciding how to adapt to the conditions. Some producers may be unprepared for the speed at which cows can lose body condition in the face of declining pasture conditions and how much it takes to regain body condition. Early weaning is one option that can improve a cow’s nutritional status, conserve forage, and delay the need for supplementation. The price slide between lightweight early weaned calves and heavier calves is an important factor in the economic outcome of that decision. Feed use and cow and calf performance data are needed to evaluate production and economic differences between early and normal weaning scenarios. The objective of this study was to quantify intake differences between dry and lactating cows that had previously been nutritionally restricted and measure feed consumed by calves still nursing dams.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to cycling females affects neither age at puberty nor ability to pass an initial breeding soundness examination
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Miller, N.; Breiner, Ryan M.; Taul, Tom; Tucker, Sharon K.; Fike, Karol E.; rbreiner; ttaul; sktucker; karol
    Age at puberty is a crucial factor influencing a young bull’s ability to pass a breeding soundness examination (BSE) at a year of age, and reducing that age may prove beneficial to beef producers. For beef females, exposure to mature bulls is known to hasten the onset of puberty and also can reduce the duration of postpartum anestrus. Relatively little research has evaluated the effects of female exposure on beef bull sexual development. Bulls are thought to use visualization rather than olfaction as their primary and preferred way to detect estrus in females. The purpose of this study was to determine whether continuous, long-term fence-line exposure of prepubertal beef bulls to estrouscycling beef females influences a bull’s age at puberty and subsequent ability to pass a BSE.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Presynchronizing PGF2α and GnRH injections before timed artificial insemination CO-Synch + CIDR program
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Hill, Scott L.; Pulley, Stephanie Leeann; Olson, K. C.; Jaeger, John R.; Breiner, Ryan M.; Lamb, G.C.; Stevenson, Jeffrey S.; kcolson; jrjaeger; rbreiner; jss
    Fixed-time artificial insemination is an effective management tool that reduces the labor associated with more conventional artificial insemination programs requiring detection of estrus. The 7-day CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert protocol has been shown to effectively initiate estrus and ovulation in cycling and non-cycling suckled beef cows, producing pregnancy rates at or greater than 50% in beef cows. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection that begins the CO-Synch + CIDR program initiates ovulation in a large proportion of cows, particularly anestrous cows. The CIDR, which releases progesterone intravaginally, prevents short estrous cycles that usually follow the first postpartum ovulation in beef cows. Our hypothesis was that inducing estrus with a prostaglandin injection followed 3 days later with a GnRH injection, 7 days before applying the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol, might increase the percentage of cycling cows that would exhibit synchronous follicular waves after the onset of the CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. We also hypothesized that the additional GnRH injection would increase the percentage of anestrous cows that would ovulate, thereby increasing pregnancy outcomes.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evidence of estrus before CIDR insertion does not influence pregnancy rate to fixed-timed artificial insemination in beef heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Johnson, Sandra K.; Ward, M.A.; Swanson, O.L.; Perry, G.A.; sandyj
    Protocols used for fixed-timed artificial insemination strive to synchronize growth of follicular waves and commonly do so by administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the beginning of the treatment. The stage of the cycle at the time of GnRH injection influences the proportion of animals that respond, and cows respond more consistently than heifers. Variability in response to GnRH has been offered as an explanation for why why short-term fixed-timed insemination protocols tend to be less effective in heifers than cows. The dairy industry has used prostaglandin (PG) to “pre-synchronize” cow ovulation before a protocol to improve the proportion of cows that initiate a new wave of follicular growth. Because of the additional cost in time and product, the beef industry has been reluctant to explore this approach. South Dakota State University research has indicated that variability in onset of estrus was reduced when PG was given 3 days before a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol. A reduction in variability of the onset of estrus may improve response to fixed-time artificial insemination. The objective of this study was to determine if the onset of estrus prior to a PG 6-day CIDR protocol would improve pregnancy rates to fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ultrasound technology has limited ability to predict carcass yield grade of lightweight, short-fed stocker cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Lawrence, S.J.; Kreider, S.E.; Higgins, James J.; Allen, L.; Epp, M.P.; Ritter, P.; Blasi, Dale A.; Dikeman, Michael E.; jhiggins; dblasi; mdikeman
    The majority of cattle fed in commercial feedlots are processed and placed into pens without sorting into groups of uniform size and body condition. As a result of the variability in weight and condition, this management practice may lead to some cattle being fed beyond their optimal harvest point, whereas others are underconditioned and harvested prematurely, and thus fail to reach desired weight or quality grade necessary to attract available carcass premiums. Our objective was to determine if ultrasound technology could be utilized with lightweight calves as a means of predicting carcass fat thickness and yield grade outcomes. If successful, ultrasound could be a useful means of sorting cattle into uniforms groups to improve marketing.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Insecticide ear tags numerically improve grazing cattle performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Hill, S.E.; Oleen, Brandon E.; Hollenbeck, William R.; Vahl, Christopher I.; Blasi, Dale A.
    Stocker cattle grazing pastures during the summer months face challenges due to horn flies, which can result in reduced weight gains and less efficient use of forages. One strategy for controlling horn flies is insecticide-impregnated ear tags. The use of pesticide ear tags may be an effective management practice to improve overall productivity during a grazing season. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide ear tags as a means of improving growth of stocker calves grazing native pastures in the Flint Hills region of Kansas.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Commentary: Increasing productivity, meat yield, and beef quality through genetic selection, management, and technology
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Dikeman, Michael E.; mdikeman
    The primary purpose of producing beef cattle is to convert grass, forages, and various byproducts, plus human-edible protein and energy, into highly nutritious and tasty beef. To accomplish this, (1) cattle enterprises must be profitable; (2) carcasses should yield a high percentage of meat; (3) beef should be safe, affordable, attractive, nutritious, and highly palatable; and (4) both production and processing systems must be socially and environmentally responsible. The U.S. population has doubled since 1952, but the number of cows in the U.S. is the lowest since the 1950s. At the same time, a rather dramatic increase in beef production has occurred because of improved genetics, management, and technology. Yet, too many cattle breeders and/or breed associations have failed to realize improvements in meat yield, marbling, and palatability through genetic selection for these traits. Consequently, a significant proportion of cattle are fed to excessive fatness with long feeding periods to attain Choice or Prime marbling. Waste fat production is very costly to the industry. An extensive review, evaluation, and interpretation of research literature, technical bulletins, trade articles, and industry trends demonstrates a path forward through improved genetics, improved management, and optimum use of technology to improve production efficiency, meat yield, and meat quality of cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Calf health and performance during receiving is not changed by fence-line preconditioning on flint hills range vs. drylot preconditioning
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2013-03-19) Bailey, E.A.; Preedy, G.W.; Pacheco, L.A.; Jaeger, John R.; Waggoner, Justin W.; Olson, K. C.; jrjaeger; jwaggon; kcolson
    Ranch-of-origin preconditioning can improve the welfare and performance of beef calves by decreasing the stress associated with weaning, transport, diet change, and commingling with other calves. Preconditioning methods that involve pasture weaning coupled with maternal contact (i.e., fence-line weaning) have been promoted as possible best management practices for minimizing stress. Prior studies focused on performance and behavior during preconditioning on the ranch of origin. Little information has been published relating to carryover effects of fence-line preconditioning compared with conventional drylot preconditioning on performance and behavior during feedlot receiving. Our objectives were to measure growth and health during a 28-day ranch-of-origin preconditioning phase and during a 60-day feedlot receiving phase among beef calves subjected to 1 of 3 ranch-of-origin preconditioning programs: (1) drylot preconditioning + dam separation, (2) pasture preconditioning + fence-line contact with dams, and (3) pasture preconditioning + fence-line contact with dams + supplemental feed delivered in a bunk. In addition, we recorded incidences of behavioral distress among these treatments during first 7 days of feedlot receiving.