Cattlemen's Day, 1996

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of implantation and melengestrol acetate feeding on blood serum profiles and performance of heifers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T20:02:52Z) Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Milton, C.T.; Campbell, N.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Payout characteristics of Revalor-H and Finaplix-H were measured in 30 heifers (678 pounds) assigned to one of six treatments: 1) negative control, 2) melengestrol acetate (MGA) (.5 mg/hd/d), 3) Finaplix-Hfi, 4) Finaplix-H + MGA, 5) Revalor-Hfi, and 6) Revalor-H + MGA. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 13, 21, 28, 42, 56, 84, 112, and 140. Following implantation with either Revalor-H or Finaplix-H, serum trenbolone (TB) increased markedly at 1 and 3 days after implantation, then decreased through day 42. A second peak in serum TB was observed on day 56. Between days 56 and 84, a drop in serum TB was observed. Although TB in heifers implanted with Revalor-H or Finaplix-H was lowest between 84 and 140 days, the observed TB may still have been adequate to modify heifer performance over this period of time. Average daily gain and feed efficiency demonstrated an implant MGA interaction. Heifers with no implant responded to MGA supplementation with increased rate of gain, whereas heifers receiving either Revalor-H or Finaplix-H had less weight gain when fed MGA.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of monensin on grain bloat in cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T20:02:15Z) Coe, M.L.; Wallace, N.; Kemp, Kenneth E.; Parrott, J.C.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; tnagaraj; kekemp
    Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein steers were used to determine the effect of monensin (0, 20, 30, and 40 g/ton) on grain bloat. Steers were fed a bloat-provocative, high-grain diet at 1% of body weight twice daily. Monensin premix was added directly to individual steers diets at the time of feeding. The severity of bloat was scored daily on a scale of 0 (no bloat) to 5 (severe bloat). The scoring was based on the degree of frothiness and abdominal distention. Bloat scores (mean of wk 2, 3, and 4) were lower (P<.0l) for monensin-fed steers than for the controls. The mean bloat scores were 1.43, 1.18, 1.00, and .93 for 0, 20, 30 and 40 g/ton monensin, respectively. Total gas production during in vitro ruminal fermentation tended to be higher (P=.12) for control than for monensin-fed steers. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Monensin decreased frothy bloat caused by the bloat-provocative diet, and the degree of control appeared to be greater with higher levels of monensin.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effects of temporarily altering alfalfa levels in high-concentrate diets on subacute acidosis
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T20:01:28Z) Healy, B.J.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.
    Four ruminally cannulated crossbred steers (882 lb) were used to investigate the effects of temporarily altering the levels of alfalfa in a high-concentrate diet on ruminal characteristics during a bout of experimentally induced subacute acidosis. A diet based on dry rolled corn with 8% alfalfa hay was fed before and after a 2-day challenge phase when steers were forced to consume 2.5% of their body weight in 90 minutes each day after a prior 24-hour fast. During the challenge phase, steers were fed diets containing 5, 8, 11, or 14% alfalfa. Feed intake quickly recovered for steers fed all but the 5% alfalfa diet, with a tendency for a linear (P<.11) decline in feed intake as alfalfa was decreased in the challenge diet. The intensity and duration of the pH drop were increased as the level of alfalfa decreased. Mean pH decreased, total VFA concentration increased, and the ratio of acetate:propionate decreased linearly (P<.06) as level of alfalfa decreased. Because the ruminal parameters measured for the 8% and 11% alfalfa diets were similar, the data suggest that temporarily increasing the basal diet to more than 11% alfalfa is necessary to mitigate the effects of a forced disruption in feed intake. Increasing the level of alfalfa hay from 8 to 14% of diet dry matter increased fluid dilution rate, lowered time that ruminal pH was below 5.5, and resulted in higher mean ruminal pH in steers with experimentally induced acidosis.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Natural degradable protein and roughage type for implanted finishing steers fed dry-rolled corn diets
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T20:01:05Z) Milton, C.T.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Kuhl, Gerry L.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; Drouillard, James S.; etitgeme; jdrouill
    Three hundred eighty-four crossbred, yearling steers (810 lb) were used to evaluate soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal (SFM), and combinations of the two as protein supplements and supplemental protein effects in diets containing silage or alfalfa as dietary roughage. All diets contained 1.0% urea (dry matter basis). An additional 2 percentage units of crude protein were either not provided or provided as SBM, SFM, or a 50:50 combination (protein basis) of SBM and SFM. Steers were implanted with Revalor-Sfi and fed experimental diets for 126 days. No interactions between protein supplementation and roughage source were observed. Daily feed intake and feed efficiency were unaffected by additional supplemental protein compared to urea alone. Averaged across both roughage sources, provision of supplemental SBM tended to increase daily gain. Dressing percentage decreased when supplemental SBM was provided and increased when alfalfa was fed as the roughage source. Based on carcass-adjusted performance, feeding alfalfa as the dietary roughage source improved daily gain by 3.9% and feed efficiency by 4.8% compared to sorghum silage. Carcass finish, marbling score, and carcasses grading Choice were unaffected by treatment. Carcass-adjusted growth rate and conversion efficiency were enhanced when alfalfa was fed independent of dietary crude protein concentration.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of feeding rumen-protected lysine with different levels of soybean meal to growing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T20:00:39Z) Wessels, R.H.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    To test the efficacy of rumen-protected lysine and methionine, six steers (486 lb) were used in a 6 4 incomplete Latin square design and fed corn-urea diets (85% concentrate) alone or supplemented with 2 or 4% soybean meal to give dietary crude protein levels of 12.5, 13.2, and 14.0% (as fed-basis). Each diet was fed with or without 5 g/day Smartamine-ML (rumen-protected lysine and methionine). Steers were fed to gain 2.6 lb/day. Nitrogen retention increased linearly, from 30.7 g/day (0% soy) to 35.5 g/day (4% soy) as the level of soybean meal and, thus, crude protein, increased in the diet. Supplementing steers with lysine had no effect on nitrogen retention. Total tract organic matter digestibility was similar for all treatments. No protein level lysine interaction occurred. We conclude that lysine was not the first limiting amino acid in the corn-urea soybean meal diets used in this study.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Supplementing growing Holstein steers fed a corn-urea diet with a mixture of essential amino acids increases performance
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:59:31Z) Wessels, R.H.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (550 lb) implanted with Revalor-S were infused abomasally with water or a mixture of six amino acids in a crossover experiment (two 14-day periods) to evaluate effects on nitrogen balance. The mixture was comprised of amino acids that potentially may be limiting in lightweight steers, namely (g/day): lysine (5.3), methionine (3.3), threonine (3.2), tryptophan (1 .0), histidine (2.1), and arginine (5.5). Steers were fed at levels just below ad libitum intake. The diet contained 86% rolled corn, 10% prairie hay, 3% mineral and vitamin premixes, and 1% urea (as-fed). Amino acid infusion increased nitrogen retention by 17.9% over the control, from 27.9 g N/day to 32.9 g N/day. This indicates that implanted steers fed a high concentrate diet are able to respond to amino acid supplementation, suggesting that at least one of the infused amino acids was limiting in the basal corn-urea diet.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Amino acid supplementation to growing and finishing steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:59:18Z) Campbell, C.G.; Milton, C.T.; Titgemeyer, Evan C.; etitgeme
    One hundred British and British cross steers, averaging 631 lb ( initial wt) were used in a growing and finishing study to evaluate the effects of unprotected amino acid supplementation on cattle performance and carcass characteristics. All diets contained 1% of a nonprotein nitrogen source, and treatments were: no additional supplemental protein (UREA), 2) supplemental protein from soybean meal (SBM), 3) 13 grams/day of an amino acid supplement (Low AA), and 4) 26 grams/day of an amino acid supplement (High AA). The Low AA treatment supplied 2 grams methionine, 8 grams lysine, 2 grams threonine, and 1 gram tryptophan per day, whereas the High AA treatment provided twice those amounts. The grower diet was based on whole-plant sorghum silage, and the finishing diet was based on rolled corn and corn silage. During the growing period, gains were higher (P<.05) for SBM-supplemented steers than for UREA steers and intermediate for amino acid-supplemented steers. Intakes were higher for steers supplemented with Low AA than for those supplemented with UREA or High AA. Few significant differences among treatments were observed in cattle performance during the finishing period. Hot carcass weights, dressing percentage, KPH fat, and yield grade were unaffected by amino acid supplementation. In this study, supplementing growing and finishing cattle with unprotected amino acids did not significantly improve steer performance or carcass characteristics, suggesting either that these amino acids were not limiting in these steers or that not enough of these supplemented amino acids escaped ruminal degradation to affect steers’ performance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    National forage survey results: trace mineral and related nutrient levels
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:58:23Z) Corah, L.; Dargatz, D.; Peters, C.
    A National Forage Survey was conducted in 18 states to determine the trace mineral and related nutrient content of forages grown in the United States. Most forages sampled were harvested hays utilized as winter feed for beef cow herds. The trace element most commonly deficient in the forages sampled was zinc. Copper and cobalt levels were adequate in 36 and 34.1% of the samples, respectively. In contrast, manganese was adequate (above 40 ppm) in 76% of the samples and was deficient (below 20 ppm) only in 4.7%. The copper antagonists, such as iron and molybdenum, were marginal to high in 28.7% and 57.8% of the samples, respectively, indicating that both of these elements are often present in levels that can cause a reduction in copper availability. Of the 352 samples collected in 18 states, the trace mineral most likely to be deficient was zinc, followed by selenium and cobalt.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for rapid nutrient evaluation of sorghum silage
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:57:34Z) Budiongo, K.J.; Harbers, L.H.; Seabourn, B.W.; Bolsen, K.K.; Brent, B.E.
    This research was designed to develop a set of prediction equations to measure nutrient composition of Kansas sorghum silages by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Because sorghum silages are highly variable in grain content, we included a large number of cultivars to develop a robust set of equations for dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. The results indicate that NIRS analysis of sorghum silages is feasible.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant on fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-plant corn silage
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:57:01Z) Bolsen, K.K.; Bonilla, D.R.; Huck, G.L.; Hart-Thakur, R.A.; Young, Matthew A.; mayoung
    The effects of a strain of Propionibacterium shermanii, applied with and without lactic acid bacteria (LAB), on the fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-plant corn silage was determined using laboratory-scale silos. The addition of LAB increased the rate of fermentation, and all inoculated silages underwent a more efficient ensiling process than control silage. Only silages made with P. shermanii had measurable levels of propionic acid in the 90-day silages. Corn silages made with P. shermanii were more stable when exposed to air than control or LAB-inoculated silages.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Efficacy of electronic identification in beef cattle
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:53:26Z) Spell, A.R.; Utter, S.D.; Corah, L.R.
    To evaluate the potential of using electronic implants (transponders) for maintaining identity from birth to slaughter, calves born and implanted in Montana were followed through the feedlot phase to their ultimate slaughter at commercial packing plants. At spring branding, 138 calves were implanted with electronic identification transponders positioned underneath the scutiform cartilage at the base of the ear. Four steers died prior to weaning. After weaning, 109 steers were transported to a commercial feedlot i n Kansas (group 1) and the remaining 25 steers (group 2) were maintained at the Montana ranch for 1 year and then placed in a commercial feedlot in Colorado. Following the two feeding periods, steers were slaughtered at commercial packing plants in Colorado or Kansas under Food Safety Inspection Service authority. From implanting to weaning (156 days), retention was 100%, and 98.5% of the implants remained operable. Of the 106 steers that survived in the first group, implant retention was 98.1%, and all implants were recovered at slaughter. Of the 25 steers in the second group, identity was maintained on 20 steers up to slaughter, 661 days postbranding. This study illustrated that electronic implants will maintain identity on a very high percentage of cattle from birth to slaughter and that the implants can be recovered at the time of slaughter.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of implants on gain of steers and heifers grazing native grass
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-10T19:52:46Z) Brazle, F.K.
    Four trials were con ducted to determine the effect of different implants on steers and heifers grazing native grass pastures for different lengths of time. In addition, two groups of steers were followed through a feeding period to determine if previous implanting had a residual effect on gain. The implanted (Ralgrofi, Ralgrofi Magnum , Synovex Sfi) steers gained faster than the controls; however, no differences in gain occurred among implants. In the finishing group that went on grass at 687 lb, implants had no effect on subsequent feedlot gain. In the second group (on grass at 569 lb and grazing for 80 days), controls gained faster in the feedlot than those that ha d been implanted on grass, resulting in essentially equal weights for all treatments. Among the heifer groups, no differences occurred in pasture gains. Genetic differences in cattle, length o f grazing, and other factors may change implant results.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Injection-site reactions from clostridial vaccines: a critical control point?
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:53:12Z) McFarlane, B.J.; Stokka, Gerald L.; Basaraba, R.
    One 550 lb steer was injected subcutaneously twice, once on each side of the neck, with 5 milliliters of Ultrabac 7 ficlostridial vaccine with a new 16 gauge, 3/4 inch needle. The injections were given 30 days and 36 hours prior to euthanasia, at which time the two resultant lesions were collected. The lesions were evaluated for tissue damage, and physical descriptors were recorded. The 36-hour injection caused an acute lesion with higher than normal levels of neutrophils and erythrocytes in its center. Within the surrounding skeletal muscle, levels of fibrin and edem a fluid were increased, causing separation of the muscle fibers and hemorrhaging. The 30-day injection formed a chronic lesion differing from the 36- hour lesion, primarily by the increased amounts of fibrous connective tissue forming its center. This fibrous connective tissue also extended into surrounding skeletal muscle bundles. The surrounding skeletal muscle also showed signs of degeneration with minimal regeneration. These findings describe the tissue damage that can occur with subcutaneous injection of a clostridial vaccine.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Summary of grazing research on Kansas conservation reserve program land
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:53:03Z) Langemeier, Michael R.; Ohlenbusch, P.D.; mlange
    Animal performance and the net return per acre for four CRP research sites in Kansas in 1994 and 1995 were examined. Both mowing and prescribed burning increased animal performance in 1994. Mowing was economically feasible on one of the four sites. Prescribed burning was economically feasible on three of four sites. Mowing or burning treatments were not repeated in 1995, the second year of the analysis. Second-year animal performance was similar between the untreated plots and those that were mowed or burned in 1994. Net returns per acre for the site that was grazed by cow-calf pairs ranged from -$5.96 to $4.92. For the sites grazed by stockers, net returns per acre varied from -$5.76 to $22.46. The potential seems to be greater for grazing stockers than cow/calf pairs on post-CRP land.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Financial performance measures for Kansas beef cow farms
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:52:51Z) Langemeier, Michael R.; mlange
    Financial performance measures assist managers in making strategic plans and tracking progress in relationship to a farm’s goals. Kansas Farm Management Association data were used to compute average financial performance measures by herd size for beef cow farms. Farms with over 200 cows derived a larger percent of their income from beef cow production, tended to be large r in terms of gross farm income and total assets, were more profitable, and had lower debt ratios. Differences in financial performance among beef cow farms suggest that comparisons should be made only with herds that are similar in size.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Bacterial flora of liver abscesses from feedlot cattle fed with or without tylosin
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:15:15Z) Beharka, A.B.; Carroll, L.H.; Raun, A.P.; Laudert, S.B.; Parrott, J.C.; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G.; Chengappa, M. M.; tnagaraj; chengapa
    Fusobacterium necrophorum was the predominant bacterial isolate from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle fed with or without tylosin. The major difference in the bacterial flora of liver abscesses between cattle groups was the higher incidence of Actinomyces pyogenes in the tylosin-fed cattle. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of tylosin was not different between bacterial isolates from cattle in the two treatments, we concluded that continuous feeding of tylosin does not induce resistance. The source of A. pyogenes infection and significance of A. pyogenes interaction with F. necrophorum in tylosin-fed cattle are not known.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of magnesium-mica during grazing and/or feedlot phases on performance of steers
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:14:59Z) Coffey, K.P.; Brazle, F.K.; Lomas, Lyle W.; llomas
    Seventy-two mixed breed steers (679 lb avg BW) grazing smooth bromegrass pastures for 112 days were fed 2.2 lb/day of either a control supplement (PC) or one containing .075 lb/day of magnesium-mica (PMM). Following the grazing period, steers were placed in a feedlot with pasture groups split such that two of the groups fed each pasture supplement were fed a control supplement (FC) and two groups were fed a supplement containing 10% magnesium-mica (FMM). Steers fed PMM tended to gain faster than those fed PC during the pasture phase (2.41 vs. 2.32 lb/day). Steers fed PMM had higher dressing percentage (P<.05) and net carcass values (P<.06 ). Percent grading Choice was 41.7 for PMM vs. 27.8 for PC, and that difference also was reflected in marbling scores. No differential effect of feedlot supplement was detected for carcass measurements. Magnesium-mica fed during a pasture phase may affect subsequent marbling scores.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Performance of finishing steers offered magnesium-mica in the feedlot ration
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:14:39Z) Coffey, K.P.; Brazle, F.K.
    Forty-eight mixed-breed steers from two sources were used in a 141-day feedlot study to compare a control ration (C) with a ration containing magnesium-mica (MM; 9 lb/ton). No diet cattle source interactions were detected. Steer gain, efficiency, and cost of gain did not differ (P>.10) between diets. Marbling score tended (P<.10) to be greater and the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice and net carcass value were greater (P<.05) for steers fed MM. Feeding MM in a feedlot ration may have a substantial economic impact on feedlot cattle.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implant strategies for finishing calves
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-09T20:13:09Z) Milton, C.T.; Brandt, Robert T., Jr.; Kuhl, Gerry L.; Anderson, P.T.
    Two hundred-sixteen Angus and Angus-cross steer calves (690 lb) were used in a 129- day finishing study to evaluate different implant strategies, including an experimental new implant for feedlot cattle that contains 28 mg of estradiol benzoate and 200 mg of trenbolone acetate (EBTBA). Treatments were 1) nonimplanted control, 2) implanted and reimplanted with Synovex-Sfi, 3) single initial implant with EBTBA, 4) single initial implant with Revalor-Sfi, 5) implanted with Synovex-S and reimplanted with EBTBA, and 6) implanted and reimplanted with EBTBA. Initial implants and reimplants were administered on day 0 and 63, respectively. All implant treatments increased feed intake, slaughter and carcass weights, and rate and efficiency of gain. Compared with other implant treatments, the use of EBTBA as a reimplant treatment (trts 5 and 6) resulted in improved (P<.08) rate and efficiency of gain and heavier carcass weights (P<.07). However, only 58.3% of cattle in trts 5 and 6 graded Choice vs. 86.1% for controls and 80.6% for steers implanted twice with Synovex-S (P<.07). Carcasses were more masculine (P<.07) for steers in trts 5 and 6 than for nonimplanted controls, steers implanted with Revalor-S, and steers implanted twice with Synovex-S. Performance of steers implanted once with EBTBA did not differ from that of steers implanted once with Revalor-S or twice with Synovex-S, but carcasses were more masculine (P<.07) for EBTBA vs. Revalor-S steers. Implant treatment did not affect meat tenderness, as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force determinations. Single EBTBA or Revalor-S implants resulted in performance and carcass traits similar to those resulting from implanting twice with Synovex-S.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Effect of bacterial inoculants on the fermentation of alfalfa silages
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, 2010-09-08T21:09:22Z) Bolsen, K.K.; Bonilla, D.R.; Hart-Thakur, R.A.; Young, Matthew A.; mayoung
    The efficacy of 13 commercial bacterial silage inoculants was evaluated on 3rd and 4th cutting alfalfa. All inoculants supplied at least 100,000 colony-forming units (cfu) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) per gram of ensiled crop, and each inoculant increased the rate and efficiency of the ensiling process. Inoculated alfalfa silages had lower pH values; higher lactic acid contents; and lower acetic acid, ethanol, and ammonia-nitrogen contents than control (untreated) silages. The addition of dextrose (fermentable substrate) in combination with a bacterial inoculant improved the quality of the fermentation phase in both cuttings of alfalfa.