Agronomy Faculty Research and Publications

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  • ItemEmbargo
    Phosphorus Fluxes in a Restored Carolina Bay Wetland Following Eight Years of Restoration
    (2023-08-14) Moorberg, Colby J.; Vepraskas, Michael J.; White, Jeffrey G.; Richter, Daniel D.
    Restoring wetlands on agricultural land can release soil phosphorus (P) to surface waters. Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient in many freshwater systems, thus restricting its release will improve surface water quality by preventing algal blooms. A P balance was used to examine how P was cycling in a Carolina Bay wetland eight years after restoration from prior-drained agricultural land. The change in soil P was evaluated between archived samples taken at restoration (2005), and eight years after restoration (2013). Measured P fluxes included atmospheric deposition, plant uptake, and loss to surface water outflow. The soil total P pool at the time of restoration was 810 kg P ha-1. No significant (α=0.05) decrease in the soil P pool was observed over the eight years. Atmospheric deposition contributed 1.0 kg P ha-1 yr-1, plants incorporated 3.3 P ha-1 yr-1 into woody biomass and 0.4 kg P ha-1 yr-1 as forest floor litter, and 0.2 kg P ha-1 yr-1 was lost to surface waters draining the wetland. Because the loss of P to surface waters was small, and because runoff water concentrations of P declined through this period of study to concentrations below those likely to cause eutrophication (< 0.1 mg L-1), we concluded that the wetland was not contributing to the degradation of surface water quality of nearby streams following restoration. Further, isolated wetlands such as that studied may be promising sites for future wetland mitigation projects due to limited impacts on surface water quality.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Phosphorus Dynamics Near Bald Cypress Roots in a Restored Wetland
    (2017-12-07) Moorberg, Colby J.; Vepraskas, Michael J.; Niewhoener, Christopher P.
    Core Ideas Previous tree exposure to saturated conditions limited root death after ponding. Root growth and death had no apparent effect on concentrations of Fe2+, DOC, or DTP. Concentrations of Fe2+ were related to water table levels and redox status. Phosphorus concentrations were controlled by iron reduction and oxidation. Phosphorus (P) dissolution occurs commonly in wetland soils restored from agricultural land. Associated with P release are high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe2+. This field study evaluated the effect of a fluctuating water table on the root dynamics of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum L. Rich.) to determine whether root death created soil reduction microsites, potentially contributing to P dissolution. The study site is a restored Carolina bay wetland with organic soils. Root growth and death were monitored on 16 6-yr-old bald cypress using minirhizotrons. Root dynamics, water table levels, and soil porewater chemistry and redox potential in the root zone were monitored for 2 yr. Soil solution samples were analyzed for Fe2+, pH, DOC, and P. High rates of root growth occurred during dry conditions, whereas root death occurred during sustained periods of saturation, particularly within 20 cm of the surface. Cyclic changes in concentrations of Fe2+, DOC, and dissolved total P (DTP) were related to water table position but not to changes in root numbers. After sustained periods of saturated conditions, redox potential decreased to 0 mV, Fe2+ increased to 1.75 mg Fe2+ L–1, and DOC increased to 350 mg L–1, resulting in peak DTP concentrations of 750 μg L–1, compared with 100 μg L–1 during dry periods. This study showed that in these high-C soils (∼20% organic C) rooting dynamics had minimal impact on changes in P concentrations and that P dissolution was largely controlled by Fe reduction processes occurring within the C-rich soil matrix.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Evaluating effect of cutting depths on regrowth of invasive cattails (Typha angustifolia)
    (2022-11-16) Moorberg, Colby J.; Travis, Steven E.; Ahlers, Adam A.
    Cattail (Typha spp.) expansions into wetland ecosystems can reduce open-water habitats and negatively affect both native flora and fauna diversity. Cattail removal is needed to maintain wetland habitat quality; however, removal is often non-permanent requiring repeated treatments to retard reestablishment. Cutting cattails with mechanical harvesters is a common management technique; however, it is unclear what cutting depths are optimal. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment at Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area near Great Bend, Kansas, USA during 2017-2018 to address this question. We hypothesized that cattails cut below water would have reduced gas exchange capabilities due to flooded aerenchyma resulting in greater mortality. We conducted genetic testing to determine the species of cattail and determined the cattails to be narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia), which is considered an invasive species in Kansas. Within this stand of cattail, we established a randomized complete block design experiment with four blocks, and three clipping treatments in July 2017. The clipping treatments included a control (no cattails were clipped), an above-water treatment (cattails cut 15 cm above the surface of the water) and a below-water treatment (cattails cut 15 cm below the water surface water). We quantified emergent stem densities in each plot in September 2017 to assess the effectiveness of simulated management actions. We predicted lower emergent stem densities in below-water cutting treatment blocks compared to both the control and above-water cutting treatment blocks. Mean stem densities were greatest in the control (113.0±10.7 stems). Clipping the cattails resulted in significantly fewer stem counts in both the above-water cutting treatment (44.1±10.7, p=0.0032) and in the below-water cutting treatment blocks (11.1±12.5, p=0.0004). The BW treatment had fewer stems than the AW treatment, though this difference was not significant (p=0.0789) at an alpha of 0.05. Our experimental setup was inadvertently destroyed with herbicides in 2019 preventing further treatment comparisons. This is the first known genetic-level confirmation of narrowleaf cattail at Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area, which is a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance. Our results suggest that management efforts focused on cutting cattails below water can reduce cattail growth.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Increasing Genomic-Enabled Prediction Accuracy by Modeling Genotype × Environment Interactions in Kansas Wheat
    (2017-06-08) Jarquín, Diego; Lemes da Silva, Cristiano; Gaynor, R. Chris; Poland, Jesse; Fritz, Allan; Howard, Reka; Battenfield, Sarah; Crossa, Jose
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs test experimental lines in multiple locations over multiple years to get an accurate assessment of grain yield and yield stability. Selections in early generations of the breeding pipeline are based on information from only one or few locations and thus materials are advanced with little knowledge of the genotype × environment interaction (G × E) effects. Later, large trials are conducted in several locations to assess the performance of more advanced lines across environments. Genomic selection (GS) models that include G × E covariates allow us to borrow information not only from related materials, but also from historical and correlated environments to better predict performance within and across specific environments. We used reaction norm models with several cross-validation schemes to demonstrate the increased breeding efficiency of Kansas State University’s hard red winter wheat breeding program. The GS reaction norm models line effect (L) + environment effect (E), L + E + genotype environment (G), and L + E + G + (G × E) effects) showed high accuracy values (>0.4) when predicting the yield performance in untested environments, sites or both. The GS model L + E + G + (G × E) presented the highest prediction ability (r = 0.54) when predicting yield in incomplete field trials for locations with a moderate number of lines. The difficulty of predicting future years (forward prediction) is indicated by the relatively low accuracy (r = 0.171) seen even when environments with 300+ lines were included.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Reduced Translocation of Glyphosate and Dicamba in Combination Contributes to Poor Control of Kochia scoparia: Evidence of Herbicide Antagonism
    (2018-03-28) Ou, Junjun; Thompson, Curtis R.; Stahlman, Phillip W.; Bloedow, Nicholas; Jugulam,Mithila
    Kochia scoparia is a troublesome weed across the Great Plains of North America. Glyphosate and dicamba have been used for decades to control K. scoparia. Due to extensive selection, glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDR) K. scoparia have evolved in the USA. Herbicide mixtures are routinely used to improve weed control. Herbicide interactions if result in an antagonistic effect can significantly affect the management of weeds, such as K. scoparia. To uncover the interaction of glyphosate and dicamba when applied in combination in K. scoparia management the efficacies of different doses of glyphosate plus dicamba were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions using GDR and a known glyphosate- and dicamba-susceptible (GDS) K. scoparia. The results of greenhouse and field studies suggest that the combination of glyphosate and dicamba application controlled GDS, but glyphosate alone provided a better control of GDR K. scoparia compared to glyphosate plus dicamba combinations. Furthermore, investigation of the basis of this response suggested glyphosate and dicamba interact antagonistically and consequently, the translocation of both herbicides was significantly reduced resulting in poor control of K. scoparia. Therefore, a combination of glyphosate plus dicamba may not be a viable option to control GDR K. scoparia.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implications of high temperature and elevated CO2on flowering time in plants
    (2016-06-27) Jagadish, Krishna S.V.; Bahuguna, R. N.; Djanaguiraman, M.; Gamuyao, R.; Vara Prasad, P.V.; Craufurd, P. Q.; kjagadish; vara; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.; Vara Prasad, P.V.
    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2]. Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. © 2016 Jagadish, Bahuguna, Djanaguiraman, Gamuyao, Prasad and Craufurd.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Genome-wide association analysis on pre-harvest sprouting resistance and grain color in US winter wheat
    (2016) Lin, Meng; Zhang, Dadong; Liu, Shubing; Zhang, Guorong; Yu, Jianming; Fritz, Allan K.; Bai, Guihua H.; gbai; akf; gzhang; Bai, Guihua H.; Fritz, Allan K.; Zhang, Guorong
    Background: Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat can cause substantial reduction in grain yield and end-use quality. Grain color (GC) together with other components affect PHS resistance. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been reported for PHS resistance, and two of them on chromosome 3AS (TaPHS1) and 4A have been cloned. Methods: To determine genetic architecture of PHS and GC and genetic relationships of the two traits, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted by evaluating a panel of 185 U.S. elite breeding lines and cultivars for sprouting rates of wheat spikes and GC in both greenhouse and field experiments. The panel was genotyped using the wheat 9K and 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results: Four QTL for GC on four chromosomes and 12 QTL for PHS resistance on 10 chromosomes were identified in at least two experiments. QTL for PHS resistance showed varied effects under different environments, and those on chromosomes 3AS, 3AL, 3B, 4AL and 7A were the more frequently identified QTL. The common QTL for GC and PHS resistance were identified on the long arms of the chromosome 3A and 3D. Conclusions: Wheat grain color is regulated by the three known genes on group 3 chromosomes and additional genes from other chromosomes. These grain color genes showed significant effects on PHS resistance in some environments. However, several other QTL that did not affect grain color also played a significant role on PHS resistance. Therefore, it is possible to breed PHS-resistant white wheat by pyramiding these non-color related QTL.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance
    (2017-05-09) Maulana, F.; Weerasooriya, D.; Tesso, Tesfaye; ttesso; Tesso, Tesfaye
    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2) to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp34, Xtxp88, and Xtxp319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp211 and Xtxp304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor Resistance in Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.)
    (2017-04-11) Nakka, S.; Godar, A. S.; Wani, P. S.; Thompson, Curtis R.; Peterson, Dallas E.; Roelofs, Jeroen; Jugulam, Mithila; cthompso; dpeterso; jroelofs; mithila; Thompson, Curtis R.; Peterson, Dallas; Roelofs, Jeroen; Jugulam, Mithila
    Herbicides that inhibit hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) such as mesotrione are widely used to control a broad spectrum of weeds in agriculture. Amaranthus palmeri is an economically troublesome weed throughout the United States. The first case of evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in A. palmeri was documented in Kansas (KS) and later in Nebraska (NE). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechansim of HPPD-inhibitor (mesotrione) resistance in A. palmeri. Dose response analysis revealed that this population (KSR) was 10-18 times more resistant than their sensitive counterparts (MSS or KSS). Absorbtion and translocation analysis of [C-14] mesotrione suggested that these mechanisms were not involved in the resistance in A. palmeri. Importantly, mesotrione (>90%) was detoxified markedly faster in the resistant populations (KSR and NER), within 24 hours after treatment (HAT) compared to sensitive plants (MSS, KSS, or NER). However, at 48 HAT all populations metabolized the mesotrione, suggesting additional factors may contribute to this resistance. Further evaluation of mesotrione-resistant A. palmeri did not reveal any specific resistance-conferring mutations nor amplification of HPPD gene, the molecular target of mesotrione. However, the resistant populations showed 4- to 12-fold increase in HPPD gene expression. This increase in HPPD transcript levels was accompanied by increased HPPD protein expression. The significant aspects of this research include: the mesotrione resistance in A. palmeri is conferred primarily by rapid detoxification (non-target-site based) of mesotrione; additionally, increased HPPD gene expression (target-site based) also contributes to the resistance mechanism in the evolution of herbicide resistance in this naturally occurring weed species.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Multiple Minor QTLs Are Responsible for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Chinese Wheat Landrace Haiyanzhong
    (2016-09-27) Cai, J.; Wang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Guorong R.; Bai, Guihua H.; gzhang; gbai; Zhang, Guorong; Bai, Guihua H.
    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II resistance). To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in HYZ and identify markers tightly linked to the QTLs for FHB resistance, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between HYZ and Wheaton (FHB susceptible) was genotyped using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from genotyping-bysequencing (GBS), and evaluated for percentage of symptomatic spikelets (PSSs) per spike in three greenhouse experiments. Six QTLs for type II resistance were identified in HYZ, indicating that multiple minor QTLs together can provide a high level of FHB resistance in wheat. The QTL with the largest effect on FHB resistance was mapped on the chromosome arm 5AS, and the other five from HYZ were mapped on the chromosomes 6B, 7D, 3B, 4B and 4D. In addition, two QTLs from Wheaton were mapped on 2B. Critical SNPs linked to the QTLs on chromosomes 5A, 6B, and 2B were converted into KBioscience competitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) assays, which can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to pyramid these QTLs in wheat
  • ItemOpen Access
    Drought-Tolerant Corn Hybrids Yield More in Drought-Stressed Environments with No Penalty in Non-stressed Environments
    (2016-10-13) Adee, Eric; Roozeboom, Kraig; Balboa, G. R.; Schlegel, Alan; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; eadee; kraig; schlegel; ciampitti; Adee, Eric; Roozeboom, Kraig; Schlegel, Alan; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.
    The potential benefit of drought-tolerant (DT) corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids may depend on drought intensity, duration, crop growth stage (timing), and the array of drought tolerance mechanisms present in selected hybrids. We hypothesized that corn hybrids containing DT traits would produce more consistent yields compared to non-DT hybrids in the presence of drought stress. The objective of this study was to define types of production environments where DT hybrids have a yield advantage compared to non-DT hybrids. Drought tolerant and non-DT hybrid pairs of similar maturity were planted in six site-years with different soil types, seasonal evapotranspiration (ET), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), representing a range of macro-environments. Irrigation regimes and seeding rates were used to create several micro-environments within each macro-environment. Hybrid response to the range of macro and micro-environmental stresses were characterized in terms of water use efficiency, grain yield, and environmental index. Yield advantage of DT hybrids was positively correlated with environment ET and VPD. Drought tolerant hybrids yielded 5 to 7% more than non-DT hybrids in high and medium ET environments (>430 mm ET), corresponding to seasonal VPD greater than 1200 Pa. Environmental index analysis confirmed that DT hybrids were superior in stressful environments. Yield advantage for DT hybrids appeared as yield dropped below 10.8 Mg ha(-1) and averaged as much as 0.6-1 Mg ha(-1) at the low yield range. Hybrids with DT technology can offer a degree of buffering against drought stress by minimizing yield reduction, but also maintaining a comparable yield potential in high yielding environments. Further studies should focus on the physiological mechanisms presented in the commercially available corn drought tolerant hybrids.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A soil column study to evaluate treatment of trace elements from saline industrial wastewater
    (2017-07-31) Paredez, Jose M.; Mladenov, Natalie; Galkaduwa, Madhubhashini B.; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Hutchinson, Stacy L.; buddhika; ganga; gjk; sllhutch; Paredez, Jose M.; Galkaduwa, Madhubhashini B.; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kluitenberg, Gerard J.; Hutchinson, Stacy L.
    Industrial wastewater from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process is characterized by the presence of trace elements of concern, such as selenium (Se) and boron (B) and relatively high salinity. To simulate treatment that FGD wastewater undergoes during transport through soils in subsurface treatment systems, a column study (140-d duration) was conducted with native Kansas soil and saline FGD wastewater, containing high Se and B concentrations (170 ?g/L Se and 5.3 mg/L B) and negligible arsenic (As) concentration (?1.2 ?g/L As). Se, B, and As, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and organic matter spectroscopic properties were measured in the influent and outflow. Influent Se concentrations were reduced by only ?half in all treatments, and results suggest that Se sorption was inhibited by high salinity of the FGD wastewater. By contrast, relative concentrations (C/Co) of B in the outflow were typically <10%, suggesting that B sequestration may have been enhanced by higher salinity. Unexpected elevated As concentrations in the outflow (at >150 ?g/L in the treatment with labile organic carbon addition) suggest that soils not previously known to be geogenic arsenic sources have the potential to release As to groundwater in the presence of high salinity wastewater and under reducing conditions.
  • ItemOpen Access
    2000 Report on Grains Research and Educational Programs
    (Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.) Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service.
    We are pleased to provide this update on research and educational activities made possible with checkoff funds from the Kansas Corn, Grain Sorghum, Soybean, and Wheat Commissions. The Commissions provided $2,223,926 in support in fiscal year 1999 — Corn, $399,266; Grain Sorghum, $485,678; Soybean, $630,804; and Wheat, $708,178. These funds have been utilized by teams of research scientists and extension specialists to address issues that are important to our clientele. Agriculture is becoming more complex. Kansas producers depend on the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service to provide them with information that will improve their operations in order to maintain a competitive edge in an ever-changing global market. It is vital that K-State Research and Extension continues to serve Kansas producers and it is more important than ever that we supplement our limited state and federal funds with industry support. Funding from the Commodity Commissions is very much appreciated, both for the above reasons and because our association with them helps us to focus our efforts on issues important to producers. Findings reported in this publication span cropping systems, water management and quality, pest management, breeding for disease and pest resistance, genetic studies to improve quality and performance, alternative uses for end products, processing, and marketing. Because all projects have the common aim of answering real problems, Kansas producers will benefit directly. The results are already being communicated to various audiences through scientific journals, seminars, workshops, and field days, and they are being incorporated into K-State Research and Extension educational efforts.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Modeling of Soybean under Present and Future Climates in Mozambique
    (2016-06-17) Talacuece, M. A. D.; Justino, F. B.; Rodrigues, R. D.; Flores, M. E. P.; Nascimento, J. G.; Alvarez Santos, Eduardo; esantos; Alvarez Santos, Eduardo
    This study aims to calibrate and validate the generic crop model (CROPGRO-Soybean) and estimate the soybean yield, considering simulations with different sowing times for the current period (1990-2013) and future climate scenario (2014-2030). The database used came from observed data, nine climate models of CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment)-Africa framework and MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) reanalysis. The calibration and validation data for the model were acquired in field experiments, carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons in the experimental area of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Angonia, Mozambique. The yield of two soybean cultivars: Tgx 1740-2F and Tgx 1908-8F was evaluated in the experiments and modeled for two distinct CO2 concentrations. Our model simulation results indicate that the fertilization effect leads to yield gains for both cultivars, ranging from 11.4% (Tgx 1908-8F) to 15% (Tgx 1740-2Fm) when compared to the performance of those cultivars under current CO2 atmospheric concentration. Moreover, our results show that MERRA, the RegCM4 (Regional Climatic Model version 4) and CNRM-CM5 (Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques - Climatic Model version 5) models provided more accurate estimates of yield, while others models underestimate yield as compared to observations, a fact that was demonstrated to be related to the model's capability of reproducing the precipitation and the surface radiation amount.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Corn Response as Affected by Planting Distance from the Center of Strip-Till Fertilized Rows
    (2016) Adee, Eric; Hansel, Fernando D.; Ruiz Diaz, Dorivar; Janssen, Keith; eadee; ruizdiaz; kjanssen; Adee, Eric; Ruiz Diaz Suarez, Dorivar; Janssen, Keith
    Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays) under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm) with a strip-till operation performed between 1 and 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13-15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed). Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However, the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants
    (2016-06-27) Jagadish, Krishna S.V.; Bahuguna, R. N.; Djanaguiraman, M.; Gamuyao, R.; Vara Prasad, P.V.; Craufurd, P. Q.; kjagadish; vara; Jagadish, Krishna S.V.; Vara Prasad, P.V.
    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2] Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FGA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MET), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Genome-Wide Association Studies of Grain Yield Components in Diverse Sorghum Germplasm
    (2016-07-01) Boyles, R. E.; Cooper, E. A.; Myers, M. T.; Brenton, Z.; Rauh, B. L.; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Kresovich, S.; gpmorris; Morris, Geoffrey P.
    Grain yield and its primary determinants, grain number and weight, are important traits in cereal crops that have been well studied; however, the genetic basis of and interactions between these traits remain poorly understood. Characterization of grain yield per primary panicle (YPP), grain number per primary panicle (GNP), and 1000-grain weight (TGW) in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a hardy C-4 cereal with a genome size of similar to 730 Mb, was implemented in a diversity panel containing 390 accessions. These accessions were genotyped to obtain 268,830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed to identify loci associated with each grain yield component and understand the genetic interactions between these traits. Genome-wide association studies identified associations across the genome with YPP, GNP, and TGW that were located within previously mapped sorghum QTL for panicle weight, grain yield, and seed size, respectively. There were no significant associations between GNP and TGW that were within 100 kb, much greater than the average linkage disequilibrium (LD) in sorghum. The identification of nonoverlapping loci for grain number and weight suggests these traits may be manipulated independently to increase the grain yield of sorghum. Following GWAS, genomic regions surrounding each associated SNP were mined for candidate genes. Previously published expression data indicated several TGW candidate genes, including an ethylene receptor homolog, were primarily expressed within developing seed tissues to support GWAS. Furthermore, maize (Zea mays L.) homologs of identified TGW candidates were differentially expressed within the seed between small- and large-kernel lines from a segregating maize population.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield
    (2016) Peralta, Nahuel R.; Yared, Assefa; Du, Juan; Barden, Charles J.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; ciampitti; cbarden
    This technical note presents the first Sentinel-2 data service platform for obtaining atmospherically-corrected images and generating the corresponding value-added products for any land surface on Earth ( Using the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Sen2Cor algorithm, the platform processes ESA’s Level-1C top-of-atmosphere reflectance to atmospherically-corrected bottom-of-atmosphere (BoA) reflectance (Level-2A). The processing runs on-demand, with a global coverage, on the Earth Observation Data Centre (EODC), which is a public-private collaborative IT infrastructure in Vienna (Austria) for archiving, processing, and distributing Earth observation (EO) data ( Using the data service platform, users can submit processing requests and access the results via a user-friendly web page or using a dedicated application programming interface (API). Building on the processed Level-2A data, the platform also creates value-added products with a particular focus on agricultural vegetation monitoring, such as leaf area index (LAI) and broadband hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF). An analysis of the performance of the data service platform, along with processing capacity, is presented. Some preliminary consistency checks of the algorithm implementation are included to demonstrate the expected product quality. In particular, Sentinel-2 data were compared to atmospherically-corrected Landsat-8 data for six test sites achieving a R2 = 0.90 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.031. LAI was validated for one test site using ground estimations. Results show a very good agreement (R2 = 0.83) and a RMSE of 0.32 m2/m2 (12% of mean value).
  • ItemOpen Access
    Genotypic diversity effects on biomass production in native perennial bioenergy cropping systems
    (2015-10-03) Morris, Geoffrey P.; Hu, Z.; Grabowski, P. P.; Borevitz, J. O.; de Graaff, M. A.; Miller, R. M.; Jastrow, J. D.; gpmorris
    The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008-2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars - under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs - and quantified establishment, biomass yield, and biomass composition. In one experiment ('agronomic trial'), we compared three switchgrass cultivars in monoculture to a switchgrass cultivar mixture and three different species mixtures, with or without N fertilization. In another experiment ('diversity gradient'), we varied diversity levels in switchgrass and big bluestem (1, 2, 4, or 6 cultivars per plot), with one or two species per plot. In both experiments, cultivar mixtures produced yields equivalent to or greater than the best cultivars. In the agronomic trial, the three switchgrass mixture showed the highest production overall, though not significantly different than best cultivar monoculture. In the diversity gradient, genotypic mixtures had one-third higher biomass production than the average monoculture, and none of the monocultures were significantly higher yielding than the average mixture. Year-to-year variation in yields was lowest in the three-cultivar switchgrass mixtures and Cave-In-Rock (the southern Illinois cultivar) and also reduced in the mixture of switchgrass and big bluestem relative to the species monocultures. The effects of genotypic diversity on biomass composition were modest relative to the differences among species and genotypes. Our findings suggest that local genotypes can be included in biomass cropping systems without compromising yields and that genotypic mixtures could help provide high, stable yields of high-quality biomass feedstocks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels
    Leite, J. M.; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.; Mariano, E.; Vieira-Megda, M. X.; Trivelin, P. C. O.; ciampitti
    Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers) and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. In-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components), internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio) and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K) were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N. 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply) and crop demand (potential yield). Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K) and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1) were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1) and N:K (0.5:1) ratios.