# The existence and usefulness of equality cuts in the multi-demand multidimensional knapsack problem

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## Abstract

Integer programming (IP) is a class of mathematical models useful for modeling and optimizing many theoretical and industrial problems. Unfortunately, IPs are NP-complete, and many integer programs cannot currently be solved.

Valid inequalities and their respective cuts are commonly used to reduce the effort required to solve IPs. This thesis poses the questions, do valid equality cuts exist and can they be useful for solving IPs?

Several theoretical results related to valid equalities are presented in this thesis. It is shown that equality cuts exist if and only if the convex hull is not full dimensional. Furthermore, the addition of an equality cut can arbitrarily reduce the dimension of the linear relaxation.

In addition to the theory on equality cuts, the idea of infeasibility conditions are presented. Infeasibility conditions introduce a set of valid inequalities whose intersection is the empty set. infeasibility conditions can be used to rapidly terminate a branch and cut algorithm.

Applying the idea of equality cuts to the multi-demand multidimensional knapsack problem resulted in a new class of cutting planes named anticover cover equality (ACE) cuts. A simple algorithm, FACEBT, is presented for finding ACE cuts in a branching tree with complexity O(m n log n).

A brief computational study shows that using ACE cuts exist frequently in the MDMKP instances studied. Every instance had at least one equality cut, while one instance had over 500,000. Additionally, computationally challenging instances saw an 11% improvement in computational effort. Therefore, equality cuts are a new topic of research in IP that is beneficial for solving some IP instances.