Effects of standardized ileal digestible lysine level in diets containing tribasic copper chloride on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service


A total of 1,248 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 63.8 lb) were used in a 120-d experiment to study the effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) in diets with or without 150 ppm added Cu from tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 26 pigs (similar number of barrows and gilts) per pen and 8 replications per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added TBCC (0 or 150 ppm of Cu) and SID Lys (85, 92.5, and 100% of the pig’s estimated requirement). Diets were corn-soybean meal–based with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles and 15% bakery meal. Overall (d 0 to 120), no TBCC × Lys interactions (P > 0.10) were observed for growth performance. Adding dietary TBCC tended (P < 0.10) to increase ADG and improve F/G. As SID Lys increased, ADG increased and F/G improved (linear; P < 0.05). Final BW increased (linear; P < 0.05) as SID Lys increased, and if pigs were fed diets containing TBCC (P < 0.05); however, only HCW increased with increasing SID Lys (linear; P < 0.05). Backfat iodine value (IV) was not affected by treatment; however, increasing the SID Lys level tended to increase jowl fat IV only in pigs fed TBCC (TBCC × Lys linear; P < 0.10). Feeding TBCC decreased (P < 0.02) liver a* values, resulting in decreased redness of the liver and increased (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations. Feed cost per pig, cost per pound of gain, and gain value all increased (linear; P < 0.05) as SID Lys increased when calculated on a constant days basis. As a result, IOFC was $2.19 lower (linear; P < 0.02) when pigs were fed only 85% of their estimated SID Lys requirement compared with those fed 100% of their requirement. The value of the weight gained during the experiment tended to increase (P < 0.10) for pigs fed diets containing TBCC. When calculating cost on a constant weight basis, adjusted F/G was improved (P < 0.05), and facility costs tended to be lower (P < 0.10) for pigs fed TBCC. Facility cost decreased (linear; P < 0.01) as SID Lys increased. In conclusion, feeding 150 ppm Cu from TBCC tended to increase ADG and F/G. More importantly, these results suggest that 100% of the estimated SID Lys requirement should be fed to achieve the highest net return when pigs are fed for a constant number of days and that TBCC cannot compensate for deficient SID Lys concentrations in finishing pig diets.


Swine Industry Day, 2014 is known as Swine Day, 2014


Copper, Finishing pig, Lysine, Tribasic copper chloride