Pathophysiological effects of oral in[n]oculation of growing pigs with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium or Choleraesuis



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Kansas State University


Enteric pathogens are responsible for major economic losses in the swine industry. In the U.S., Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for essentially all cases of salmonellosis in swine. Previous studies documented that oral ST eroded growth and produced unmistakable changes in the endocrine stress and somatotropic axis of young growing pigs. However, these effects occurred in the absence of elevated systemic inflammatory cytokines that were previously thought to accompany disease-associated growth retardation. In the current study, it was hypothesized that SC would produce very different systemic inflammatory cytokine responses compared to ST given the likelihood of SC to produce systemic disease in pigs. Weaned pigs were housed two per pen with free access to feed and water during a 14 d experiment. On d 0, pigs were fed either 108 CFU SC or 108 ST, and bacteria were re-fed twice weekly through the course of the experiment. Control pigs were fed dough without bacteria. Serum was collected on d 0, 7, and 14 for determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were determined. Rectal temperatures (RT) were monitored daily beginning 2 d prior to challenge with bacteria and until 7 d following the first bacterial feeding. Pigs were weighed initially, and at the conclusion of the study. Daily body weight gain was reduced by 25.4% in pigs fed SC (P<.0001) compared to control, while growth was similar between control pigs and those fed ST. Pigs fed SC had increased RT beginning on d 2 and continuing though d 7 (P < 0.05) with the greatest elevation spike on d 3 (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. On d 7, pigs fed SC had reduced IGF-I when compared to both control (P < 0.01) and ST pigs (P = 0.01). Despite the obvious febrile response, and the reductions in body weight gain and serum IGF-I, circulating TNFα and IL-1β were not affected by treatment. It was concluded that elevated TNFα and IL-1β are not obligatory correlates of SC-induced pathology and growth retardation in weaned pigs.



Swine, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Choleraesuis, nomenclature

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Master of Science


Department of Animal Sciences and Industry

Major Professor

J. Ernest Minton