Evaluation of Canadian unconfined aggregate freeze-thaw tests for identifying nondurable aggregates.



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Kansas State University


Concrete is most widely used material in construction industry, which is made up of cement, water and aggregates as its major ingredients. Aggregates contribute to 60 to 75 % of the total volume of concrete. The aggregates play a key role in the concrete durability. The U.S Midwest has many aggregates that can show distress in the field under freezing and thawing conditions. The objective of this research was to determine if the Test Method for the Resistance of Unconfined Coarse Aggregate to Freezing and Thawing, method CSA A23.2-24A, could be used to differentiate good from poor performing aggregates in concrete. In this study fifty one KDOT aggregates (including twelve ledge and thirty nine production samples) were tested for freeze thaw resistance using CSA A23.2-24A test method and were compared to the results of the standard KDOT aggregate qualification tests. In addition to performing the CSA test method using a 3% sodium chloride solution, a subset of the aggregates were tested using either a 3% magnesium chloride or calcium chloride solution to determine the effects of the salt type on the aggregate performance. No correlation was found between the CSA A23.2-24A test method results and the standard KDOT aggregate qualification tests. The results also indicated that the mass loss in the CSA A23.2-24A was similar for the aggregate sizes tested. The use of alternate salt solutions like MgCl2 and CaCl2 resulted in increased freeze thaw mass loss in limestone aggregates.



Canadian freeze thaw test, CSA A23.2-24A test method on aggregates, Freeze thaw testing, Freeze thaw tests on KDOT aggregates, Durability Kansas aggregates, Deicer salts on aggregates

Graduation Month



Master of Science


Department of Civil Engineering

Major Professor

Kyle A. Riding