Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers


This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 +/- 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of L-Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered (P >= 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased (P = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations of Lys linearly increased (P < 0.001), but Leu, Ser, Val, and Tyr (P <= 0.02) were linearly reduced by Lys supplementation, likely reflecting increased uptake for protein deposition. In our model, Lys supplementation promoted significant increases in N retention and was maximized at 9 g/d supplemental Lys with an efficiency of utilization of 40%.


Citation: Batista, E. D., Hussein, A. H., Detmann, E., Miesner, M. D., & Titgemeyer, E. C. (2016). Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers. Journal of Animal Science, 94(2), 648-655. doi:10.2527/jas2015-9716


Amino Acids, Cattle, Efficiency, Lysine, Nitrogen Retention, Limiting Amino-Acids