The network level reproduction number for infectious diseases with both vertical and horizontal transmission



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A wide range of infectious diseases are both vertically and horizontally transmitted. Such diseases are spatially transmitted via multiple species in heterogeneous environments, typically described by complex meta-population models. The reproduction number, R[subscript 0], is a critical metric predicting whether the disease can invade the meta-population system. This paper presents the reproduction number for a generic disease vertically and horizontally transmitted among multiple species in heterogeneous networks, where nodes are locations, and links reflect outgoing or incoming movement flows. The metapopulation model for vertically and horizontally transmitted diseases is gradually formulated from two species, two-node network models. We derived an explicit expression of R[subscript 0], which is the spectral radius of a matrix reduced in size with respect to the original next generation matrix. The reproduction number is shown to be a function of vertical and horizontal transmission parameters, and the lower bound is the reproduction number for horizontal transmission. As an application, the reproduction number and its bounds for the Rift Valley fever zoonosis, where livestock, mosquitoes, and humans are the involved species are derived. By computing the reproduction number for diff erent scenarios through numerical simulations, we found the reproduction number is aff ected by livestock movement rates only when parameters are heterogeneous across nodes. To summarize, our study contributes the reproduction number for vertically and horizontally transmitted diseases in heterogeneous networks. This explicit expression is easily adaptable to speci fic infectious diseases, a ffording insights into disease evolution.



Reproduction number, Vertical and horizontal transmission, Heterogeneous networks, Rift Valley fever, Multiple species