Macroeconomic determinants of the stock market movements: empirical evidence from the Saudi stock market.



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Kansas State University


This dissertation investigates the long run and short run relationships between Saudi stock market returns and eight macroeconomic variables. We investigate the ability of these variables to predict the level and volatility of Saudi stock market returns. A wide range of Vector autoregression (VAR) and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models estimated and interpreted. A Johansen-Juselius cointegration test indicates a positive long run relationship between the Saudi stock price index and the M2 money supply, bank credit, and the price of oil, and a negative long run relationship with the M1 money supply, the short term interest rate, inflation, and the U.S. stock market. An estimated vector error correction model (VECM) suggests significant unidirectional short run causal relationships between Saudi stock market returns and the money supply and inflation. The VECM also finds a significant long run causal relationship among the macroeconomic variables in the system. The estimated speed of adjustment indicates that the Saudi stock market converges to the equilibrium within half a year. Granger causality tests show no causal relationship between Saudi stock market returns and the exchange rate. Impulse response function analysis shows no significant relationship between Saudi stock market returns and the macroeconomic variables. Forecast error variance decompositions suggest that 89% of the variation in Saudi stock market returns is attributable to its own shock, which implies that Saudi stock market returns are largely independent of the macroeconomic variables in the system. Finally, a GARCH-X model indicates a significant relationship between volatility of Saudi stock returns and short run movements of macroeconomic variables. Implications of this study include the following. (i) Prediction of stock market returns becomes more difficult as the volatility of the macroeconomic variables increases in the short run. (ii) Investors should look at the systematic risks revealed by these macroeconomic variables when structuring their portfolios and diversification strategies. (iii) Policymakers should seek to minimize macroeconomic fluctuations considering the effect of macroeconomic variables changes on the stock market when formulating economic policy.



Macroeconomic determinants of the Saudi stock market movements, Saudi stock market return and volatility, VAR Analysis, GARCH model, Cointegration, Causality

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Doctor of Philosophy


Department of Economics

Major Professor

Lance J. Bachmeier