Physical structure of wheat bran and its comprised layers

dc.contributor.authorMense, Andrew Lawrence
dc.description.abstractWheat bran is a by-product of the wheat flour milling industry. The number of food products containing wheat bran is on the rise because it is a well-recognized good source of dietary fiber. Currently, bran is a low-value commodity used mostly in animal feed, but it has the potential for more extensive applications. To understand the functional and nutritional properties of wheat bran and better use wheat bran in food, it is critical to understand the physical structure of wheat bran. For the first time, solid-state ¹³C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (¹³C CP/MAS NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to study the physical structure of wheat bran and its dissected layers. The XRD and Solid-State ¹³C CP/MAS NMR both confirmed the presence of crystalline cellulose in untreated bran, enzymatically treated bran, and dissected bran layers. Destarched and deproteinized wheat bran (DSDPB) was treated with a mixture of either 7 or 9% sodium hydroxide and 12% urea solvent and structure of the extracted polymers was investigated. Three and 6 cycle dissolution schemes, were examined involving the repeated cooling of the solvent bran mixture to -12.6 °C and then agitating it at 25 °C. When 7% NaOH/12% urea (6 cycle) was applied to DSDPB, 84.1% of the material was solubilized including 89.8% of the arabinoxylans (AX). This procedure recovered more wheat bran AX for characterization than any previous study using alkaline dissolution. Wheat bran was enzymatically and hydrothermally treated to maximize the soluble fraction. Unlike previous research, the starch and protein were kept and not removed before endoxylanase treatment. The retained protein and glucose polymers (starch, β-glucan, cellulose) could provide functional benefits in addition to the arabinoxylan and could make the process more economical. Wheat bran hydrolyzed with thermostable α-amylase, protease, and xylanase was the recommended treatment. The combined solubles had a viscosity of 23 cP (10% w/w solids) and ranged in estimated molecular weight from ~600 to 20,000. The percentage of untreated wheat bran AX that was solubilized was 50% and the percentage of AX in the solubles was 23%.en_US
dc.description.advisorYong Cheng Shien_US
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.description.departmentDepartment of Grain Science and Industryen_US
dc.subjectWheat branen_US
dc.subjectX-ray diffraction
dc.titlePhysical structure of wheat bran and its comprised layersen_US


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