Intracellular localization, biochemical and biophysical properties of human Armet

dc.contributor.authorZhu, Xiaoxi
dc.description.abstractArmet is a bifunctional protein widely distributed in animal species, vertebrate and invertebrate. It is an evidently part of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and promotes survival in cells that are under endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress. It has also been found as a secreted protein with neurotrophic activity. The crystal and solution structures of human Armet show it is a helix-rich protein with two domains linked through a flexible linker region. In this study, immunofluorescence staining was used to verify Armet’s localization in ER and Golgi apparatus in MBA-MD-231 cells. Evidence for calcium binding by Armet was obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (the binding of calcium appeared to decrease helix content), by differential scanning calorimetry (binding of calcium resulted in a less structured protein) and two-dimensional (1H-15N HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A difference HSQC spectrum of Armet, with and without calcium, showed peaks of increased intensity, of decreased intensity and of perturbed chemical shift. There were about 30 such peaks in total. Several of these affected amino acid residues appeared to form a cluster of negatively charged side chains that could possibly form a binding site for a calcium ion. Heterogeneity of three types was observed in recombinant Armet expressed in E. coli cells. Two bands of slightly different mobility were observed in SDS gels run in the absence of reducing agent. These may represent alternate arrangements of disulfide bonds, as previously reported by other investigators but not explained. Further, in the absence of reducing agent, a faint ladder was formed by human Armet, indicating formation of disulfides between Armet molecules. Oligomers with sedimentation coefficient greater than the monomeric protein, in the absence of reducing agent, disappeared in the presence of a reducing agent. Finally, minor species of mass differences of 98 and 180 with respect to the main protein component were observed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These studies provide a more thorough characterization of Armet than has been previously available and set the scene for future investigations of the binding of organic ligands to the protein.en_US
dc.description.advisorGerald R. Reecken_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
dc.description.departmentDepartment of Biochemistryen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKansas NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE), Center for Cancer Experimental Therapeutics (CCET)en_US
dc.publisherKansas State Universityen
dc.subjectER stressen_US
dc.subject.umiBiochemistry (0487)en_US
dc.titleIntracellular localization, biochemical and biophysical properties of human Armeten_US


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