Three-tier wireless sensor network infrastructure for environmental monitoring

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dc.contributor.author Han, Wei
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-24T14:14:04Z
dc.date.available 2011-05-24T14:14:04Z
dc.date.issued 2011-05-24
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/9183
dc.description.abstract A two-tier wireless data communication system was developed to remotely monitor sediment concentration in streams in real time. The system used wireless motes and other devices to form a wireless sensor network to acquire data from multiple sensors. The system also used a Stargate, a single-board computer, as a gateway to manage and control data flow and wireless data transfer. The sensor signals were transmitted from an AirCard on the Stargate to an Internet server through the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provided by a commercial GSM cellular carrier. Various types of antennas were used to boost the signal level in a radio-hostile environment. Both short- and long-distance wireless data communications were achieved. Power supplies for the motes, Stargate, and AirCard were improved for reliable and robust field applications. The application software was developed using Java, C, nesC, LabView, and SQL to ensure seamless data transfer and enable both on-site and remote monitoring. Remote field tests were carried out at different locations with different GPRS signal strengths and a variety of landscapes. A three-tier wireless sensor network was then developed and deployed at three military installations around the country – Fort Riley in Kansas, Fort Benning in Georgia, and Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland - to remotely monitor sediment concentration and movement in real time. Sensor nodes, gateway stations, repeater stations, and central stations were strategically deployed to insure reliable signal transmissions. Radio signal strength was tested to analyze effects of distance, vegetation, and topographical barriers. Omni- and Yagi-directional antennas with different gains were tested to achieve robust, long-range communication in a wireless-hostile environment. Sampling times of sensor nodes within a local sensor network were synchronized at the gateway station. Error detection algorithms were developed to detect errors caused by interference and other impairments of the transmission path. GSM and CDMA cellular modems were used at different locations based on cellular coverage. Data were analyzed to verify the effectiveness and reliability of the three-tier WSN. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Kansas State University en
dc.subject Wireless sensor network en_US
dc.title Three-tier wireless sensor network infrastructure for environmental monitoring en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.description.degree Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.description.level Doctoral en_US
dc.description.department Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering en_US
dc.description.advisor Naiqian Zhang en_US
dc.subject.umi Engineering, Agricultural (0539) en_US
dc.date.published 2011 en_US
dc.date.graduationmonth May en_US


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