Functional specialization among members of knickkopf family of proteins in insect cuticle organization.

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Show simple item record Chaudhari, Sujata S. Moussian, Bernard Specht, Charles A. Arakane, Yasuyuki Kramer, Karl J. Beeman, Richard W. Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam 2014-12-03T13:13:18Z 2014-12-03T13:13:18Z 2014-12-03
dc.description Citation: Chaudhari SS, Moussian B, Specht CA, Arakane Y, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, et al. (2014) Functional Specialization Among Members Of Knickkopf Family Of Proteins In Insect Cuticle Organization. PLoS Genet 10(8): e1004537. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004537 en_US
dc.description.abstract Our recent study on the functional analysis of the Knickkopf protein from T. castaneum (TcKnk), indicated a novel role for this protein in protection of chitin from degradation by chitinases. Knk is also required for the laminar organization of chitin in the procuticle. During a bioinformatics search using this protein sequence as the query, we discovered the existence of a small family of three Knk-like genes (including the prototypical TcKnk) in the T. castaneum genome as well as in all insects with completed genome assemblies. The two additional Knk-like genes have been named TcKnk2 and TcKnk3. Further complexity arises as a result of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of transcripts of TcKnk3, leading to the production of three transcripts (and by inference, three proteins) from this gene. These transcripts are named TcKnk3-Full Length (TcKnk3-FL), TcKnk3-5′ and TcKnk3-3′. All three Knk-family genes appear to have essential and non-redundant functions. RNAi for TcKnk led to developmental arrest at every molt, while down-regulation of either TcKnk2 or one of the three TcKnk3 transcripts (TcKnk3-3′) resulted in specific molting arrest only at the pharate adult stage. All three Knk genes appear to influence the total chitin content at the pharate adult stage, but to variable extents. While TcKnk contributes mostly to the stability and laminar organization of chitin in the elytral and body wall procuticles, proteins encoded by TcKnk2 and TcKnk3-3′ transcripts appear to be required for the integrity of the body wall denticles and tracheal taenidia, but not the elytral and body wall procuticles. Thus, the three members of the Knk-family of proteins perform different essential functions in cuticle formation at different developmental stages and in different parts of the insect anatomy. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.uri en_US
dc.rights Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) en_US
dc.rights.uri en_US
dc.subject Adults en_US
dc.subject Chitin en_US
dc.subject Complementary DNA en_US
dc.subject Insects en_US
dc.subject Larvae en_US
dc.subject Pupae en_US
dc.subject RNA extraction en_US
dc.subject Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction en_US
dc.title Functional specialization among members of knickkopf family of proteins in insect cuticle organization. en_US
dc.type Text en_US 2014 en_US
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004537 en_US
dc.citation.issue 8 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle PLoS Genetics en_US
dc.citation.spage e1004537 en_US
dc.citation.volume 10 en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid kjkramer en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid rwbeeman en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid smk en_US

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