Avirulence effector discovery in a plant galling and plant parasitic arthropod, the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor)

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dc.contributor.author Aggarwal, Rajat
dc.contributor.author Subramanyam, Subhashree
dc.contributor.author Zhao, Chaoyang
dc.contributor.author Chen, Ming-Shun
dc.contributor.author Harris, Marion O.
dc.contributor.author Stuart, Jeff J.
dc.date.accessioned 2014-11-04T20:56:32Z
dc.date.available 2014-11-04T20:56:32Z
dc.date.issued 2014-11-04
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/18638
dc.description Citation: Aggarwal R, Subramanyam S, Zhao C, Chen M-S, Harris MO, et al. (2014). Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor). PLoS ONE 9(6): e100958. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100958
dc.description.abstract Highly specialized obligate plant-parasites exist within several groups of arthropods (insects and mites). Many of these are important pests, but the molecular basis of their parasitism and its evolution are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that plant parasitic arthropods use effector proteins to defeat basal plant immunity and modulate plant growth. Because avirulence (Avr) gene discovery is a reliable method of effector identification, we tested this hypothesis using high-resolution molecular genetic mapping of an Avr gene (vH13) in the Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), an important gall midge pest of wheat (Triticum spp.). Chromosome walking resolved the position of vH13, and revealed alleles that determine whether HF larvae are virulent (survive) or avirulent (die) on wheat seedlings carrying the wheat H13 resistance gene. Association mapping found three independent insertions in vH13 that appear to be responsible for H13-virulence in field populations. We observed vH13 transcription in H13-avirulent larvae and the salivary glands of H13-avirulent larvae, but not in H13-virulent larvae. RNA-interference-knockdown of vH13 transcripts allowed some H13-avirulent larvae to escape H13-directed resistance. vH13 is the first Avr gene identified in an arthropod. It encodes a small modular protein with no sequence similarities to other proteins in GenBank. These data clearly support the hypothesis that an effector-based strategy has evolved in multiple lineages of plant parasites, including arthropods. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100958 en_US
dc.rights This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
dc.subject Plant-parasites en_US
dc.subject Arthropods en_US
dc.subject Hessian fly en_US
dc.subject Mayetiola destructor en_US
dc.subject Wheat en_US
dc.title Avirulence effector discovery in a plant galling and plant parasitic arthropod, the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) en_US
dc.type Text en_US
dc.date.published 2014 en_US
dc.citation.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0100958 en_US
dc.citation.epage 8
dc.citation.issn 1932-6203
dc.citation.issue 6 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle PLoS ONE en_US
dc.citation.spage e100958 en_US
dc.citation.volume 9 en_US
dc.citation Aggarwal R, Subramanyam S, Zhao C, Chen M-S, Harris MO, et al. (2014) Avirulence Effector Discovery in a Plant Galling and Plant Parasitic Arthropod, the Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor). PLoS ONE 9(6): e100958. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100958
dc.contributor.authoreid mchen en_US
dc.description.version Article: Publisher version


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This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Except where otherwise noted, the use of this item is bound by the following: This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

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